Pre-Si Verification for Post-Si ValidationJason StinsonPrincipal EngineerEnterprise Microprocessor DivisionIntel Corporati...
2Intel CorporationOverview
3Intel CorporationPost-Silicon Validation• Increasingly larger percentage of time-to-money– Design advances result in flat...
4Intel CorporationASIC Time-to-MoneyCAD: > 50 companiesIP: > 100 companiesHeadcount ~ 50Stanford Courses ~ 20Headcount ~ 5...
5Intel CorporationPost-Silicon Validation (cont’d)• Industry starting to make larger post-Si investments– Growing EDA indu...
6Intel CorporationHow does Verification affect Validation?• Pre-Si verification = Post-Si validation– Same goal: find the ...
7Intel CorporationFocus Areas• Mixed Signal Verification• Power on/Reset Verification• DFx Verification
8Intel CorporationMixed Signal Verification• Distinction between Analog and Digital is becoming blurred– Multiple voltage ...
9Intel CorporationMixed Signal Bug: ExampleFuse BlockStateMachinefuse_out state_inVtt VcacheVttVfusefuse_outstate_inVcache...
10Intel CorporationMixed Signal Bug: ExampleFuse BlockStateMachinefuse_out state_inVtt VcacheVttVfusefuse_outstate_inVcach...
11Intel CorporationMixed Signal Bug Conclusions• Functional verification and switch-level simulation insufficient– No supp...
12Intel CorporationPower On/Reset Verification• Complexity of power on and reset increasing– More state to reset = more in...
13Intel CorporationPower On Bug: ExampleFuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclk
14Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelo...
15Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelo...
16Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelo...
17Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelo...
18Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (fuse assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enableloc...
19Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclk...
20Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclk...
21Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclk...
22Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclk...
23Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkPLL ...
24Intel CorporationPower on/Reset Conclusions• Bug verified with both functional verification and switch-level– Original v...
25Intel CorporationDFx Verification• Design for {Manufacturability, Test, Debug, etc}– “Must have” features to enable low ...
26Intel CorporationDFx Verification: Case Study• Swap Core DFT Feature– Used on multicore microprocessor designs– Enables ...
27Intel CorporationDFx Verification: Case Study (cont’d)• Processor #1 Experience– Swap core worked seamlessly with first ...
28Intel CorporationLast Thoughts
29Intel CorporationLast Thoughts• Verification and Validation are the most critical VLSI challenge– Design is no longer th...
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Pre-Si Verification for Post-Si Validation

  1. 1. Pre-Si Verification for Post-Si ValidationJason StinsonPrincipal EngineerEnterprise Microprocessor DivisionIntel CorporationDec 5th, 2006
  2. 2. 2Intel CorporationOverview
  3. 3. 3Intel CorporationPost-Silicon Validation• Increasingly larger percentage of time-to-money– Design advances result in flattening/shrinking schedules• Better design tools/methodologies• More focus on integration vs. creation– Post-Si Validation schedules continue to grow• Low investment in tools/methodologies• Complexity driven by design size not design “source”• Multiple SKUs effectively create multiple validation cycles
  4. 4. 4Intel CorporationASIC Time-to-MoneyCAD: > 50 companiesIP: > 100 companiesHeadcount ~ 50Stanford Courses ~ 20Headcount ~ 5Test: ~ 10 companiesDebug: ~ 3 companiesStanford Courses ~ 3Pre-Silicon Post-SiliconArchRTL & SynthesisVerificationP & RFabDebugFabRamp2.5 years
  5. 5. 5Intel CorporationPost-Silicon Validation (cont’d)• Industry starting to make larger post-Si investments– Growing EDA industry (DFx insertion, content generation, etc)– Greater design investment in post-Si feature sets– Increase in academic interest/research (slow)• Two largest VLSI challenges: Verification and Validation– Verification = Pre-silicon verification of design thru simulation– Validation = Post-silicon validation of design thru silicon testing– Design is no longer the most difficult issue
  6. 6. 6Intel CorporationHow does Verification affect Validation?• Pre-Si verification = Post-Si validation– Same goal: find the bugs, debug ‘em, fix ‘em• Verification needs to:– Move beyond functional verification• Although still complex, not the biggest challenge– Own mixed-signal verification• Interaction of complex electrical effects is huge challenge– Enable faster post-Si validation• Validate functional & mixed-signal power on and reset• Verify design-for-silicon feature set functionality– Provide better Silicon functional content• Electrical validation requires functional content
  7. 7. 7Intel CorporationFocus Areas• Mixed Signal Verification• Power on/Reset Verification• DFx Verification
  8. 8. 8Intel CorporationMixed Signal Verification• Distinction between Analog and Digital is becoming blurred– Multiple voltage domains– Complex clocking systems– High speed, asynchronous I/O– High level integration (graphics, wireless, etc.)• Major gap in current pre-silicon verification– Functional verification and switch-level simulation insufficient• Lack asynchronous support• Lack levels simulation• Lack complex timing simulation– Manual SPICE simulation cannot keep pace w/complexity• Significant rise in mixed signal bugs during post-silicon
  9. 9. 9Intel CorporationMixed Signal Bug: ExampleFuse BlockStateMachinefuse_out state_inVtt VcacheVttVfusefuse_outstate_inVcacheIncorrect State Correct State
  10. 10. 10Intel CorporationMixed Signal Bug: ExampleFuse BlockStateMachinefuse_out state_inVtt VcacheVttVfusefuse_outstate_inVcacheCreates “runt” pulses -> invalid stateNon-monotonic switching
