Presentation by: Dr. Md. Anzar Alam Dept. of Moalajat NIUM, Bangalore-91
A. Unani Concept Definition Mutradifat Mizaj Af‟al Mawaqe Istemal Muzir Wa Musleh Badal Meqdare Khorak Ashka‟le Advia Murakkabat
Definition: Tahlab is an Arabic word which means a greeny substance float on surface of the water, commonly known as algae. Synonymous: Greek- Oolisoon Arabic- Tahlab, Hazazul Maa, Ghazalul Maa, Kharuz Zafade, Farsi- Jughraba, Pashme waza Siryani- Tahalba Hindi- Shaiwal, Kaayi Mizaj: Barid Ratab2
In classical text, Tahlab classified as three types:- Hazazul Maa-Coiled, seprate Ghazalul Maa-Filamentous, stellate Kharuz Zafade-Condensed
Spirulina (Algae) were the first life form on earth. Often, when we are searching for something new, something with special properties, we tend to completely miss what is right in front of us. “All diseases are curable but not all patients because they are very much impatient”.
As living proof of Spirulina as a complete food, an old Japanese philosopher was claimed to have lived exclusively on Spirulina for 15 years! The spirulina always was and still is the main source of oxygen production. It is estimated that 70% of the total free oxygen on our planet is produced by algae.
Spirulina is a single cell a microscopic filamentous aquatic cyanobacterium (Blue Green Algae) or, spiral shaped, vegetable, bacteria. The name spirulina comes from a Latin word meaning tiny spiral.
Phylum- Cyanobacteria Class- Cyanophyceae Order- Oscillatoriales Genus- Spirulina, Arthrospira Species- platensis maximaNote:- There are several species of spirulina. The ones most commonly used in medicinal/nutritional supplements are Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima.
Spirulina, The Earth First Food An ancient super food for a modern world, made from SUN, AIR, WATER & EARTH (Anaseer-e-Arba) Since the Dawn of the time. It has a long history of use as food. There are reports that it was used as food in Mexico during the Aztec civilization some 400 years ago.
It is still being used as food by the Kanembu tribe in the Lake Chad area of the Republic of Chad where it is sold as dried bread called “DIHE.” The first written records of the food source go back to the year 1524. The first dried Spirulina product available was in health food stores in the United States in 1979.
If you walk two steps towards“ Nature, Nature would comeFour steps towards you”.
Commercial algae are normally produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. Current production of Spirulina worldwide is estimated to be about 3,000 metric tons.
Today, Spirulina is produced in over 22 countries including the US that has the world‟s largest Spirulina farm Earthrise in Irvine, California and is used in over 77 countries. Spirulina‟s safety as food has been established through centuries of human use and through numerous and rigorous toxicological studies.
Authenticity of by UNO in its World Food Conference of 1974 declared Spirulina as the “ Best Food-for tomorrow ”. WHO has hailed Spirulina “ the greatest super food on earth ”. NASA declare1 kg of Spirulina nutritionally equal to 1000 kgs of assorted vegetables and the best food for Astronauts.
Pigments mg 100g-1Carotenoids 370Chlorophyll a 1000Phycocyanin 14000
Let your food be your medicine, Hippocrates “Food is your Fate, Future, & Fortune”. Spirulina produced by the corporations in the US meets the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The WHO estimates there are 178 million children that are malnourished across the globe, and at any given moment, 20 million suffering from the most severe form.
AARP Magazine, the world‟s highest circulation magazine produced by the American Association of Retired People rates Spirulina as „No. 1 food that can add years to your life.‟ Sep-Oct 2006 issue. If athletes consumes spirulina daily,they could run up to 100 miles per day. Marathon runners use this.
Spirulina is an ideal medium for food fortification to eradicate malnutrition because; • Holistic Nutrition as a Food Supplement • Cost Effective • Easily assimilated in Human Body • Safely administered to Children • Environment Friend • Easy to Transport • Long Shelf Life • Ideal Empowerment Tool for Developing Countries.
1. Spirulina by countering and eradicating malnutrition plays a significant role in the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.
