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[EN] Multilingual Document Management Systems | AIIM Show 1997

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[EN] Multilingual Document Management Systems - Not Just a European Challenge | Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer | The 1997 AIIM Show and Conference New York, April, 14th - 17th 1997 | Contents: (1) …

[EN] Multilingual Document Management Systems - Not Just a European Challenge | Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer | The 1997 AIIM Show and Conference New York, April, 14th - 17th 1997 | Contents: (1) Multilingual Software - Problem or Challenge ? (2) The easy Tasks (3) Use of Controlled Vocabulary for Field-oriented Translation (4) Automated Translation of Text (5) Software: Functionality and Design (6) Application example: wfBASE, Switzerland (7) Conclusions | PROJECT CONSULT Unternehmensberatung Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer GmbH, Hamburg, Germany CopyRight 1993-1997 | Updated version of a presentation in German language, dating 1993: U. Kampffmeyer: "Multilinguale Dokumenten- und Retrieval-Systeme. Implementierung und Beispiele. In: G. Knorz, J. Krause, und C. Wormser-Hacker. Hrsgg. "Information Retrieval '93. Von der Modellierung zur Anwendung." No. 12 in Schriften zur Informationswissenschaft. Seiten 223-241, Konstanz, 1993. Gesellschaft für Informatik, UVK - Universitätsverlag Konstanz. | 1999 in Deutsch: http://www.competence-site.de/filedownload/cns-i?id=i_file_25217 | http://www.PROJECT-CONSULT.com

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  • Updated version of a presentation and a paper in German language, dating 1993: U. Kampffmeyer: 'Multilinguale Dokumenten- und Retrieval-Systeme. Implementierung und Beispiele. In: G. Knorz, J. Krause, und C. Wormser-Hacker. Hrsgg. 'Information Retrieval '93. Von der Modellierung zur Anwendung.' No. 12 in Schriften zur Informationswissenschaft. Seiten 223-241, Konstanz, 1993. Gesellschaft für Informatik, UVK - Universitätsverlag Konstanz. | 1999 in Deutsch: http://www.competence-site.de/filedownload/cns-i?id=i_file_25217
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  • 1. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 1 Presentation Multilingual Document Management Systems Not Just a European Challenge Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer P R O J E C T C O N S U L T Unternehmensberatung Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer GmbH Hamburg - Berlin - Darmstadt - Munich The 1997 AIIM Show and Conference New York, April, 14th - 17th 1997
  • 2. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 2 Content s• Multilingual Software - Problem or Challenge ? • The easy tasks • Use of controlled vocabulary for field-oriented translation • Automated translation of text • Software: functionality and design • Application example: wfBASE, Switzerland • Conclusions
  • 3. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 3 Multilingual Software Problem or Challenge ?
  • 4. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 4 Thesis • The world´s IT language is English • 90% of the information distributed via Internet is in English • An estimated 70% of the world's languages and dialects will disappear in the next 20 years
  • 5. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 5 Anti-Thesis • Language along with religion, literature and art is a most important factor of cultural identity • Governments restrict the use of English and promote their national languages • Users should be able to work easily in the environments they are used to
  • 6. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 6 Synthesis • IT provides all necessary technologies for multilingual software • The use of native language software generates more acceptance and eliminates faults and misunderstandings
  • 7. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 7 What does Multilingual Software mean ? • Multilingual Software is NOTNOT :
  • 8. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 8 What does Multilingual Software mean ? • Multilingual Software is NOT : • Packages distributed in separate national versions • Simple text translation
  • 9. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 9 What does Multilingual Software mean ? • Multilingual Software is NOT : • Packages distributed in separate national versions • Simple text translation • Multilingual Software is :
  • 10. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 10 What does Multilingual Software mean ? • Multilingual Software is NOT : • Packages distributed in separate national versions • Simple text translation • Multilingual Software is : • Ability to switch the language during runtime • Translating entries and displays to the chosen language • Retrieving information independently of the language in which it was generated
  • 11. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 11 Who needs Multilingual Software ? • All countries with more than one official language eg. Belgium, Switzerland, etc.
  • 12. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 12 Who needs Multilingual Software ? • All countries with more than one official language • All countries with more than one major language group eg. USA, India, Russia etc.
  • 13. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 13 Who needs Multilingual Software ? • All countries with more than one official language • All countries with more than one major language group • All international organizations eg. UN, EC etc.
  • 14. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 14 Who needs Multilingual Software ? • All countries with more than one official language • All countries with more than one major language group • All international organizations • All multi-national companies eg. trade, transportation, automobile, pharmaceutical, oil industries, and others.
