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Impact of Intestinal disorders on health status in poultry flocks-Hafez Muenchen 2012
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Impact of Intestinal disorders on health status in poultry flocks-Hafez Muenchen 2012



Impact of Intestinal disorders on health status in poultry flocks. DSM European Poultry Symposium Munich, Germany, 2012. Hafez, H.M.

Impact of Intestinal disorders on health status in poultry flocks. DSM European Poultry Symposium Munich, Germany, 2012. Hafez, H.M.



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Impact of Intestinal disorders on health status in poultry flocks-Hafez Muenchen 2012 Impact of Intestinal disorders on health status in poultry flocks-Hafez Muenchen 2012 Document Transcript

  • 23/05/2012 1 Institute of Poultry Diseases Free University Berlin, Germany Impact of intestinal disorders on health status in poultry flocks Hafez Mohamed Hafez Feed Meat GI Basic role of poultry production Chicks
  • 23/05/2012 2 Rapid growth
  • 23/05/2012 3 Enteric disorders What is the problem ? Economic impact *- High Mortality *- Increase medication and /or vaccination cost *- Uneven growth *- Sub-clinical infection cause damage to intestinal host cells and accompanied with high economic losses *- Bad feed conversion
  • 23/05/2012 4 chick Fixed Cost Feed 60-70% 10-15% 20-25% Average main cost factors in commercial poultry Feed Structure Palatability Energy content Pellet quality Management Available feed space Available Water space Distribution of feeders Distribution of waterers Air quality Temperature Stocking density Viral agents Reo, Rota, Astro, Entro, Parvo ND, Influenza A Bacterial agents Salmonellas, Arizona, E. coli, Clostridia Mycotic agents Candida Parasites Coccidia, Ascaridia InfectiousNon infectious Some Possible causes of enteric disorders of broiler
  • 23/05/2012 5 Litter condition Air temperature Relative humidity Ventilation rate Feed Stocking density Non infectious causes Causes of Enteric disorders
  • 23/05/2012 6 *- Animal welfare *- Use of vet. drugs *- Feed additives *- Food safety Legislations related to: Cause of Enteric disorders History of the EU ban on AMGP EU ban is based on the Precautionary Principle !! To prevent/minimise the risk of spreading the antibiotic resistance
  • 23/05/2012 7 *- 1997 EU “suspended” avoparcin *- 1998 EU ban for 4 AMGP : - Spiramycin - Tylosin - Virginiamycin - Zinc bacitracin History of the EU ban on AMGP Total ban of all growth promoting antibiotics except for Coccidiostats Anti-microbial growth promoters (AGP’S) 1st January 2006
  • 23/05/2012 8 *- Reduced performances (BW & FCR) *- Rearing husbandry problems (wet litter and high ammonia level) *- Animal welfare problem (Foot pad dermatitis) *- Health problems (enteric disorders: dysbacteriosis and Clostridial infections). The consequences of the ban of AGPs Transmission of infectious diseases Vertical Transmission Horizontal Transmission
  • 23/05/2012 9 *- Clinical signs *- Gross lesions Problems related to diagnosis not specific Many factors and agents are involved in enteric disorders Problems related to diagnosis
  • 23/05/2012 10 Agent Prevalence REO ++ Corona ++ Astro +/- Adeno +/- Coccidia + Salmonella infection +/- E. Coli (R) +++ Clostridial Enteritis (NE) +++ Some current ongoing infectious enteric diseases Bacterial Enteritis Challenge (Van der Sluis (2010). World Poultry 26(10):26-29.)
  • 23/05/2012 11 Bacterial enteritis (BE) (Van der Sluis (2010). World Poultry 26(10):26-29.) Clostridial Enteritis Challenge (Van der Sluis (2010). World Poultry 26(10):26-29.)
