Mangrove forest

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Mangrove forest

  1. 1. MANGROVEFOREST
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES• Describe the distribution of mangroves.• Describe climatic features of MG areas.• Describe & explain the features of MG.• Describe the adaptations of MG.
  3. 3. DISTRIBUTION• along sheltered coastal regions• Found b/w 23.5°N and S of the equator.• areas experiencing tropical climate
  4. 4. STRUCTURE• 3 distinct horizontal zones• No vertical layers
  5. 5. Horizontal zonation ofMangroves
  6. 6. STRUCTURE• Coastal Zone– Nearest to the coast– Adapted to salt water– Aerial roots– Avicennia, Sonneratia• Inland Zone– Grow inland– Least tolerant of salt– Knee-like roots– Bruguiera• Middle Zone– Prop roots– Stilt roots– Rhizophora
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS
  8. 8. C1: Little Variety• Mangrove is species poor as there areonly 4 main species present: Avicennia,Sonneratia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera• This is because only Halophytes (salttolerant plants) can survive in this region.
  9. 9. C2: Dense & Luxuriant• Most form a dense, continuous canopydue to the presence of high temperaturesand high rainfall.
  10. 10. C3: SparseUndergrowth• Little sunlight filters through the dense,continuous canopy.• Hence there is little undergrowth present inthis layer.
  11. 11. C4: Evergreen leaves• As there is high temperature and highrainfall throughout the year, the leavesremain evergreen.
  12. 12. C5: Colourful flowers• The flowers are generally colourful toattract insects to pollinate its flowers.
  13. 13. C6: Buoyant Fruits• This enables fruits to be carried away bywaves and currents to new coastal areas.
  14. 14. ADAPTATIONS
  15. 15. A1: High rainfall• The leaves are broad with drip tips toenable water to flow off the leaves quickly.
  16. 16. A2: High Temperature• The leaves are thick and leathery toreduce water loss through transpiration.
  17. 17. A3: Salt• Avicennia are salt secretors: They excreteexcess salt on their leaves which are thenremoved by the wind or rain.• Bruguiera, Rhizophora, Sonneratia areultrafiltrators: They absorb salt and store it inthe old leaves which fall off eventually.
  18. 18. A4: Oxygen Deprived• Due to waterlogged conditions in themangrove environment, the soil is oxygen-deprived.• Avicennia and Sonneratia have aerial roots:As these roots are exposed during low tide,they take in oxygen.
  19. 19. A5: Muddy Soil• Prop Roots– Rhizophora: Stilt or prop roots which anchor the rootsfirmly to the ground• Keed Roots (Knee-Like)– Bruguiera: Kneed roots that provide firm support onthe soft soil.• Fruits with elongated structure:– Rhizophora: enables the fruits to anchor in soft muddysoil.
  20. 20. PENCIL ROOTS
  21. 21. PROP ROOTS
  22. 22. KNEED ROOTS
  23. 23. BUOYANT FRUITS
  24. 24. THE END

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