  • 15. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 15 The “Document” Problem • Facsimile documents cannot be interpreted • Translation changes the display and appearance of documents • Translated documents do not have the same legal status as the original documents • Storage of several documents in different languages with a new type of "Language Version Link" may be necessary
  • 16. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 16 Use of Multilingual Software • Retrieval independent of the language in which the information was created • Automated translation of database and document contents • Producing multilingual documents automatically or simultaneously
  • 17. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 17 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company
  • 18. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 18 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls
  • 19. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 19 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls ... his English is really bad ...
  • 20. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 20 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls >> The employee doesn`t understand what kind of special pharmaceutical transport he means
  • 21. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 21 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls >> The employee doesn`t understand what kind of special pharmaceutical transport he means >>> She opens her database and retrieves the client's transactions using her standard user interface in English
  • 22. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 22 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls >> The employee doesn`t understand what kind of special pharmaceutical transport he means >>> She opens her database and retrieves the client's transactions using her standard user interface in English >>>> She switches the display language to the client's language
  • 23. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 23 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls >> The employee doesn`t understand what kind of special pharmaceutical transport he means >>> She opens her database and retrieves the client's transactions using her standard user interface in English >>>> She switches the display language to the client's language >>>>> She reads the foreign description and data to the client
  • 24. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 24 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls >> The employee doesn`t understand what kind of special pharmaceutical transport he means >>> She opens her database and retrieves the client's transactions using her standard user interface in English >>>> She switches the display language to the client's language >>>>> She reads the foreign description and data to the client >>>>>> The client is satisfied,
  • 25. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 25 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls >> The employee doesn`t understand what kind of special pharmaceutical transport he means >>> She opens her database and retrieves the client's transactions using her standard user interface in English >>>> She switches the display language to the client's language >>>>> She reads the foreign description and data to the client >>>>>> The client is satisfied, no misunderstandings,
  • 26. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 26 Use of Multilingual Software - Example Scenario: A logistic workplace in an international trade company > A foreign customer calls >> The employee doesn`t understand what kind of special pharmaceutical transport he means >>> She opens her database and retrieves the client's transactions using her standard user interface in English >>>> She switches the display language to the client's language >>>>> She reads the foreign description and data to the client >>>>>> The client is satisfied, no misunderstandings, no additional time for call backs or finding a translator !
  • 27. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 27 The "Easy" Tasks
  • 28. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 28 Basics of Multilingual Software
  • 29. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 29 Basics of Multilingual Software • Use of national character sets Europe: specific national characters
  • 30. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 30 Basics of Multilingual Software • Use of national character sets Europe: specific national characters ä, æ, ö, ø , å, ç, é, ê, ñ
  • 31. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 31 Basics of Multilingual Software • Use of national character sets Europe: specific national characters ä, æ, ö, ø , å, ç, é, ê, ñ Arabia : from right to left
  • 32. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 32 Basics of Multilingual Software • Use of national character sets Europe: specific national characters ä, æ, ö, ø , å, ç, é, ê, ñ Arabia : from right to left
  • 33. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 33 Basics of Multilingual Software • Use of national character sets Europe: specific national characters ä, æ, ö, ø , å, ç, é, ê, ñ Arabia : from right to left Asia: columns of characters
  • 34. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 34 • Use of national character sets Europe: specific national characters ä, æ, ö, ø , å, ç, é, ê, ñ Arabia : from right to left Asia: columns of characters Basics of Multilingual Software
  • 35. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 35 Basics of Multilingual Software • Display of different character sets and representations on one screen
  • 36. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 36 Basics of Multilingual Software • Display of different character sets and representations on one screen Risks: • Words and sentences differ in length • Display formats change • Special characters may be interpreted as control characters • Field-oriented displays have to adapt automatically • The look of the document may change dramatically
  • 37. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 37 The Easy Tasks • Transformation of measures eg. meter to feet