“Control the risk factors before they control you”. Hippocrates said Nature itself is the best physician. Treatment with spirulina in diabetic patients increased the hexokinase activity and decreased the glucose-6-phosphatase activity. The activities of enzymes suggest that enhanced lipid metabolism during diabetes is shifted towards carbohydrate metabolism and it enhances the utilization of glucose at peripheral sites.
It contain insulin(Razique and Anzar et al,2012). Spirulina, potentiate the pancreatic secretion of insulin from islet β-cell or due to enhanced transport of blood glucose to the peripheral tissue. The antihyperglycemic effect of spirulina may be due to the down-regulation of NADPH and NADH, a cofactor in the fat metabolism. One of the possible actions of spirulina may be due to its inhibition of endogenous synthesis of lipids.
Spirulina contains compounds like phycocyanin, polysaccharides,and sulfolipids that enhance the immune system. It have a major impact on the immune system by increasing the: phagocytic activity of macrophages, stimulating the NK cells activate and mobilize the T and B cells inhibitory effect on the release of histamine from mast cells. The immunostimulatory effects of spirulina on TNF- α play a major role in precipitating autoimmune diseases in genetically predisposed persons.
Spirulina, have phycocyanobilin which inhibits NADPH oxidase activity and promotes glutathione synthesis along with a marked production of antioxidant enzymes. Geriatric patients administered spirulina for 16 weeks showed a remarkable improvement in the antioxidant potential, β-carotene is best known, an antioxidant rich. It provide functional preservation of the intestinal epithelium which acts as a first line of mucosal barrier against infections.
The antioxidant and immune modulation effect of Spirulina act as anticancer activity. A study at the Harvard University showed that an extract from spirulina is highly successful in the treatment of cancer. Phycotene, destruct the tumour cell/control tumour cells and also arrest their growth. Mathew et al,(1995) who studied the effect of Spirulina on oral leukoplakia (a precancerous lesion) in pan tobacco chewers in Kerala (44 subjects).
The apoprotein component of phycocyanin was responsible for the inhibition of COX-2 in rheumatoid arthritis. Phycocyanin through its ability to efficiently scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation. inflammation reduction in arthritis patients due to the stimulation to secrete IL-2 which regulates inflammatory response.
Sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan inhibit the replication of several viruses, Especially those with an envelope such as the measles virus, and the HIV-1 virus etc. Chelating property of calcium in the inhibition the replication of virus. Spirulina has been found to improve weight gain and correct anaemia in both HIV-infected and HIV-negative cases.
Spirulina showed a significant reduction of the LDL to HDL ratio after four months of supplementation. 15 male voluteers taking 4.2 gm/day for 4 weeks statically significant reduction in LDL cholesterol (p<0.05). 4 g/day spirulina taking in IHD patients,significantly lowered blood cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL & VLDL cholesterol and higher HDL. Spirulina also decrease blood pressure by promoting vasodilation and restricting vasoconstriction.
Effect of Spirulina supplementation in the management of Bronchial Asthma (2001). Hypocholesterolemic effect of Spirulina on obese women (April 2000). Effect of Spirulina as a Nutritional Supplement on Malnourished Children (December 1999). Evaluation of Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer with Spirulina (1995).
Effect of Spirulina supplementation on Vitamin A status during pregnancy (March 1995). Eeffect of Spirulina Supplementation on Vitamin A status During Pregnancy and Lactation (September 2001). Role of Beta-carotene in the management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (1994). Beta-carotene Therapy for Tropical Pancreatitis (October 1991).
Effect of supplementation of Spirulina on the levels of blood glucose and lipid profile of NIDDM (August 1991). Impact of Spirulina supplementation on anaemic adolescent girls (14–16) years (May 2000). A study of haemoglobin levels in humans fed on Spirulina supplement (June 1990).
A Study on the synergistic Effect of Spirulina and β -carotene on subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis (April 2002). Efficacy of Spirulina in a case of rheumatoid arthritis (1992). Effect of Spirulina supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients (April 1994). Effect of Supplementaion of Spirulina on Diabetic and Hyperlipidemic Patients (May 2000). A Study on the “Anti-stress activity of Spirulina platensis” (Dec 2001).