C1: Little Variety• Mangrove is species poor as there areonly 4 main species present: Avicennia,Sonneratia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera• This is because only Halophytes (salttolerant plants) can survive in this region.
C2: Dense & Luxuriant• Most form a dense, continuous canopydue to the presence of high temperaturesand high rainfall.
C3: SparseUndergrowth• Little sunlight filters through the dense,continuous canopy.• Hence there is little undergrowth present inthis layer.
C4: Evergreen leaves• As there is high temperature and highrainfall throughout the year, the leavesremain evergreen.
C5: Colourful flowers• The flowers are generally colourful toattract insects to pollinate its flowers.
C6: Buoyant Fruits• This enables fruits to be carried away bywaves and currents to new coastal areas.
A1: High rainfall• The leaves are broad with drip tips toenable water to flow off the leaves quickly.
A2: High Temperature• The leaves are thick and leathery toreduce water loss through transpiration.
A3: Salt• Avicennia are salt secretors: They excreteexcess salt on their leaves which are thenremoved by the wind or rain.• Bruguiera, Rhizophora, Sonneratia areultrafiltrators: They absorb salt and store it inthe old leaves which fall off eventually.
A4: Oxygen Deprived• Due to waterlogged conditions in themangrove environment, the soil is oxygen-deprived.• Avicennia and Sonneratia have aerial roots:As these roots are exposed during low tide,they take in oxygen.
A5: Muddy Soil• Prop Roots– Rhizophora: Stilt or prop roots which anchor the rootsfirmly to the ground• Keed Roots (Knee-Like)– Bruguiera: Kneed roots that provide firm support onthe soft soil.• Fruits with elongated structure:– Rhizophora: enables the fruits to anchor in soft muddysoil.