  • 38. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 38 Problems with the “EasyEasy” Tasks • Transformation of measures eg. meter to feet Risk: Rounding errors or decimal point format problems may occur
  • 39. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 39 The Easy Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies eg. US Dollar to D-Mark
  • 40. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 40 Problems with the “EasyEasy” Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies eg. US Dollar to D-Mark Risk: Dynamic translation of currencies in a document may not represent the original figures
  • 41. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 41 The Easy Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies • Transformation of date formats eg. 04/12/97 to 12. April 1997
  • 42. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 42 The Easy Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies • Transformation of date formats • Transformation of time formats eg. 6 a.m. EST to 11:00 h GMT
  • 43. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 43 Problems with the “EasyEasy” Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies • Transformation of date formats • Transformation of time formats eg. 6 a.m. EST to 11:00 h GMT Risk: Time-zone differences cause problems in automated version management in enterprise document management systems
  • 44. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 44 The Easy Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies • Transformation of date formats • Transformation of time formats • Transformation of addresses eg. position of postal codes “Hamburg 20149 Germany” to “D - 20149 Hamburg”
  • 45. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 45 Problems with the “EasyEasy” Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies • Transformation of date formats • Transformation of time formats • Transformation of addresses eg. position of postal codes “Hamburg 20149 Germany” to “D - 20149 Hamburg” Risk: Standard formats available, but nobody cares
  • 46. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 46 The Easy Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies • Transformation of date formats • Transformation of time formats • Transformation of addresses • Transformation of international standardized nomenclatures eg. country and city names “Munich” to “München”
  • 47. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 47 Problems with the “EasyEasy” Tasks • Transformation of measures • Transformation of currencies • Transformation of date formats • Transformation of time formats • Transformation of addresses • Transformation of international standardized nomenclatures eg. country and city names “Munich” to “München” Risk: Names are spelled differently
  • 48. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 48 Use of Controlled Vocabulary
  • 49. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 49 The Use of Controlled Vocabulary • Terms may be selected from selection lists or may be approved by cross-checks with available databases • Reference IDs related to terms allow automatic translation of the entries • The ideal technique for multilingual software in "closed" communications • The translation is restricted to a certain group of users • Central, controlled administration is necessary • Thesauri allow structured use of vocabulary
  • 50. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 50 Basic Requirements for the Use of Controlled Vocabulary • Database stores only one version or reference keys • Use of selection lists simplifies access and guarantees exact correspondance • Translation and transformation is provided by a Pre- Processor
  • 51. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 51 Basic Requirements for the Use of Controlled Vocabulary • Database stores only one version or reference keys • Use of selection lists simplifies access and guarantees exact correspondance • Translation and transformation is provided by a Pre- Processor ClientClient Pre- Processor Pre- Processor Request
  • 52. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 52 Basic Requirements for the Use of Controlled Vocabulary • Database stores only one version or reference keys • Use of selection lists simplifies access and guarantees exact correspondance • Translation and transformation is provided by a Pre- Processor ClientClient Pre- Processor Pre- Processor DatabaseDatabase Request Key
  • 53. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 53 Basic Requirements for the Use of Controlled Vocabulary • Database stores only one version or reference keys • Use of selection lists simplifies access and guarantees exact correspondance • Translation and transformation is provided by a Pre- Processor ClientClient Pre- Processor Pre- Processor DatabaseDatabase Request Key Value
  • 54. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 54 Basic Requirements for the Use of Controlled Vocabulary • Database stores only one version or reference keys • Use of selection lists simplifies access and guarantees exact correspondance • Translation and transformation is provided by a Pre- Processor ClientClient Pre- Processor Pre- Processor DatabaseDatabase Result Request Key Value
  • 55. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 55 Selection lists are an easy way to translate information and to save storage capacity Selection Lists 10030108
  • 56. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 56 Selection lists are an easy way to translate information and to save storage capacity • The list displays a text on the screen related to a database variable Selection Lists 10030108
  • 57. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 57 Selection lists are an easy way to translate information and to save storage capacity • The list displays a text on the screen related to a database variable • Every entry in a selection list refers to a variable which is related to a database field Selection Lists 10030108
  • 58. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 58 Selection lists are an easy way to translate information and to save storage capacity • The list displays a text on the screen related to a database variable • Every entry in a selection list refers to a variable which is related to a database field • Every entry in the different language versions of a list refers to the same variable Selection Lists 10030108
