Why might some governments be concerned about the high level of popular culture entering their countries??
Cultural ImperialismEngages in the critical analysis of cultural domination between core and subjugated (or suppressed, marginalized or subordinate) centers of cultural production. How does it do this? To best understand cultural imperialism, we should also take a look at the meaning of imperialism.
When we talk about imperialism we are looking EXPANSION through the intersections ofEconomicsCultureAND GeographyBetween nation-states (or political systems)That is based on dominant and subordinate power structures.So when we talk about cultural imperialism, we are talking about Spread of cultural products that share, transmit, shape the economic, global relations between cultural groups.
Cultural Imperialism believed:The international flows of communication technology & the media flows of cultural products Developed in and facilitated the aims and objectives of core nations &political economic formations of the capitalist systemThese were embodiments of ideological featuresIt’s Instrumental role resided in:bringing all cultures into capitalist culture (i.e. consumerism, commodification of experience)results in a reproduction of colonization in the sphere of cultureParticipates in a process of homogenization and poses a threat to indigenous cultures (national, regional, supra-national)this enhances the dependency of developing countries on core nations/political economic systems
We’re going to look at an example of
C h a p t e r s 3 & 6 PA RT I I Globalizing the Body Politics &Jamming Media and Popular Culture
U.S. POPULAR CULTURE & POWERCLAIM 1: US Americans are in a unique position in relation to popular culture – Products of U.S. popular culture are widely circulated internationally. – US Americans are rarely exposed to popular culture from outside the US.CLAIM 2: It is particularly difficult for non-English-language pop culture to bewidely distributed. – Popular culture plays a big role in understanding relations around the globe, and we rely on popular culture to understand world issues and events. – Important to be aware of the interrelatedness of ethnicity, culture, nationalism in the context of economics, technology, and capitalism.Power, Hegemony U.S. Maintains Control Over Production, Ads, & Pop Culture Distribution Of Pop Culture Examples: Infrastructure, knowledge, capital HEGEMONY Domination through consent Examples: Allure, pleasure, enjoyment, the “cool” of U.S. pop culture; status marker
MUCH OF THE INTERNATIONALLY CIRCULATED POPULAR CULTURE IS U.S. POPULAR CULTURE. Hollywood continuously seeksoverseas markets Makes more money outside of the Some governmentsU.S. than from domestic box office are concerned aboutreceipts. the amount of Widely available U.S. media popular cultureinclude television & newspapers, social coming into theirnetworks countries.
Why might some governments beconcerned about the high level of popular culture entering their countries??
Domination through the spread of cultural products.***Interrelationships among economics, nationalism, and culture.***
Dictionary of Human Geography defines Imperialism as: "the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination.”
Emerged 1960s After WWII Economic expansion of core capitalist societies. (i.e. United States) Decolonization processes occurring worldwide (Cuba, Ghana, Senegal, Nigeria, Uganda) Intense concentrations of multinational capitalResulted in debates REALIZATION:on An instrumental power in communication & Domination information Dependency Both played a role in the expansion of the Control capitalist world systemWithin economic This power has a cultural effect on Third Worldand political terms nations
Media, Popular Culture and Intercultural Communication How is intercultural communication impacted by stereotypical representations? How can you challenge/change these representations? How is identity affected by the media and popular culture? Do you usually have a dominant, negotiated or oppositional reading of media texts? How are cultural identities impacted by global circulation of media and popular culture?
Resisting and Recreating Media & Popular Culture Increased Awareness & Creative Production Informed Action• Alternative or • Citizen media or independent media participatory media• Refuse to consume • Culture jamming products that dehumanize groups of people
Popular culture plays a POWERFUL role in how we think about and understand OTHER groups as well as one’s OWN group representation.
The Myth of “Race” as BiologicalEvolutionary biologist Joseph L. Graves (2005) states, “The traditional concept of race as a biological concept is a myth,” (p. xxv) More genetic diversity within “races” than across No biological basis in the categorization of people based on physical characteristics. No biological basis in the association of physical, mental, emotional or attitudinal qualities
HOW DOES RACE FUNCTION? Functions by using physical differences to categorize people into hierarchical groupsAttributes value-laden qualities Race is sociallyto these categories based on constructed withinphysical differences. historical, political and economic contexts. EXAMPLES: Industrious Resulted in social Smart inequities that continue Athletic to impact us today in the Lazy context of globalization Violent
Inventing Race & Constructing the “Other” Race is a social construct with tremendous consequences both historically and today THE HISTORICAL WHITE SUPREMACY CONSTRUCTION OF A historically based, institutionally perpetuated “RACE” system of exploitation and oppression that establishes and maintains wealth, privilege andTHE STORIES WE TELL power of white race ABOUT “RACE” HISTORICAL EXAMPLES:HISTORICAL ROOTS OF “Racial whitening” in Latin America RACISM AND WHITE “One-Drop Rule” in North America PRIVILEGE Four-tiered racial system in South Africa
Race in the Context of GlobalizationDoes “race” mean the same thing today as it did 60, 100, 200 years ago?How have the Civil Rights movement and anti-colonial movements impacted our understanding of race?What does it mean when we say we live in a o Race-less society? o A color-blind society? o A post-race society?Are these accurate?What are the consequences of these ideologies?
How has race been re-signified in the context of globalization?FROM “RACE” TO WHITENESS “CULTURE” A location of structural advantage. Racial naturalism: A standpoint. Biological hierarchy A set of core values, Racial historicism: practices and norms in Cultural hierarchy which White ways of thinking, knowing, being and doing are normalized.
Re-signifying Race in the Global ContextFROM “RACE” TO “CLASS” CONSEQUENCES: All about the color of – Masks systemic racism historically and today money (not race) – Hides existing wealth disparities that are race Assimilation and based allegiance to whiteness – Elevates unquestioned norms of whiteness – Obscures processes of assimilation to whiteness INTERSECTIONALITY