Cultural Industries: News Outlets that produce print Newspapers, such as New York Times, Washington Post, USA Today & Magazines like Vogue, Cosmopolitan, Essence, Online News Engines that now feature credible blogs operated by their print counterparts. Also talking about Broadcast Networks such as CNN, MTV, HBO, Film Producers like Warner Bro’s, Lionsgate, Disney, Nickelodeon, Pixar, Paramount.
Ch 3 & 6 part i
C h a p t e r s 3 & 6 PA RT I Globalizing the Body Politics &Jamming Media and Popular Culture
CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY• To understand how our bodies are sites where categories of social difference (race, gender, etc.) are marked and negotiated• To understand that “race” is a social construct that was “invented” historically to serve economic and political ends• To introduce a process of “reading” body politics to reveal the social, economic and political implications of the meanings we attach to “difference”• To learn how we, as intercultural communicators, can resist and transform socially constructed categories that maintain hierarchies of difference
CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY• To understand the impact of media and popular culture on intercultural communication in the context of globalization• To examine how global and regional flows of media and popular culture influence intercultural communication and cultural identities• To understand the role of power and hegemony in mediated intercultural communication and the representation of non-dominant groups• To gain skills and strategies to critically consume, resist and produce media
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IS AN EMBODIED EXPERIENCEPeople make meaning about each other through ourphysical bodies and appearances • i.e. skin color, facial features, facial expressions, gesture Our Communication With Others Is Mediated Through Our BodiesPeople communicate meaning and perform identitiesthrough their bodies – i.e. clothing, hair style, tattoos.
BODY How is power written and performed symbolically and POLITICS materially on and through the body? Refers to the practices and Our bodies are sites wherepolicies through categories of socialwhich power is difference are constructed marked, regulated and (i.e. gender, race, religion, class, sexual orientation, etc.) negotiated onand through the body.
TYPES OF CULTURE FOLK CULTURE HIGH CULTURE Cultural practices that are Cultural activities that are oftenenacted for the sole purpose of the domain of the elite or thepeople within a particular place. rich. **Traditional & nonmainstream cultural activities that are NOT – Ballet financially driven. **• Storytelling – Theatre• Traditional Dance – Opera• Graffitti – Fine art• Spoken Word – Symphony
WHAT IS POPULAR CULTURE? Systems and artifacts that the general populous or broadmasses within a society share or about which most people have some understanding.
Popular Culture Generates profit. Produces social norms.Creates social identities or sense of who we are. Maintains social boundaries.Produces a sense of belonging and membership. Enables social change and resistance.
POP CULTURE IS PRODUCED BY CULTURAL INDUSTRIES. POP CULTURE CULTURAL INDUSTRIES ARE DEFINED AS: FULFILLS A SOCIAL Industries that mass produce FUNCTION. standardized cultural goodsEconomic Growth – Culture as – Normalize dominant capitalist ideologies Product – Marketing of – Create social practices that are uniform and Ideas & Images homogeneous among peopleRepresentations ofSelf & Others – Easily manipulate the masses into docile and – Generate Knowledge of passive consumers Others – Reaffirm Institutions that generate Social, Cultural and Political Aspects of Self/Cultural thought through ideas and images. Identities
G LO BALIZ ATI O N MEDIA & POPULAR CULTURE: is shaped by the • Facilitates communication advances in across cultures communication • Frame global issues and technologies, global normalizing particular cultural ideologiesmedia, and the spread • Fragment and disrupt of popular culture. national and cultural identities • Forge hybrid transnational cultural identities
Media, Popular Culture & Globalization Three elements of the media: Media: Technology InstitutionThe modes, means Cultural form or channels through which messages are communicated. Network Media
Popular Culture, ICC and Globalization Cultural corruption: Cultural homogenization: The perceived and The convergence towardsexperienced alteration of a common cultural values and culture in negative or practices as a result ofdetrimental ways through global integration the influence of other cultures.
Popular Culture, ICC and GlobalizationCultural Imperialism: Fragmegration: The domination of oneculture over others through cultural forms such as Describes the dual andpopular culture, media, and simultaneous dynamic of cultural products. integration and fragmentation that has emerged in the context of globalization.
