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Chapter 3Sound Recording and   Popular Music
Music and the Internet“It’s not supposed to be a model for anything else. It was simply a response to a situation. We’re o...
Source: Frank Micelotta/GI
Youth, Music, and Repression• 1700s—waltz viewed as “savage”• 1800s—tango viewed as primitive, sexual
Youth, Music, and Repression•1920s—the Charleston vilified•1950s through 1980s—rock and roll decried as toosexual, violent
The Development of Sound         Recording• de Martinville, France, 1850s• Edison’s cylinders, U.S., 1877• Berliner and fl...
The Development of Sound         Recording•Victor Talking Machine, U.S., 1900s•Introduction of electric record players mak...
The Development of Sound    Recording (cont.)• Magnetic audiotape (Germany, 1940s)• Stereo sound (1950s)
The Development of Sound    Recording (cont.)•Digital recording (1970s)•Compact discs (1980s)•MP3 and music piracy issues•...
Figure 3.1Annual Vinyl, Tape, CD, Mobile, and Digital                  Sales
Convergence: Sound Recording     in the Internet Age• MP3 format in mid-1990s paved way for illegal and legal digital musi...
The Rocky Relationship between      Records and Radio• 1914: ASCAP is founded to collect copyright fees for music writers ...
The Rocky Relationship between      Records and Radio•1950s: Radio and the recording industry joinforces against televisio...
The Rise of Pop Music• Pop music appeals to the masses— started as low culture.• Expanded from the world of vaudeville int...
Rock Muddies the Waters• High and low culture  • Chuck Berry’s “Roll Over Beethoven”
Rock Muddies the Waters• Masculine and feminine
Rock Muddies the WatersCountry and city•North and South•Sacred and secular  • Ray Charles’s gospel origins
White Cover Music Undermines        Black Artists • Dick Clark promotes white covers of black music. • Elvis given co-writ...
White Cover Music Undermines        Black Artists • Pat Boone “king of cover music” • Little Richard out sings Boone. • Ra...
Payola Scandals Tarnish           Rock and Roll• Payola: The practice of record promoters paying deejays to play their son...
A Changing Industry:Reformations in Popular Music • The 1960s • The British Invasion   • The Beatles   • The Rolling Stone...
Folk and Psychedelic Music            Reflect the Times• Folk music:  • Popularized by radio and by grassroots activists l...
Punk, Grunge, and Alternative  Respond to Mainstream Rock• Punk rock returns to the basics of rock and roll  • The Ramones...
Punk, Grunge, and Alternative  Respond to Mainstream Rock• Grunge updated punk’s spirit in 1990s  • Nirvana• Punk and grun...
Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines• Exploded in popularity by mid-1980s• One of the most popular music forms today• Questions c...
Music Labels Influence the           Industry• The music industry has experienced significant revenue losses:  • 1999 U.S....
Figure 3.2U.S. Market Share of the Major Labels in the         Recording Industry, 2009
Making, Selling, and Profiting             from Music• Artist development (A&R agents)• Producer and session engineer over...
What Sony Owns (selected)Music                         • Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer        – VAIO computers• Sony Music          ...
Figure 3.3
Figure 3.4
Alternative Voices• Indie labels are the music industry’s risk-takers.• The Internet:  • Indie labels become more viable b...
Free Expression and        Democracy• How can popular music uphold alegacy of free expression whileresisting domination by...
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NewhouseSU COM 107 Communications and Society #NH1074Ward - Ch. 3 Slideshow

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#NH1074Ward COM 107 is the Communications and Society class at the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications taught by DR4WARD

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Transcript of "NewhouseSU COM 107 Communications and Society #NH1074Ward - Ch. 3 Slideshow"