  • 23/05/2012 12 Clostridia bacteria *- Growth strict anaerobic *- Short multiplication time (Every 8 to 10 minutes) *- Opt. growth: 12°- 50°C *- Opt. growth: pH 6.0 - 7.0 Clostridia bacteria *- Widespread in: - Soils - Feed - Litter - GIT of diseased and healthy birds
  • 23/05/2012 13 Clostridia bacteria *- Spores are very resistant to: - Heat - Desiccation - Acids - Many chemical disinfectants CP are not very invasive and are not able to penetrate healthy gut mucous membrane Clostridium perfringens
  • 23/05/2012 14 Predisposing factors Intestinal stasis Increase feed consumption due to a high growth rate Clostridium perfringens *- Diet high in energy *- High level of protein and fishmeal *- Consumption of high fibre litter and a wheat based diet Predisposing factors Feed composition Clostridium perfringens
  • 23/05/2012 15 *- Coccidiosis *- Salmonellosis *- Dysbacteriosis Predisposing factors Damage of the mucosa of GI tract Clostridium perfringens Dysbacteriosis complex *- No real disease *- Mortality = normal *- Feed intake reduced *- Water intake normal or higher *- Diarrhoea *- Foamy caecal droppings *- Post Mortem: thin content in the intestine (Fabri, 2004)
  • 23/05/2012 16 Due to dysbacteriosis, the environment in the upper part of the intestine may be favourable for C. perfringens proliferation, resulting in NE. (Fabri, 2000) Dysbacteriosis complex Toxins production Small intestine Migration ? Proliferation C. perfringens Necrotic Enteritis (NE)
  • 23/05/2012 17 Clinical signs *- Between: W 3 - 5 *- Mortality : 2 - 40% *- Sudden depression *- Inappetance *- Tend to huddle *- Diarrhoea Necrotic Enteritis (NE) *- No visible clinical signs on the farm *- On the processing line high rate of - Liver condemnation - Downgrading carcasses Cholangiohepatitis Severe economic losses Clostridium perfringens
  • 23/05/2012 18 *- Mycotoxin-contaminated feed *- Vitamin B6 and E deficiency *- Inadequate levels of sulphur- containing dietary amino acids *- High levels of dietary copper Gizzard erosions *- Pelleted feed *- Certain fish meals in feed *- Adenovirus *- C. perfringens Gizzard erosions
  • 23/05/2012 19 Clostridial Enteritis Should we control C. Perfringens (Necrotic Enteritis) *- To improve the performances and parameters *- To improve the poultry health *- To improve the animal welfare issues Control of Necrotic Enteritis
  • 23/05/2012 20 Control of Necrotic Enteritis *- To reduce the production costs *- To improve the food safety issues *- Monitoring *- Farm hygiene *- Feed quality *- Treatment *- Vaccination *- Stabilization the GI flora Control of Necrotic Enteritis
  • 23/05/2012 21 Monitoring Control of Necrotic Enteritis *- Litter *- Dropping *- Appearance *- Content of the intestinal tract *- Inflammation of the gut Excess ammonia Respiratory infections Kerato-conjunctivitis Comprise vaccine response Wet Litter Excess humidity Enhanced coccidiosis Aggravate breast blister Enhanced leg disorders Enhanced bacterial infections Wet litter
  • 23/05/2012 22 Greasy capped litter Nitrogen in litter high fat in faeces high nitrogen in faeces Pododermatitis burning breast blisters Litter *- Feed quality Control of Necrotic Enteritis
  • 23/05/2012 23 Optimal diet composition *- Quality feed ingredients are very important and affect the micro flora *- Improve protein-balance in the diet *- Improve the amino acid profile Improve protein-balance in the diet *- Avoid high levels of fermentable protein *- Use complete digestible amino acid profile in the feed
  • 23/05/2012 24 Feed production technology Particle size in the diet coarse mash or 3 mm pellets in the diet stay longer in the crop and gizzard pH in gizzard lower Better pre-digestion Particle size in the diet *- better buffering of the feed *- better activity of pancreas enzymes *- better digestion *- less fermentation Feed production technology (Langhout, 2005)
  • 23/05/2012 25 *- Treatment Control of Necrotic Enteritis *- Penicillin *- Amoxicillin *- Ampicillin *- Tylosin *- Erythromycin *- Dihydrostreptomycin *- Tetracyclin Treatment
