Chapter 4 (Dis) Placing Culture & Cultural Space
Chapter Objectives To understand the relationships among culture, place, cultural space, and identity in the context of globalization To understand how people use communicative practices to construct, maintain, negotiate, and hybridize cultural spaces To explore how cultures are simultaneously placed and displaced in the global context leading to segregated, contested and hybrid cultural spaces To introduce the notion of bifocal vision to highlight the linkages between “here” and “there” as well as the connections between present and past
INTRODUCTION Explore the cultural and intercultural communication dimensions of PLACE, SPACE and LOCATION. WE WILL EXAMINE: The dynamic process of placing and displacing cultural space in the context of globalization. How people use communicative practices to construct, maintain, negotiate, and hybridize cultural spaces How segregated, contested, and hybrid cultural spaces are both shaped by the legacy of colonialism and the context of globalization.
Placing Culture and Cultural Space CULTURE:CULTURE, by definition,is rooted in place with a “Place tilled” in Middle English reciprocal relationship Colere : “to inhabit, care for, between people and till, worship” in Latin place In the context of globalization, what is the Culture is both PLACED andrelationship between culture and DISPLACED place?
Cultural Space CULTURAL SPACEThe communicative practices that construct Cultural spaces are constructedmeanings in, through and about particular places through the communicative practices developed and lived by Cultural space shapes verbal and nonverbal people in particular places communicative practices EXAMPLES: Communicative practices include: Classrooms The languages Dance Clubs Accent Slang Library Dress Courtroom Artifacts Construction Site Architectural design Amusement Park the behaviors and patterns of Home interaction Restaurant the stories Movies the discourses and histories Baseball Game How is the cultural space of your home, neighborhood, city, and state constructed through communicative practices?
Place, CulturalSpace and Identity What’s the relationship between place and identity? Avowed identity:LOCATIONS OF ENUNCIATION: Sites or positions from which to The way we see, label and make speak. meaning about ourselves and A platform from which to voice a perspective and be heard Ascribed identity: and/or silenced. The way others view, name and Place describe us and our group Culture Identity How is place related to STANDPOINT Difference and POWER?
Displacing Culture and Cultural Space(Dis) placed culture and Time-space Compression: cultural space: A notion that captures thecomplex, contradictory andcontested nature of cultural A characteristic of globalization space and the relationship that brings seemingly disparatebetween culture and place cultures into closer proximity, that has emerged in the intersection and juxtaposition context of globalization. with each other.
Displacing Culture and Cultural Space “IN-HERENESS AND OUT- GLOCALIZATION: THERENESS”: The dual and simultaneous A characteristic of forces of globalization and globalization in which a localization. particular “here” is linked to “there,” and how this First introduced in 19802 to linkage of places reveals describe Japanese business colonial histories and practices postcolonial realities. The concept allows us to The particular “here” is think about how globalizing linked to “there” and this forces always operate in linkage of places reveals relationship to localizing colonial histories and forces. postcolonial realities.
Cultural Space, Power and Communication Power is signified, constructed andThroughout history and today, regulated through SIZE, SHAPE, space has been used to ACCESS, CONTAINMENT and establish, exert and maintain SEGREGATION of space power and control Can You Think of an Example?The use of space communicates… Can You Think of an Example?
EXAMPLES: The word “ghetto” originally referred to an area in Venice, Italy where Jews were segregated and required to live in the 1500s. The reservation system imposed on Native Americans. The Jim Crow laws (1865-1960s) that segregated Blacks. Segregated The isolation of Japanese Americans during WWII.Cultural Space Sundown towns or “whites only” towns. Schools today are re-segregated to the same level as in 1970s Cultural spaces that aresegregated based on socio- In Hurricane Katrina, low- income, working class neighborhoods economic, racial, ethnic, were hit the hardest sexual, political and/or religious differences: Gated communities Voluntary or involuntary/imposed
Contested Cultural SpaceCultural space where people with unequal control and access to resources engage in oppositional andconfrontational strategies of resistance and/or contestation. EXAMPLES: Chinese immigrants who came to the U.S. to work from the 1850s onward were forced to live in isolated ethnic enclaves known as Chinatowns in large cities such as San Francisco and New York In the early 2000s, in Hudson, New York, a small town of 7,000 just 100 miles north of New York City, residents joined together to protest the building of a massive, coal-fired cement factory Occupy Wall Street; Occupy Oakland; Occupy Boston, etc.
The intersection of intercultural communication practices thatconstruct meanings in, through and about particular places within a context of relations of power.Examples: McDonald’s in Russia Wal-Mart, Starbucks and other American companies are mixed into local cultural spaces around the world Hybrid culture spaces are not simply the blending of cultures and cultural practices.Rather, hybrid culture spaces involve a negotiation of power
Hybrid Cultural Space As Site Of InterculturalHybridNegotiation cultural spaces as innovative andcreative spaces where people constantlyadapt to, negotiate with and improvisebetween multiple cultural frameworks. EXAMPLES: Cultural space of “home” experienced by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S. Immigrants create hybrid cultural space to creatively maintain their relationship to their culture and tradition.
Hybrid Cultural Hybrid cultural spaces where people challenge stable, territorial, and Space As Site static definitions of culture, cultural Of Resistance spaces and cultural identities. EXAMPLE: Asian Indian immigrants create hybrid cultural space as a form of resistance to the dominant American culture. Hybrid cultural space allows them to avoid total assimilation and a loss of their own culture.
Hybrid Cultural Spaces As Sites Of Transformation Hegemonic structures are negotiated and reconfigured through hybridization of culture, cultural space, and identity. EXAMPLE:Chicana feminist GloriaAnzaldua uses the notion of“borderlands” to transform theexperience of culturalmarginalization into a space ofoppositional and liberatoryidentity.
Placing Culture and Cultural Space Place, Cultural Space, and Identity Displacing Culture and Cultural Space Segregated, Contested, and Hybrid cultural space