DRI UAV Expertise and Related Interests

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Researchers at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) are exploring ways in which unmanned aircraft systems are increasingly being used in civilian government work as well as the private sector for use in applications as diverse as cloud seeding to fighting forest fires.

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DRI UAV Expertise and Related Interests

  1. 1. DRI UAV EXPERTISE AND RELATED INTERESTS Presenter: Lynn Fenstermaker, PhD Titans of Industry Representing 30+ Faculty with UAV or Sensor Expertise and Interests
  2. 2. Who are we? Global Research Institution within NV System of Higher Education  ~559 employees with ~155 research faculty  Non-tenure / soft-money structure:  Faculty generate their own salaries  Faculty bring ~$40M into Nevada’s economy  Largest sources of funding: 19% DOE, 18% DoD, 16% Dept of Commerce  Industry partners:  AG Energy, NV Energy, Ecology and Environment, FullCon Solutions LLC, Geochimica, H-Power, IBM, MAGEE Scientific, Pacific Renewable Fuels, Sierra Geothermal Power Corporation, SpecTIR, Universal Combustion Technologies, Battelle Memorial Institute (PNNL), REII (renewable energy), University of California (LBNL)  On any given day DRI conducts ~ 300 research projects  Research on every continent and all southwestern US military base  Over 60 specialized labs & research facilities  DRI invests ~ $1.6M annually in non-state dollars for support of UNR and UNLV graduate students
  3. 3. Research Structure Research Divisions:  Atmospheric Sciences  Earth and Ecosystem Sciences  Hydrologic Sciences Integrated Science Centers:  Center for Advanced Visualization, Computation, and Modeling (CAVCaM)  Rogers Center for Environmental Remediation and Monitoring (CERM)  Watersheds and Environmental Sustainability (CWES)  Clean Technologies and Renewable Energy Center (CTREC)
  4. 4. DRI Aerial Platform Experience  Manned aircraft:  Cloud seeding  Air quality monitoring and profiling with LiDAR  Hyperspectral imaging for ecosystem monitoring  Balloons:  Air quality, chemistry and water content monitoring and profiling  Class I UAV (fixed wing and helicopter):  Ecosystem monitoring  Aerosol and cloud physics  Radiative flux measurement above and below clouds  Pollution monitoring
  5. 5. DRI Sensor Development W. Patrick Arnott and team: 4 patents and commercialized 3 versions of photoacoustic instrument working with Droplet Measurement Technology Photoacoustic Measurements of Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering from a Twin Otter Platform
  6. 6. Students working with the Dual Wavelength Photoacoustic Instrument at the Fire Science Lab and UNR instrument class
  7. 7. Vertical Profile: Pancaked Layers of Russian Forest Fire Smoke Measured Over Oklahoma PHOTOACOUSTIC LIGHT ABS. Significant layers of light absorbing aerosol near 650 mb and 550 mb, with a clean layer in between at 600 mb.
  8. 8. Sensor Package Development John Watson and Judy Chow: On-board pollution emission measurement system Sample Conditioning Module (#1) Integrated Sample Module (#3) Real-time Gas Module (#2) Real-time PM Module (#4) Battery (#5)
  9. 9. Subset of DRI UAV Projects Collaborative DRI project for NSF: Eric Wilcox - DRI Lead DRI project for DOE: Lynn Fenstermaker - DRI Lead DRI project for USDA ARS: Ken McGwire - DRI Lead
  10. 10. Moisture dynamics in the cloudy and polluted tropical atmosphere: The Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Dynamics Experiment (CARDEX) Eric Wilcox, DRI, eric.wilcox@dri.edu, 775-673-7686 Rick Thomas, P. S. Praveen, Kristina Pistone, V. Ramanathan, Lynne Russell, Scripps/UCSD Frida Bender, Örjan Gustaffson , Stockholm University Yan Feng, Argonne National Laboratory Nic Beres, Hans Moosmüller, Rajan Chackrabarty, DRI Julia Remmers, Steffen Doener, Max Planck Institute, Mainz
  11. 11. The Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Dynamics Experiment (CARDEX)  Feb.-Mar. 2012 Hanimaadhoo Island, Republic     of Maldives, North Indian Ocean Goal: document detailed impact of continentalscale plume of sooty pollution from South Asia on trade cumulus clouds Aircraft: Three Manta UAV Ground measurements: aerosol, radiation, lidar aerosol profiles, microwave radiometer Modeling: WRF-Chem simulations of aerosol transport and boundary layer clouds.
