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Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
Lecture on usability of an e-learning System
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Lecture on usability of an e-learning System

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Lecture on usability of an e-learning System

Lecture on usability of an e-learning System

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  • 1. Cultural Issues that canAffect Interface Design Dr. Blessing F. Adeoye University of Lagos Nigeria Presented at Robert Morris University, PA. USA Feb, 2013
  • 2. Cultural Issues that can Affect Interface Design As the use of ICT, digital devices, LMS, & other educational technology rise, the concerns of users, esp. people of difference culture continue to rise (del Galdo & Nielsen, 1996). Why? Cultural differences in perceptions of technology, names and usage of technological terms, and the level of technological literacy across various cultures.
  • 3. User-interface components Metaphors: Essential concepts in words, images, sounds, touch Mental Models: Organization of data, functions, tasks, roles, or people at work or play, static or mobile Navigation: Movement through mental models via windows, dialogue boxes, buttons, links, etc. Interaction: Input/output techniques, feedback Appearance: Visual, verbal, acoustic, tactile
  • 4. Observations In a global economy, should every Website look the same? Are mobile devices and services in Asia right for the rest of the world? Which Website for Saudi Arabia is Appropriate? Is African Continent a forgotten world? Usability and user experience differ among cultures
  • 5. Facts Directional placement of images, icons, graphics, color, and white space are frequently used in textual communication. Depending on the context, non-verbal communication can account for up to 90% of communication, conveyed through images, symbols, and icons (Hall & Hall, 1990).
  • 6. Communication Features For applications, such as web board, discussion forums, email, chat rooms, some cultures have higher expectation to communicate, which may impose burdens on other users (Boriarsky, 1995; del Galdo, 1996). Many Chinese Internet users have higher expectation than American counterparts in the amount of things to communicate.
  • 7. Communication Features Because of their cultural orientations, individual students may only speak up during a discussion when called upon personally by the teacher; some will not speak up in large groups (Hofstede, 1986). In the case of online communication, individual users may not become involved until they are either prompted or signaled to do so (Boriarsky, 1995).
  • 8. Visual elements Do not generally transfer across cultures Navigational images/text groupings intended to indicate the directional flow of information for users in Western culture may confuse non-Western users. Asian users-whose written languages traditionally appear vertically and read from right to left-may find it difficult to have a directional arrow placed at the bottom right of the page and the arrow pointing right for the next page. People in Eastern cultures may not recognize placing “important information” in the top left-hand section of a page.
  • 9. Colours and symbols Mitchell Harper claims that the five most used colour combinations on the web are: - red, yellow and white - blue and white - red, gray and white - blue, orange and white - yellow, gray and whiteIf you are aiming at global audiences it is worth remembering that colours have significant associations.
  • 10. Colours White in many Asian cultures is associated with death, vs. black in many European cultures. Green and saffron yellow have particular associations in Islam and among Buddhist demographics.
  • 11. In Australia, the UK, Canada and UScolours have multiple connotations, e.g. orange - harvest, autumn, creativity, cheap products purple - luxury, royalty red - power, energy, danger blue - solidity, conservatism, competence green - environmentalism, spring, safety yellow - hope, hazard, cowardice, happiness pink - vibrancy, energy, radicalism, cheapness
  • 12. Color for Visually Challenged Individual Much of the literature about colour on the web assumes that all users are young and visually unimpaired. Research on aging suggests restraint in use of blue, green and violet to provide information, as yellowing of the cornea can cause confusion between some shades of those colours. Some suggest that display of red text on a green background (or green on red) should be avoided, given problems experienced by people with colour impairment). Others note that in practice those colours can be used, provided saturation levels are sufficiently different to allow differentiation.