  11. 11. 11Intel CorporationMixed Signal Bug Conclusions• Functional verification and switch-level simulation insufficient– No supply ramp transition (0 -> 1)– No analog understanding of ramp (metastable transition)• Manual simulation or Electrical Rules checking could catch– Requires fullchip visibility and power on understanding• Mixed signal verification– Formal extraction of critical power on circuitry & known analoginteractions– Basic SPICE engine combined with functional vector stimulus
  12. 12. 12Intel CorporationPower On/Reset Verification• Complexity of power on and reset increasing– More state to reset = more interactions– Assumptions are often invalid (mutex, DC, valid state, etc)– Analog components factor significantly• Emphasizing need for greater mixed signal verification– Unknown IP block interactions• Traditionally treated as lower verification priority– Old mantra: “Gate with PWRGOOD and route RESET to all state”• Eliminated need for significant (any) pre-silicon verification– New mantra: “Formally verify power on and reset”• Costly to get power on/reset signals to all blocks• Complexity of system no longer ensure valid bring up
  13. 13. 13Intel CorporationPower On Bug: ExampleFuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclk
  14. 14. 14Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkSysclk begins toggling
  15. 15. 15Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkThree fuse blocks read out• Provide cfg info to PLL• Tell PLL1 & PLL2 to start to lock
  16. 16. 16Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkPLL1 and PLL2 acquire lock• PLL3 requires other PLLs to be locked• PLL3 starts to lock once PLL1/2 acquire
  17. 17. 17Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (clock assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkPLL3 acquires lock
  18. 18. 18Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (fuse assumption)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkFuse reads have to be staged• Supply issue w/simultaneous read out
  19. 19. 19Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkFuse block1 readout• PLL1 starts to acquire lock
  20. 20. 20Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkFuse block2 readout• Readout occurs after fixed internal delay (µs)• PLL2 starts to acquire lockPLL1PLL1 acquires lock
  21. 21. 21Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkFuse block3 readout• Readout occurs after fixed internal delay (µs)• PLL3 waits for PLL2 to acquire lockPLL1PLL2 acquires lockPLL2• PLL3 starts to acquire lock
  22. 22. 22Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2PLL3lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkPLL3 acquires lockPLL1No problem, right?PLL2
  23. 23. 23Intel CorporationPower On Bug: Example (reality)Fuse Block1Fuse Block2Fuse Block3PLL1PLL2lock1lock2enablelock3sysclkPLL timeout “feature”• If PWRGOOD and sysclk, then XX time to lock• Shutdown if no lock after XX timePLL1PLL3Issue: XX time < Fuse block1 + block2 + PLL2• Clock assumption ≠ fuse assumption
  24. 24. 24Intel CorporationPower on/Reset Conclusions• Bug verified with both functional verification and switch-level– Original verification effort “zero’d out” fuse delay elements• Fuses readout simultaneously in original verification– Low priority low effort poor assumptions• Mixed signal verification also would have caught issue– Requires long simulation times• Fuse delay elements & PLL lock times are very long
  25. 25. 25Intel CorporationDFx Verification• Design for {Manufacturability, Test, Debug, etc}– “Must have” features to enable low cost and rapid product ramp– “Must have” features to enable validation of design & platform• DFx must-have feature need is increasing– Higher state-to-pin ratio (same pin count, more internal state)• More difficult to get at internal state• Takes longer to get at internal state– Design size continues to increase• Must test blocks in parallel to reduce test time & validation effort• Must enable high coverage, automated test generation– ATE I/O capabilities falling behind• Highly configurable ATE I/O cannot keep up with product I/O• DFx verification is typically lowest or zero priority– Results in longer post-silicon schedules and/or steppings
  26. 26. 26Intel CorporationDFx Verification: Case Study• Swap Core DFT Feature– Used on multicore microprocessor designs– Enables single core diagnostic vector to run on any core• Can be run on single core or all cores in parallel– Huge savings in effort and cost• Reduces vector generation requirements• Reduces core validation effort• Reduces test time (cores run in parallel)• Two microprocessor designs– Both multi-core + large cache– Processor #1: Significant effort in SwapCore verification– Processor #2: Low effort in SwapCore verification
  27. 27. 27Intel CorporationDFx Verification: Case Study (cont’d)• Processor #1 Experience– Swap core worked seamlessly with first silicon– Able to run single-core or cores-in-parallel– 80% of validation effort focused on single-core• Manufacturing ensured all cores matched single core validation• Remaining validation verified multi-core operation– Manufacturing test cost met all goals• Processor #2 Experience– Swap core didn’t work completely with first silicon• Required effort to debug issues• Included fixes in next stepping– Swap core still broken on next stepping (onion peeling issue)– Impacted post-Silicon validation effort/schedule• Had to ensure same coverage/functionality– Impacted manufacturing test vector memory• Threatened to become test time issue
  28. 28. 28Intel CorporationLast Thoughts
  29. 29. 29Intel CorporationLast Thoughts• Verification and Validation are the most critical VLSI challenge– Design is no longer the most difficult challenge• Key post-silicon challenges– Schedule/effort limiting bugs• Power on/reset• Electrical bugs– Drives need for mixed signal verification• High speed I/O– Bug escapes• Comprehensive test content coveragePre-Si verification has huge impact onpost-Si schedules
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