  1. 1. Chapter 3Sound Recording and Popular Music
  2. 2. Music and the Internet“It’s not supposed to be a model for anything else. It was simply a response to a situation. We’re outof contract. We have our own studio. We have thisnew server. What the hell else would we do? This was the obvious thing. But it only works for us because of where we are.” —Radiohead’s Thom Yorke
  3. 3. Source: Frank Micelotta/GI
  4. 4. Youth, Music, and Repression• 1700s—waltz viewed as “savage”• 1800s—tango viewed as primitive, sexual
  5. 5. Youth, Music, and Repression•1920s—the Charleston vilified•1950s through 1980s—rock and roll decried as toosexual, violent
  6. 6. The Development of Sound Recording• de Martinville, France, 1850s• Edison’s cylinders, U.S., 1877• Berliner and flat disks, U.S., 1880s
  7. 7. The Development of Sound Recording•Victor Talking Machine, U.S., 1900s•Introduction of electric record players makesgramophone an essential appliance for Americans, U.S., 1920s
  8. 8. The Development of Sound Recording (cont.)• Magnetic audiotape (Germany, 1940s)• Stereo sound (1950s)
  9. 9. The Development of Sound Recording (cont.)•Digital recording (1970s)•Compact discs (1980s)•MP3 and music piracy issues•(now)
  10. 10. Figure 3.1Annual Vinyl, Tape, CD, Mobile, and Digital Sales
  11. 11. Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age• MP3 format in mid-1990s paved way for illegal and legal digital music downloads.• iTunes is the model for legal music downloading.• Streaming music and “music in the cloud” are the future of Internet distribution.
  12. 12. The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio• 1914: ASCAP is founded to collect copyright fees for music writers and publishers.• 1924: Radio competition cuts record sales in half.
  13. 13. The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio•1950s: Radio and the recording industry joinforces against television.•2010: Music industry proposes chargingradio stations royalty fees.
  14. 14. The Rise of Pop Music• Pop music appeals to the masses— started as low culture.• Expanded from the world of vaudeville into different forms: • Jazz • Rock and roll • Blues • R&B
  15. 15. Rock Muddies the Waters• High and low culture • Chuck Berry’s “Roll Over Beethoven”
  16. 16. Rock Muddies the Waters• Masculine and feminine
  17. 17. Rock Muddies the WatersCountry and city•North and South•Sacred and secular • Ray Charles’s gospel origins
  18. 18. White Cover Music Undermines Black Artists • Dick Clark promotes white covers of black music. • Elvis given co-writer credit •
  19. 19. White Cover Music Undermines Black Artists • Pat Boone “king of cover music” • Little Richard out sings Boone. • Ray Charles gets #1 with cover of white musician.
  20. 20. Payola Scandals Tarnish Rock and Roll• Payola: The practice of record promoters paying deejays to play their songs on the air • Congressional hearings in 1959 • Ended DJs’ careers and undermined rock and roll’s credibility • By 2005, payola persists.
  21. 21. A Changing Industry:Reformations in Popular Music • The 1960s • The British Invasion • The Beatles • The Rolling Stones • Motown • The Supremes • Marvin Gaye
  22. 22. Folk and Psychedelic Music Reflect the Times• Folk music: • Popularized by radio and by grassroots activists like Woody Guthrie • A democratic and participatory form• Psychedelic era of music influenced,and ultimately brought down by, drugs.
  23. 23. Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock• Punk rock returns to the basics of rock and roll • The Ramones • Blondie
  24. 24. Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock• Grunge updated punk’s spirit in 1990s • Nirvana• Punk and grunge considered subcategories of alternative rock
  25. 25. Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines• Exploded in popularity by mid-1980s• One of the most popular music forms today• Questions class and racial boundaries• Challenges status quo values
  26. 26. Music Labels Influence the Industry• The music industry has experienced significant revenue losses: • 1999 U.S. music sales: $14.5 billion • 2009 U.S. music sales: $7.7 billion• Global oligopoly • Four corporations control most of industry worldwide.• Indies discover new musical trends.
  27. 27. Figure 3.2U.S. Market Share of the Major Labels in the Recording Industry, 2009
  28. 28. Making, Selling, and Profiting from Music• Artist development (A&R agents)• Producer and session engineer oversee recording process.• Sales and distribution • Internet sales—now 40% of U.S. market • Chain, independent record stores continue to go out of business.
  29. 29. What Sony Owns (selected)Music • Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer – VAIO computers• Sony Music Studios – Handycam Entertainment • Sony Pictures Home Camcorders– Arista, Arista Nashville, Entertainment – Cyber-shot DigitalColumbia, Epic, Jive, CamerasRCA, RCA Victor, Sony Television – Walkman Video MP3Masterworks • Sony Pictures Television players• Sony/ATV Music – Jeopardy!, Wheel of – Sony Reader Digital Publishing Fortune, The Young and Book(50% ownership) the Restless, Breaking Bad, Seinfeld, The Big C SoftwareMovies • Crackle • Sony Creative• Sony Pictures • Game Show Network SoftwareEntertainment Inc. (GSN)• Columbia TriStar Motion Digital GamesPicture Group Electronics • Sony Computer– Columbia Pictures, • Sony Electronics Inc. Entertainment America Sony – DVD and Blu-Ray Disc Inc.Pictures Classics. Screen players – PlayStationGems, TriStar Pictures – Bravia HDTVs and• Sony Pictures Studios projectors Mobile Phones • Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications (50% ownership)
  30. 30. Figure 3.3
  31. 31. Figure 3.4
  32. 32. Alternative Voices• Indie labels are the music industry’s risk-takers.• The Internet: • Indie labels become more viable by using Internet as low-cost distribution outlet. • Signed and unsigned artists can reach fans through social networking and video sites.
  33. 33. Free Expression and Democracy• How can popular music uphold alegacy of free expression whileresisting domination by giantcompanies?
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