  • 23/05/2012 26 *- Vaccination Control of Necrotic Enteritis Vaccination ??? Broiler flocks with high titers of maternal antibodies against C. perfringens toxin had lower mortality during the production period (Heier et al., 2001) Necrotic Enteritis (NE)
  • 23/05/2012 27 *- Stabilization the GI flora Control of Necrotic Enteritis Additive Possible mode of action Prebiotics Promotion of the growth of desirable bacteria in the GIT Immune stimulating Reducing sub-clinical infections via an improved development of the immune system Enzymes Elimination of the anti-microbial effects of carbohydrates Acids Inhibition of the growth of bacteria Essential oils Inhibition of the growth of bacteria, improving the development of the immune system, improving the palatability of the diet Probiotics Introduction of desirable bacteria into the GIT Possible alternative strategies
  • 23/05/2012 28 Prebiotics Several products are available, but only a few meet the critical point of the definition Selective stimulation of one or a limited number of bacteria within the gut microflora Prebiotics Products used in poultry Inulin + oligofructose/fructo- oligosaccharides of natural or synthetic origin Mannan-oligosaccharides of natural origin (yeast or other) products based on yeast also contain beta-glucans
  • 23/05/2012 29 Enzymes The effects of diet and Carbohydrase enzyme on growth performance and gut health of broiler challenged with C. perfringens (Jia et al., 2008) Diet acidification *- Organic acids widely used as preservatives in feed *- Organic acids have anti- bacterial properties *- Mixtures have stronger effects due to synergism
  • 23/05/2012 30 Acid Effective against Less effective against Ineffective against Formic acid Yeast & bacteria (E.coli & Salmonella) Lactic acid bacteria & moulds - Acetic acid Many bacteria spp. Yeasts & moulds - Propionic acid Moulds Bacteria Yeasts Butyric acid Bacteria (E.coli & Salmonella) - - Lactic acid Bacteria - Yeasts & moulds Citric acid - Bacteria - Malic acid Some bacteria & yeasts - - Sorbic acid Yeasts, moulds & some bacteria - - Antibacterial spectrum of organic acids Essential oils (EO) *- Synonyms - volatile oils - ethereal oils - etheric oils - plant extracts
  • 23/05/2012 31 *- Volatile materials of plants *- Give plants characteristic odor and flavor *- Found in various parts of herbs and spices *- Obtained by steam distillation Essential oils (EO) *- Botanical source *- Time of harvesting *- Isolation technique *- Weather conditions *- Part of plant used *- Geographical location Essential oils Composition dependent on :
  • 23/05/2012 32 Combinations of essential oil components exhibit significant greater effects than individual components (Chang et al., 2001; Zenner et al., 2003) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils Probiotics FAO - Definition Live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host
  • 23/05/2012 33 Probiotics A lot of products on the market Based on several species: Bacteria: Lactobacillus Enterococcus Bacillus Pediococcus … Yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics Positive impact on helping to maintain the balance of microflora in the intestinal tract of poultry and livestock.
  • 23/05/2012 34 Possible alternative products *- Appearance a lot of different products with different modes of action *- Beneficial effects, sometimes somewhat hard to measure Since AGP ban: (Vancraeynest, 2008) Possible alternative products *- Even if alternative are developed, the rate of success is not always comparable to AGP in specific conditions. *-The use of alternative needs to be accompanied by sound management coccidia control and hygiene.
  • 23/05/2012 35 Possible alternative products Intestinal disorders Should we control Intestinal disorders ? Finally
  • 23/05/2012 36
  • 23/05/2012 37 *- To improve the performances and parameters *- To improve the poultry health *- To improve the animal welfare issues Control of Intestinal disorders