  • 59. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 59 Selection lists are an easy way to translate information and to save storage capacity • The list displays a text on the screen related to a database variable • Every entry in a selection list refers to a variable which is related to a database field • Every entry in the different language versions of a list refers to the same variable • The database has to store only the numeric reference of the entry Selection Lists 10030108
  • 60. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 60 Selection lists are an easy way to translate information and to save storage capacity • The list displays a text on the screen related to a database variable • Every entry in a selection list refers to a variable which is related to a database field • Every entry in the different language versions of a list refers to the same variable • The database has to store only the numeric reference of the entry • Selection lists can be used as single and multiple-choice lists Selection Lists 10030108
  • 61. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 61 Selection lists are an easy way to translate information and to save storage capacity • The list displays a text on the screen related to a database variable • Every entry in a selection list refers to a variable which is related to a database field • Every entry in the different language versions of a list refers to the same variable • The database has to store only the numeric reference of the entry • Selection lists can be used as single and multiple-choice lists • Selection lists help to standardize nomenclature in multinational and multilingual organizations Selection Lists 10030108
  • 62. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 62 Multilingual Thesauri • Controlled data entry • Includes automatic indexing of terms on a higher hierarchy level • Easy navigation • ISO standard available • Multilingual thesauri for several industries and sciences available
  • 63. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 63 Problems with Multilingual Thesauri • A direct translation of a term may not be available • There may be several translations for a single term • The meaning of the translation may differ slightly • The same term may appear in different contexts at different hierarchy levels • One term may be represented as a group or combination of words when translated • Thesauri are often too complex and too deep in details
  • 64. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 64 The Term “Water” • Different position in thesauri for physics, geology, chemistry, geo-sciences and other • 37 different versions in Icelandic • "Desert people are glad to have water" • Used as noun and verb • Used as prefix and suffix (Waterfall, tapwater) • Not only used to describe pure “H²O” • Name
  • 65. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 65 Thesauri: Hierarchy and Crosslinks The Hierarchical View of the Thesaurus (Top term, broader term, narrower term) Unique Identifier Position in hierarchical view 10030110 77 66 55 44 33 2211 12201220 12101210 11201120 11101110 12001200 1100110010001000
  • 66. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 66 Thesauri: Hierarchy and Crosslinks The Hierarchical View of the Thesaurus (Top term, broader term, narrower term) The Network Structure of the Thesaurus (Crosslinks independent of the hierarchical position) Unique Identifier Position in hierarchical view 10030110 77 66 55 44 33 2211 77 66 88 44 33 2211 12201220 12101210 11201120 11101110 12001200 1100110010001000 12201220 12101210 11201120 11101110 12001200 1100110010001000
  • 67. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 67 Thesauri: "Slice"-Model of a Multilingual Thesaurus German Language "Slice" IDs dec IDs dec IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. IDs dec IDs dec Unique ID A1 Unique ID A2 Unique ID A3 Unique ID An ... ... ... help text help text help text help text IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. 10030111 IDs of suc- cessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy position in hierarchy main key wordn main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text IDs of suc- cessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy position in hierarchy main key wordn main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text German
  • 68. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 68 Thesauri: "Slice"-Model of a Multilingual Thesaurus IDs dec IDs dec IDs dec IDs dec German Language "Slice" IDs dec IDs dec IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. IDs dec IDs dec ID´s of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. Unique ID A1 Unique ID A2 Unique ID A3 Unique ID An ... ... ... IDs of pre- decessors help text help text help text help text French Language "Slice" French Language "Slice" IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text IDs of pre- decessors help text help text IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. 10030111 ID´s of suc- cessors ID´s of suc- cessors position in hierarchy position in hierarchy main key wordn main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text ID´s of suc- cessors ID´s of suc- cessors position in hierarchy position in hierarchy main key wordn main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text French
  • 69. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 69 Thesauri: "Slice"-Model of a Multilingual Thesaurus IDs dec IDs dec IDs dec IDs dec German Language "Slice" IDs dec IDs dec IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. IDs dec IDs dec ID´s of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. Unique ID A1 Unique ID A2 Unique ID A3 Unique ID An ... IDs of pre- decessors IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy position in hierarchy ... ... IDs of pre- decessors main key wordn main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text help text help text help text help text French Language "Slice" French Language "Slice" IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text IDs of pre- decessors help text help text English Language "Slice" English Language "Slice" help text help text help text help text IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. IDs of pre- decessors IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy position in hierarchy main key wordn main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. synonyms, ho- monyms etc. IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. help text help text IDs of pre- decessors IDs of suc- cessors position in hierarchy main key wordn synonyms, ho- monyms etc. 10030111 English