POP CULTURE, REPRESENTATION,QUESTION & IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION Cultural texts may or may not “represent” the identities they target. A. True B. False
Many people perceive other cultural groups to be as they are portrayed on popular television shows. People often learn about other cultures through the lens of popular culture.Popular culture plays a powerful role in how we think about and understand othergroups as well as one’s own group’s representation. STEREOTYPING Pop culture represents stereotypes that are connected to social judgments of others People tend to remember negative portrayals of other groups These reinforce negative stereotypes UNIQUE ASPECT OF POPULAR CULTUREAudiences may experience the private lives of people they do not know, in ways that they never could as tourists.
CONSUMING POPULAR CULTUREMeaning is never FIXED, but is always being CONSTRUCTEDwithin various contexts through encoding and decoding. Decoded Encoded Message Message Faced with somany pop cultural Sender Receiver messages or “cultural texts,” Encoding cultural texts people negotiate ENCODING: the process of creating a message.their way through DECODING: the process of interpreting a message.popular culture in different ways. Various industries prepare reader profiles, portrayals of readership demographics, and respond to the cultural and political needs of cultural identities in a variety of ways.
SOCIAL Social constructs exist because people agree to follow certainCONSTRUCTION conventions and rules associated with the construct. An idea or phenomenon Examples: that has been “created,” Language“invented” or “constructed” by people in a particular Money society or culture through Gender communication Race Human beingsparticipate in thecreation of our own realitiesOur knowledge about ourselves, the world, and everyday reality is created through communication
SEMIOTIC APPROACH TO DIFFERENCES E M I O T I C S : Developed in the late The study of the use of SIGNS in cultures 1800s by Swiss linguist FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE SIGNS CONSIST OF SIGNIFIER AND SIGNIFIED Signifier SignifiedThe Body The Idea Things or Actions Concept Images Example: “Go,” “Slow,” Words “Stop”
There Is An Arbitrary Relationship Between the SIGNIFIER and SIGNIFIED1. There is NO natural or essential relationship between SIGNIFIER and SIGNIFIED2. SIGNS belong to SYSTEMS and their meaning comes from their relationship to other SIGNS within the SYSTEM3. The meaning of SIGNS is created through the marking of DIFFERENCE EXAMPLE: The colors red, yellow or green in a stop sign
The Power of Texts HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENCE: THE POWER OF TEXTS: System of classification of Texts construct, maintain, and people predicated on the legitimize systems of inequity and socially constructed idea of domination by creating authorized superior and inferior races and preferred versions of history and leaving out other perspectives,(can also apply to gender, ethnicity, culture, experiences and stories. religion, sexual orientation, etc.) Silenced Histories: The hidden or absent accounts of history that are suppressed or omitted from official or mainstream versions of history
POP CULTURE, REPRESENTATION,QUESTION & IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION Cultural texts may or may not “represent” the identities they target. A. TRUE B. False
BUT…People also use popular culture to reaffirm their own cultural identities.
GENDER DIFFERENCE Physical differences in human bodies are used to construct two mutually exclusive gender categories: WOMEN & MEN. Gender differences are constructed in binary opposites: MASCULINE: strong,How is gender marked through communication? rational, significant What purpose does this binary system serve? FEMININE: weak, emotional, and
IS GENDER A NECESSARILY BINARY? Alternatives To The Gender Binary THIRD GENDER: TRANSGENDER: People who live across, between or People whose gender identities differ outside of the socially constructed from the social norms and expectationstwo-gender system of categorization. associated with their biological sex. THE TWO-GENDER SYSTEM REFLECTS & MAINTAINS RELATIONSHIPS OF POWERGender difference shapes and impacts intercultural communication in the global contextEXAMPLE: Assumptions about feminine passivity, submissiveness and subservience leadsto the global exploitation of women Who benefits from the gendered construction and performance of unequal power relations?
POP CULTURE & CULTURAL SPACESSome forms of popular culture (e.g., magazines, newspapers, internet sites) mayfunction like cultural spaces. People construct their relationships with their cultural identitiesthrough popular cultureCultural texts are presented in products such as TVshows, movies, magazines, music, toys, and videogames
RESISTING POPULAR CULTURESometimes due to a conflict in culture values and cultural identities, peopleactively resist certain popular culture texts. Much of the resistance stems from concerns about the representation of various social groups.