Crossing Borders: Migration and Intercultural Adaptation Chapter 5
Chapter ObjectivesTo understand intercultural border To explore the unique aspects of migration and intercultural adaptationcrossing and adaptation within the today as well as the similarities withcontext of globalization earlier waves of world migration To introduce and apply a To gain understanding multi-level framework to and empathy for the analyze interculturaladaptation that accounts for challenges and rewardsmicro, meso and macro-level of migration and factors and influences intercultural adaptation in the context of globalization.
Introduction TONI MORRISON: “Come to terms with being, fearing and accepting strangers” MIGRATION & IDENTITY 1 out 35 people living outside country of origin (nearly 200 million people) 912 million crossed borders for tourism, business, etc. Why are people on the move today? Who can cross borders? Who is restricted?
Border crossing and migration in thecontext of globalization are shaped by: Advances in transportation and communication technologies The integration of global capital and markets The neoliberal policies Escalation in intra-national and international conflict Increasingly restrictive and punitive immigration policies
Types of Migrants InvoluntaryVoluntary Migrants Migrants Sojourners Refugees Immigrants Human trafficking MIGRANTS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION Transmigrants
Four Types Of Migrant Groups: SHORT-TERM LONG-TERMVOLUNTARY 1. Sojourners 2.Immigrants 4. HumanINVOLUNTARY 3. Refugees Trafficking
PRIMARY REASONS PEOPLE IMMIGRANTS COME TO THE U.S. 1. To join other family membersVoluntary migrants who 2. For employmentleave one country and 3. To escape from war, famine, or povertysettle permanently inanother country. TWO KINDS OF MIGRANT LABOR A. Long Term 1. Cheap manual labor B. Voluntary 2. Highly skilled intellectual labor VOLUNTARY MIGRANTS ***Increase of women immigrants as Migrants who choose to domestics***leave their home to travel or re-locate.
REFUGEESPeople who flee theircountries of origin due to warand famine, or those seekingasylum for political reasonstoday. INVOLUNTARY MIGRANTSMigrants who are forced to leave due to famine,war, and political or religious persecution.
A form of involuntary migration in which people aretransported for sex work and other types of labor againsttheir will.
Historical Overview of World Migration THE FIRST WAVE OF WORLD MIGRATION From the 16th century through the 19th century. Thousands of migrants sailed out of ports of Europe for colonies in Africa, Asia and the Americas. They appropriated the so-called “empty” lands and used indigenous peoples to extract the material wealth of the land. The forced migration of over 15 million slaves from the west coast of Africa. The rise in economic and political power of European nations.
CHAIN MIGRATION THE SECOND WAVE Linkages that connect From the mid 1800s to the migrants from points of origin early 1900s during the to destinations, led to the industrial revolution. segmentation of ethnic groups in the U.S. NATIVIST MOVEMENTS Movements that called for the exclusion of foreign-born people. XENOPHOBIAThe fear of outsiders. It dramatically curtailed immigration to the U.S. until after WW II.
GUEST WORKERS PROGRAMS POSTCOLONIAL MIGRANTS:Migrants who leave former colonies and re-locate in colonizing countries.
LATE 20TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT Rapid, complex, multidirectional and diverse “Sending” and “receiving” countries not distinct South to North migration (3rd to 1st World) High and Low skilled labor Migrant networks Altering “host” countries Feminization of the workforce
Theories of MigrationMACRO-LEVEL THEORIES Nation-state, globalpolitical/economic structureMICRO-LEVEL THEORIES Interpersonal, communal, face-to-face MESO-LEVEL THEORIESIn-between macro and micro levels
Macro-level Theories PUSH-PULL THEORY WORLD SYSTEMS THEORY Global capitalism andEconomic opportunities and inequitable economic structure.life circumstances push/pull the migrants. International migration today is a result of the structure of the global capitalism.
Macro-level Theories MELTING POT Pluralism A metaphor of U.S. society that An idea or ideology that the migrants’ adaptation to a new culture inevitably requires emphasizes the maintenanceand allows newcomers to “melt” of ethnic and cultural values,or “blend” into the mainstream to norms and practices within a form a cohesive whole. multicultural society. BRAIN DRAIN: An aspect of high-skilled migration in which high- skilled workers migrate to another country.
Micro-level TheoriesIntegrative Theory of Cultural Intercultural Transformation Adaptation Individual and environment co- define adaptation process: Emergence of intercultural Attitudes and receptivity of identity host environment As a result of stress- Ethnic community adaptation-growth process Psychological characteristics of the individual
MESO-LEVEL THEORIES MIGRANT NETWORKS SOCIAL CAPITALA set of interpersonal ties that The sense of commitment andconnect migrants, former obligation people within amigrants, and non-migrants inorigin and destination areas group or network have to lookthrough ties of kinship, friendship after the well-being andand shared community origin. interests of one another. XENOPHOBIA NATIVIST MOVEMENTSFear of outsiders, foreigners. Movements that call for the exclusion of foreign-born people.