  • 70. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 70 Automated Translation of Text
  • 71. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 71 Basics of Automated Translation • Contents of databases Contents of structured, field-oriented databases are easier to translate
  • 72. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 72 Basics of Automated Translation • Contents of databases Contents of structured, field-oriented databases are easier to translate Full-text needs special interpretation (especially if the full-text database is optimized and context information is not available)
  • 73. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 73 Basics of Automated Translation • Contents of databases Contents of structured, field-oriented databases are easier to translate Full-text needs special interpretation (especially if the full-text database is optimized and context information is not available) • Contents of text documents Non-structured texts need specialized interpretation software including grammar, context and distance operators
  • 74. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 74 Basics of Automated Translation • Contents of databases Contents of structured, field-oriented databases are easier to translate Full-text needs special interpretation (especially if the full-text database is optimized and context information is not available) • Contents of text documents Non-structured texts need specialized interpretation software including grammar, context and distance operators Structured text documents are more easily to translate, eg. SGML documents
  • 75. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 75 Basics of Automated Translation • Contents of databases Contents of structured, field-oriented databases are easier to translate Full-text needs special interpretation (especially if the full-text database is optimized and context information is not available) • Contents of text documents Non-structured texts need specialized interpretation software including grammar, context and distance operators Structured text documents are more easily to translate, eg. SGML documents Embedded objects of any kind cause problems for translation software
  • 76. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 76 Linguistic Problems • Homonyms • Synonyms • Context • Linguistic ambiguousness • Acronyms • Declination • Colloquial language and slang • Specialized, industry-specific use
  • 77. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 77 Software Functionality and Design
  • 78. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 78 Translating Structured Information German The language selector (Lx) in the application defines which resource is used for display and how the information in the datafield is represented. Screen Text Field French English Spanish Language Resources Please select ... Application Resource Data Data- base Thesauri Trans- formation Modules Screen LX LX LX Selection Lists
  • 79. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 79 Characteristics of a Language Interpreter • Dictionaries provide information for direct translation of terms (Singular, plural, conjunctions, etc.) • Statistic modules support the interpretation of the term within a text • Linguistic modules support the interpretation of the grammatical context • Comparative modules combine the different strategies of interpretation • Presentation modules display the answer of a query in the chosen language as translated full-text • Inverted file and cache modules optimize access
  • 80. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 80 Full-text Database Interpreter Presentation Modules Linguistic Modules Statistic Modules Dictionary Modules User Interface Entry Query Comparison Inverted File Database Display Language Interpreter
  • 81. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 81 Interpretation of Documents Unstructured text Text
  • 82. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 82 Interpretation of Documents Language Processor Unstructured text Text
  • 83. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 83 Interpretation of Documents Language Processor Unstructured text Result: Low QualityLow Quality Text
  • 84. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 84 Interpretation of Documents Language Processor Unstructured text Result: Low QualityLow Quality Structured SGML text Text SGML
  • 85. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 85 Interpretation of Documents Language Processor Unstructured text Result: Low QualityLow Quality Language Processor Structured SGML text Specialized dictionaries Additional resources Multi-step analysis including structure information Structure based content analysis Text SGML Predefined rules
  • 86. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 86 Interpretation of Documents Language Processor Unstructured text Result: Low QualityLow Quality Language Processor Structured SGML text Result: High QualityHigh Quality Specialized dictionaries Additional resources Multi-step analysis including structure information Structure based content analysis Text SGML Predefined rules
  • 87. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 87 Language Interpretation as MiddleWare Language Resources Trans- formation Modules Selection Lists Thesauri Language Interpreter
  • 88. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 88 Language Interpretation as MiddleWare Database User interface (Application) Application IRS Information Resources Management / Libraries / Repositories Language Resources Trans- formation Modules Selection Lists Thesauri Language Interpreter Operating System User interface (Windows, Presentation Manager, X-Windows, etc.)
