Dillenbourg (1999) differentiated collaboration from cooperation by “the degree of division of labor” (p. 8), and the property of “synchronous communication” (p. 9).
intervention by adults would be unnecessary and sometimes detrimental
Outcomes, means, boundaries
An example of this normal form of game is Chess. When two people play chess, a player can predict how the opponent may play and then make a move.
This member should care about other people’s equity and her own equity as well as be willing to endure the cost of punishment
AECT 2010 Collaborative learning
How Do Theories Prescribe Collaborative Learning? <br />Foundations for a Design Theory on Collaborative Project-Based Learning<br />Dabae Lee <br />Indiana University<br />
Purpose<br />To generate the groundwork for an instructional design theory on collaborative project-based learning<br />Reviewed descriptive theories on collaborative learning<br />Social constructivism<br />Social interdependence theory<br />Game theory<br />
Cooperative vs. Collaborative Learning<br />Cooperative learning<br /> Students have separate roles in a structured task and pool their works to a specific end<br />Collaborative learning<br /> Students must plan and accomplish something together (whole together)<br />
Game Theory (Von Neuman & Morgenstern, 1944) <br />“Game theory is about what happens when people interact” and it “…can be used to predict, and also to explain and prescribe” (Carmerer, 2003) <br />The normal form of game is a competitive game in which each of two players has their own strategies and takes actions with complete information about the actions of the other player. e.g) Chess<br />Watch an example<br />Various types of games<br />Competitive vs. Cooperative<br />Two-players vs. Multiple players<br />One time vs. Multiple times<br />
Collaboration Game<br />A cooperative game in which two or more players are aware of the level of the other players’ participation<br />“Perception of fairness”, Rewards/Effort = Fair <br />Members choose whether to actively contribute to the group work or not depending on their perception of fairness among group members. i.e. Reduce their effort when there is a free rider.<br />Full participation can be accomplished by having “cooperative enforcer”, a member who punishes free-riders and achieve the level of “fairness” among group members.<br />
Collaboration Game Example<br />Moving chairs together to another place<br />Can’t leave until all the chairs are moved<br />A free-rider detected<br />Other members would do:<br />To achieve fairness <br />
Future Research Directions<br />Prove efficacy of game theory in collaborative learning <br />Interpret empirical results of collaborative learning using the theoretical framework of game theory,<br /> Relate empirical findings of game theory in different disciplines to collaborative learning<br />Test the theory in collaborative learning contexts. <br />