  12. 12. Flux aircraft measures high-frequency variations of vertical velocity, temperature, and humidity. Aerosol/radiation aircraft measures aerosol particle concentration, black carbon concentration and up/down solar fluxes. Cloud physics aircraft measures cloud drop sizes and concentration.
  13. 13. Water Vapor Flux Measurement System Hardware Inertial Navigation System Gust Probe • 100Hz wind components u,v,w relative to UAV KH2O Probe • Krypton UV source • 100Hz Water Vapor absorption (116 & 123nm) Datalogger • 100Hz logging • 32 Analog inputs • 4 digital inputs • C-migits III • 100Hz Pitch, roll, yaw and navigational information • Coupled to GPS Li-poly Batteries • Up to 5 hours of logging time Laser Altimeter • 100Hz logging • High Accuracy
  14. 14.  First-ever UAV profiles of turbulent moisture flux in the boundary layer  Determination of how soot-induced warming of the lower troposphere affects transport of moisture from the ocean and through the boundary layer to the clouds
  15. 15. Micro-aethalometer black carbon concentrations and absorption coefficient vertical profiles on Mar. 26, 2012
  16. 16. Assessing Climate Change Treatment Effects with a Radio Control Helicopter Multispectral Platform Dr. Lynn Fenstermaker, Desert Research Institute ▪ Eric Knight, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Standard color digital photo Multispectral CIR photo 25 Class I helicopter, 55.7” length Sensor Package: Tetracam multispectral camera simulating green, red and IR Landsat bands and real time altimeter with engine and battery monitoring 20 % Green Cover UAV Platform: 15 10 5 0 I- 0 -D I- 0 -N D I- 1 0- D I-1 0- ND I-4 0- D I-4 0- ND NI -0 -D NI -0 -N D NI -1 0- D NI -1 0- ND NI -4 0- D NI -4 0- ND T reatm ent I = irr igated, N I = no t irrigated 0 kg ha -1 N itrogen , 10 kg ha -1 N itroge n, 40 kg ha -1 N itroge n D = d is turb ed, N D = not d is turb ed Climate Treatment Effects on Plant Cover
  17. 17. Feasibility Testing of Helicopter-based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology to Support Land Management Agency Objectives Desert Research Institute Kenneth McGwire Lynn Fenstermaker David McGraw USDA Agricultural Research Service Mark Weltz Christo Morris Julie Finzell Federal land management agencies like the USFS, BLM and the NRCS rely heavily on field measurements to monitor the health and productivity of millions of acres. UAV technology can support more efficient and comprehensive landscape characterization to meet those missions.
  18. 18. Test Results 18 Results show typical 50 meter transects are too small to provide an unbiased estimate of landscape conditions. UAV color infrared imagery to measure leaf area in cattle allotments. Requirement for setting stocking rates to balance the economic needs of producers with ecosystem sustainability. The very high spatial resolution of UAV imagery helps improve the parameterization of models for soil erosion and ecosystem function. UAV sampling can provide equal statistical confidence with deployment to a smaller number of different locations.
  19. 19. DRI UAV Future Directions  Acquire new platforms  Fixed wing and helicopter  Design and develop smaller sensors  T-Probe, chemical ion sensor  Develop new sensor packages  Miniaturized cloud radar, cloud condensation nuclei counters and meteorology  Increase number and type of applications  Cloud seeding, Atmospheric profiling along horizontal gradients, Water and Ecosystem monitoring, Fire and wildlife studies, Post-disaster surveys, Utility line surveys and more  Data analytics and visualization  Student internships and training  Partner with industry to expand UAV capacity within NV and commercialize sensors
  20. 20. 1,000 Fires, Northern CA, Summer 2008: Peak Smoke in Reno around local noon, July 10th 20 UAV will enable: • Real time situational awareness • Post-burn ecosystem analysis and mapping • Smoke plume and emission studies Source: NASA California Wild Fires 2008
  21. 21. HOW CAN WE HELP YOU? Kumud Acharya, W. Patrick Arnott, Jay Arnone, Markus Berli, Jim Brock, Mary Cablk, Jenny Chapman, Judy Chow, Cheryl Collins, Dave Decker, Lynn Fenstermaker, Chris Fritsen, Brian Gallaspy, Justin Huntington, Mike Kaplan, Nick Lancaster, Joe Mahsman, Ian McCubbin, David McGraw, Ken McGwire, John Mejia, Jeremy Memmott, Julianne Miller, Tim Minor, Hans Moosmuller, Dave Rhode, Curtis Robbins, Jerome Robles, Chuck Russell, Henry Sun, Jeff Tilley, Xiaoliang Wang, John Watson, Adam Watts, Eric Wilcox… Visit us at: www.dri.edu

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