DRI Foundation Forum on Water, Nevada and Economic Devleopment
DRI Foundation Forum on Water, Nevada and Economic Devleopment
‘Global Water Supplies and Sustainability in the Face of Climate Change and Competing Uses"DRI Foundation Board of Trustees Meeting February 24, 2012 Las Vegas Braimah Apambire
Outline of PresentationWater Supplies in countries• Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)• Scope of The problem globally• Benefits of WASH• Progress in the Sector• Solutions to the Problem
Why Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH)?• Safe Water Access – Water been analyzed for bacteria and chemicals and meet drinking water quality guidelines/standards – 20 liters/person/day – Source within 1 km and 30 minutes – Sustainable• Improved water source
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH)?• Sanitation includes all aspects of environmental cleanliness from safe excreta disposal to solid waste management. – The construction of barriers to disrupt the transmission of disease• Hygiene promotion involves encouraging existing good practices, promoting new practices, and changing key behaviors.
WASHEstablishing and maintaining a sourceof safe, clean water is the first essentialstep in breaking the cycle of poverty. “The first and best medicine”Without access to this criticalresource, people in developing nationshave virtually no chance of leadinghealthy, productive lives.
Scope of the Problem: Access to Water Nearly 844 million people (14% of the world population) do not have safe water Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the greatest percentage of people in need of improved drinking water sources (328 million, 42% of SSA’s population). Water coverage 2006 Improved Water Coverage. Source, WHO & UNICEF (2008)
Scope of the Problem: Access to Water Urban Water Rural WaterDrinking water coverage, 2006 Less than 50% 50 – 75% 76 - 90% 91 - 100% No or Insufficient data
Scope of the Problem: Access to Sanitation More than 2.6 billion people (38% of the world population) live without basic sanitation. In Sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 544 million people (69% of SSA’s population) are without basic sanitation. South Asia has the lowest levels of sanitation 1.079 billion Sanitation coverage 2006 Improved Sanitation Coverage. Source, WHO & UNICEF (2008)
Global Funding For WASH Falls Far of the Needs to Needs Global Funding For WASH Falls Far Short Short of the Meet the MDGs Annual Commitments and Disbursements Gap $b 120 120 High Estimate 100 80 93b 75 Base Estimate 62 Low 60 Estimate 35b 40 $27b 6 20 20 0 2008 Funding UN-GLAAS 2008 AnnualNeed 2008 Need Estimates to meet MDG 7 International Private Sector International Donors - Private Foundations International Donors - Bilaterals, Multi-laterals Domestic Public Sector + National Government Foundations are estimated to be spending ~250m year
A Detailed Look into the External Funding Shows that a Majority is Spent on Infrastructure Only 20% of the funding goes to individual/community based WASH projects Bi-Lateral Donors 2004-2006 • Very few funders focus 100% = $4.1b on individual WASH 100% 118 12 1 projects 4 19 80% ~80% of the funding 985 goes to water resources management and large- 60% scale infrastructure projects • Some USAID, DFID and France funding seem to 40% 2 0 12 be focusing on hygiene ~20% of the funding 20% 30 going to individual promotion and sanitation 854 WASH projects 0% Water resources protect ion Wast e management/ disposal • The rest focus on IWRM River development Water resources policy/admininistrat ive management projects and large scale Water supply and sanit at ion - large syst ems Educat ion and training on wat er supply sanitation infrastructure Basic drinking wat er supply and sanitation provisioning projectsSource: Measuring Aid to Water Supply and Sanitation, OECD-DAC, February 2009
Impact of the ProblemHealth, HIV/AIDS and Nutrition More than 5,000 children die every day from poor hygiene practices, contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation 88% of diarrheal deaths are from poor hygiene practices, contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation Episodes of diarrhea and worm infestations has impact on nutritional status New evidence linking hand-washing and Acute Respiratory Infections WASH linked to guinea worm, fluorosis, arsenicosis WASH important in home-based care of AIDS patients in reducing opportunistic infections
Impact of the ProblemPoverty WASH critical for reducing poverty : 5.5 billion productive days per year lost due to diarrhoea alone and burden of fetching water household water required for small- scale productive activitiesGender Women and girls bear the brunt of fetching water, and benefit the most when distances are reduced.Education improving WASH in schools has an impact on enrolment levels, particularly for girls
Benefits of safe water supplies, basic sanitation and hygiene Eradication of guinea worm, elimination of trachoma, Arsenic and fluoride Several other benefits (poverty, time savings, economic activities, improved schooling for girls, higher status for women, etc.)