  • 13. Navigation Design principles regarding navigation have a cross-cultural application.  It is worth noting, however, that there are differences in how people from different cultures read a page. Many read:  from left to right,  top to bottom.  right to left.  from bottom to top.  
  • 14. Navigation For the people from the Middle East, information should support both text directionalities. Also, the ideographic witting systems used by Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans recognize vertical text directionality, but mathematical expressions are generally written horizontally.
  • 15. Recommendations Plan: Include global issues in all steps Research: Investigate global sets of users, issues Analyze: Determine global criteria, targets Design: Visualize global alternatives Implement: Use tools that facilitate global variations Evaluate: Test prototypes with global user sets Document: Include global guidelines, specs
  • 16. Hofstede’s 5 Dimensions ofCulture 1. Power-distance 2. Collectivism vs. individualism 3. Femininity vs. masculinity 4. Uncertainty avoidance 5. Long- vs. short-term time orientation
  • 17. Culture vs. UI : Power Distance, 1/2 Metaphors  High: Institutions, buildings with clear hierarchy: schools, government, monuments, etc.  Low: Institutions, buildings with equality, options: Summerhill, play/games, public spaces, etc. Mental Models  High: Reference data with no relevancy ranking  Low: Less structured data with relevancy Navigation  High: Restricted access, choices; authentication; passwords  Low: Open access, multiple options, sharable paths
  • 18. Culture vs. UI: Power Distance, 2/2 Interaction  High: Severe error messages: “Entry Forbidden,” “You are wrong;” wizards or guides lead usage  Low: Supportive error messages, cue cards Appearance  High: Images of leaders, nations; official music, anthems; formal speech  Low: Images of people, daily activities; popular music; informal speech
  • 19. Culture vs. UI: Individualism vs. Collectivism, 1/2 Metaphors  Individualist: Action-oriented, tools  Collectivist: Relationship-oriented Mental Models  Individualist: Product- or task-oriented  Collectivist: Role-oriented Navigation  Individualist: Individual paths; popular choices, celebrity choices; stable across roles; customizable  Collectivist: Group-oriented, official choices; changes per role
  • 20. Culture vs. UI: Individualism vs. Collectivism, 2/2 Interaction  Individualist: Keyword searches; active-oriented; multiple devices; customizable;  Collectivist: Limited, official devices; role driven Appearance  Individualist: Images of products, people; low context; hyperbolic, dynamic speech; market-driven topics, imagery, language; customizable; direct, active verbs  Collectivist: Images of groups, organizations; images of roles; high context; official, static terminology; institution-driven topics, imagery, language; passive verbs
  • 21. Culture vs. UI: Masculinity vs. Femininity, 1/2 Metaphors  Masculine: Sports-oriented; competition-oriented; work-oriented  Feminine:Shopping carts; family-oriented Mental Models  Masculine: Work/business structures; high-level, “executive views;” goal-oriented  Feminine: Social structures; detailed views; relationship-oriented Navigation  Masculine: Limited choices, synchronic  Feminine: Multiple choices; multi-tasking,
  • 22. Culture vs. UI: Masculinity vs.Femininity, 2/2 Interaction  Masculine: Game-oriented; mastery-oriented; individual-oriented  Feminine: Practical, function-oriented; co- operation-oriented; team oriented Appearance  Masculine: “Masculine” colors, shapes, sounds  Feminine: “Feminine” colors, shapes, sounds; acceptance of cuteness
  • 23. References Global Graphics: Color (Gloucester: Rockport 2000) by Cheryl Cullen and Global Graphics: Symbols (Gloucester: Rockport 2000) by Jared Brown & Anistatia Miller. Henry Dreyfuss Symbol Sourcebook: An Authoritative Guide to International Graphic Symbols (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold 1984). William Hortons The Icon Book: Visual Symbols for Computer Systems & Documentation (New York: Wiley 1994) is more directly relevant. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations, 1991, 97 Trompenaars, Riding the Waves of Culture, 1998 Marcus, "Internat. and Intercult. User Interfaces," in Stephanidis, ed.,, User Interfaces for All, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000. Marcus and Gould, "Cultural Dimensions and Global Web UI Design," Interactions, Vol. 7, No. 4, July/August 2000, pp. 32-46.

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