Mangrove forest
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Mangrove forest

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A powerpoint slide on mangrove forests.

A powerpoint slide on mangrove forests.

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Mangrove forest Mangrove forest Presentation Transcript

  • MANGROVEFOREST
  • OBJECTIVES• Describe the distribution of mangroves.• Describe climatic features of MG areas.• Describe & explain the features of MG.• Describe the adaptations of MG.
  • DISTRIBUTION• along sheltered coastal regions• Found b/w 23.5°N and S of the equator.• areas experiencing tropical climate View slide
  • STRUCTURE• 3 distinct horizontal zones• No vertical layers View slide
  • Horizontal zonation ofMangroves
  • STRUCTURE• Coastal Zone– Nearest to the coast– Adapted to salt water– Aerial roots– Avicennia, Sonneratia• Inland Zone– Grow inland– Least tolerant of salt– Knee-like roots– Bruguiera• Middle Zone– Prop roots– Stilt roots– Rhizophora
  • CHARACTERISTICS
  • C1: Little Variety• Mangrove is species poor as there areonly 4 main species present: Avicennia,Sonneratia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera• This is because only Halophytes (salttolerant plants) can survive in this region.
  • C2: Dense & Luxuriant• Most form a dense, continuous canopydue to the presence of high temperaturesand high rainfall.
  • C3: SparseUndergrowth• Little sunlight filters through the dense,continuous canopy.• Hence there is little undergrowth present inthis layer.
  • C4: Evergreen leaves• As there is high temperature and highrainfall throughout the year, the leavesremain evergreen.
  • C5: Colourful flowers• The flowers are generally colourful toattract insects to pollinate its flowers.
  • C6: Buoyant Fruits• This enables fruits to be carried away bywaves and currents to new coastal areas.
  • ADAPTATIONS
  • A1: High rainfall• The leaves are broad with drip tips toenable water to flow off the leaves quickly.
  • A2: High Temperature• The leaves are thick and leathery toreduce water loss through transpiration.
  • A3: Salt• Avicennia are salt secretors: They excreteexcess salt on their leaves which are thenremoved by the wind or rain.• Bruguiera, Rhizophora, Sonneratia areultrafiltrators: They absorb salt and store it inthe old leaves which fall off eventually.
  • A4: Oxygen Deprived• Due to waterlogged conditions in themangrove environment, the soil is oxygen-deprived.• Avicennia and Sonneratia have aerial roots:As these roots are exposed during low tide,they take in oxygen.
  • A5: Muddy Soil• Prop Roots– Rhizophora: Stilt or prop roots which anchor the rootsfirmly to the ground• Keed Roots (Knee-Like)– Bruguiera: Kneed roots that provide firm support onthe soft soil.• Fruits with elongated structure:– Rhizophora: enables the fruits to anchor in soft muddysoil.
  • PENCIL ROOTS
  • PROP ROOTS
  • KNEED ROOTS
  • BUOYANT FRUITS
  • THE END