  • 89. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 89 Language Interpretation Pre-Processor U s e r I n t e r f a c e U s e r I n t e r f a c e Language Interpretation Services Language Interpretation Services TransformationTransformation Selection ListSelection List ThesaurusThesaurus etc.etc. DatabaseDatabase IRSIRS Numeric Requests Alphanumeric Requests Data, Documents Numeric Keys Hitlists, Data, Documents Data, Documents Images, Multimedia Documents Access Data
  • 90. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 90 1 Application1 Application 2 Interpreter2 Interpreter 3 Database3 Database 4 IRS4 IRS Module Layers ServerServer 22 33 44 11 ClientClientA Services in a Client/Server Architecture
  • 91. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 91 11 22 ClientClient 1 Application1 Application 2 Interpreter2 Interpreter 3 Database3 Database 4 IRS4 IRS Module Layers ServerServer 33 44 B Services in a Client/Server Architecture ServerServer 22 33 44 11 ClientClientA
  • 92. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 92 11 22 ClientClient 1 Application1 Application 2 Interpreter2 Interpreter 3 Database3 Database 4 IRS4 IRS Module Layers ServerServer 22 33 44 11 ClientClientA ServerServer 33 44 B 11 ClientClient C ServerServer 22 33 ServerServer 44 Services in a Client/Server Architecture
  • 93. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 93 11 22 ClientClient 1 Application1 Application 2 Interpreter2 Interpreter 3 Database3 Database 4 IRS4 IRS Module Layers ServerServer 22 33 44 11 ClientClientA ServerServer 33 44 B 11 ClientClient C ServerServer 22 33 ServerServer 44 11 ClientClient D ServerServer 22 ServerServer 44 GatewayGateway HostHost Services in a Client/Server Architecture 33
  • 94. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 94 A Matter of Design Multilingual features are a matter of software design
  • 95. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 95 A Matter of Design Multilingual features are a matter of software design • Separate resources for all text and display features
  • 96. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 96 A Matter of Design Multilingual features are a matter of software design • Separate resources for all text and display features • Dynamic screen and windows adaptation
  • 97. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 97 A Matter of Design Multilingual features are a matter of software design • Separate resources for all text and display features • Dynamic screen and windows adaptation • Storing references instead of text and figures
  • 98. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 98 A Matter of Design Multilingual features are a matter of software design • Separate resources for all text and display features • Dynamic screen and windows adaptation • Storing references instead of text and figures • Language interpreter as separate MiddleWare service
  • 99. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 99 Advantage sModular design with separate language resources has a lot of advantages
  • 100. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 100 Advantage sModular design with separate language resources has a lot of advantages • Storing only references instead of text and figures
  • 101. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 101 Advantage sModular design with separate language resources has a lot of advantages • Storing only references instead of text and figures • Only one software version, localization can be easy and parallel
  • 102. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 102 Advantage sModular design with separate language resources has a lot of advantages • Storing only references instead of text and figures • Only one software version, localization can be easy and parallel • Program maintance and helpdesk become easier
  • 103. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 103 Application Example wfBASE wf Schweizer Wirtschaftsförderung Swiss Institute for Commercial Development Zürich - Geneva - Bern - Lugano
  • 104. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 104 Application Example: wfBASE The wf owns one of the largest archives on commercial and political topics in Switzerland. It provides information to politicians, journalists and its commercial members representing all major companies of Switzerland.
  • 105. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 105 Application Example: wfBASE • Optical filing system for press and commercial documents (scanned or created via word processor, spreadsheet, etc. ) • Distributed systems linked via SwissNet 2 (ISDN) • Access for wf employees and third-party partners via multilingual graphic user interface (ISDN and telephone modem) • Database with 4-lingual thesaurus for document access • Access to information independent of the language in which it was entered • Several million documents stored on M/O jukeboxes (2 x 50 gigabytes) • Integrated office communication with text processing, spreadsheet, fax, library management, electronic mail, accounting, address database, etc.
  • 106. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 106 wfBASE System Layout Jukebox External Use Harddisk Cache Zürich Images, Files & Descriptors Read / Write / Create Harddisk Cache Lugano Images, Files & Descriptors Read / Create Harddisk Cache Geneva Images, Files & Descriptors Read / Create Harddisk Cache Bern Images, Files & Descriptors Read / Create wf-User wf-User wf-User wf-User Jukebox Internal Use DB Server Zürich Archive - Server Zürich Communication Server Zürich External User Harddisk Cache Addresses Library Dossiers ISDN Telephone Modem& ISDN SwissNet 2 ISDN SwissNet 2 ISDN SwissNet 2 Novell Netware
  • 107. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 107 HYPARCHIV, the Software for wfBASE Archiving and Document Management Software of German Origin • Designed for Europe • Microsoft Windows clients, various network and server operating systems • Client / Server architecture, object-oriented design • Triple access strategy: hierarchy with icons, relational database and hyperlinks • Multilingual user interface, available in English, US-English (with an own version of icons for folders, cabinets, etc.), French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Greek, Spanish, etc. • User interface, messages and help switchable during runtime • Multilingual access via controlled vocabulary using selection lists
  • 108. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 108 Conclusions
  • 109. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 109 Conclusion s• Multilingual Software is an international requirement • Language interpreters will play an important role as service in Intranet and Internet environments • Multilingual Software will reduce development, maintenance and support costs • Multilingual Software will increase user acceptance • Multilingual Software will create new markets
  • 110. © Copyright PROJECT CONSULT 1997 Kff / V2.0/ / 04/22/14 / 110 Thank You very much !