Progress in WASH Sector• The world is on track to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target – But not on track in Sub-Saharan Africa – Even if MDGs are met, 800 million people will still lack access to safe water• Increased partnerships, information sharing and coordination e.g., West Africa Water Initiative, Water for the World Act, Global Framework for Action, African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW)
Outline of PresentationGlobal Water Sustainability• The Problem• Sustainability of Water Resources – Develop of Integrated Water Resources Management Frameworks – Groundwater Sustainability Modeling and Construction of Recharge Systems – Stopping bush burning, promoting agro-forestry and improving soil fertility and preventing erosion – Promotion of Water Efficient technologies and Use – Adaptation strategies to climate changeConclusions
The Problem• Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century• World water demand doubles every 20 years.• By 2025, more than 2.8 billion people—35 percent of the world’s projected population—will live in 48 countries facing water stress or water scarcity, as a result of use, growth, environmental degradation, and climate change.• Most acute in the arid and semiarid regions, which are affected by droughts and wide climate variability, combined with population growth and economic development
The Problem• Degradation of groundwater and surface water quality• The situation will be exacerbated as rapidly growing urban areas place heavy pressure on neighboring water resources
The Problem• Groundwater declines due to overpumping and climate change – Ogallala and Saudi aquifers, the North China Plain – India’s 100 million farmers have drilled 21 million wells, investing some $12 billion in wells and pumps. • Half of the traditional hand-dug wells and millions of shallower tube wells have already dried up, bringing a spate of suicides among those who rely on them.”
The Problem• Many of the world’s most water-stressed areas will get less water, and water flows will become less predictable and more subject to extreme events – Marked reductions in water availability – Accelerated glacial melt, leading to medium term – reductions in water availability across – a large group of countries – Rising sea levels resulting in freshwater – losses in river delta systems in countries, such as Bangladesh, Egypt and Thailand.
Sustainability-IWRM• Managing water resources at the basin or watershed scale – This includes integrating land and water, upstream and downstream, groundwater, surface water, and coastal resources.• Optimizing supply – This involves conducting assessments of surface and groundwater supplies, analyzing water balances, adopting wastewater reuse, and evaluating the environmental impacts of distribution and use options.
Sustainability• Managing demand – This includes adopting cost recovery policies, utilizing water-efficient technologies, and establishing decentralized water management authorities.• Providing equitable access to water resources – through participatory and transparent governance and management. This may include support for effective water users’ associations, involvement of marginalized groups, and consideration of gender issues.
Sustainability• Establishing improved and integrated policy, regulatory, and institutional frameworks – Examples are implementation of the polluter- pays principle, water quality norms and standards, and market-based regulatory mechanisms.• Utilizing an inter-sectoral approach to decision-making – where authority for managing water resources is employed responsibly and stakeholders have a share in the process.
Sustainability• Strengthening water rights, especially for the poor• Placing greater emphasis on strategies for adaption in national water management policies and aid efforts• Optimize the technologies and systems that exist to maximize their resilience
Sustainability• Groundwater Sustainability Modeling and Construction of Recharge Systems• Stopping bush burning, promoting agro-forestry and improving soil fertility and preventing erosion• Promotion of Water Efficient technologies and Use – drip irrigation• Adaptation strategies to climate change
Sustainability• Improve on sector- wide knowledge generation and dissemination• Capacity building• Improve on Networking, coordination and harmonization
Examples and Sustainable Management Water Resources
Salt Water Intrusion in Gujarat, India•Estimated Impact of Salinity: 1,200 – 1,500villages across eight coastal districts•Salinity related problems directly and indirectlyhas an impact on over 1.8 households in thesecoastal regions•85% of the population dependents ongroundwater•Kidney stone, skin disease, etc. are the majorhealth problems - high medical costs
Sea water Intrusion problem in Gujarat, India Source: Baseline data, 2006 by CSPC
WASMO & Rural Development Department (TSC)(Drinking Water, Project support to ISAs, Coordination & Monitoring through DWSC/ DRDA) CSPCImplementation Support (Environmental Sanitation, Agencies Enhanced Project (Facilitation & Support to ISAs & Implementation Support Awareness Generation/ Software – To Water Committees) Providing Rs. 1,000 additional subsidy For 15,000 units) Hilton Foundation (Water Resource Management, Innovations Water Quality)
Activities• Water Resource Management• Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting Structure• Water Resource Management for local source strengthening• Piped water supply• Sanitation – Toilets, Solid and Liquid Waste Management, Environmental Sanitation• Improving personal health and hygiene related aspects• Water Quality Monitoring
Efforts by the Government State-wide drinking water grid