The Heuristic And Systematic Processing Of Brand Attributes And Neutral Information Sources In The Decision To See A Film At The Theatre
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

The Heuristic And Systematic Processing Of Brand Attributes And Neutral Information Sources In The Decision To See A Film At The Theatre

on

  • 2,480 views

UMI Number: 3282218 / ProQuest Information and Learning Company ...

UMI Number: 3282218 / ProQuest Information and Learning Company

Copyright 2007 by William J. Ward

All Rights Reserved

Title: The heuristic and systematic processing of brand attributes and neutral information sources in the decision to see a film at the theatre

Author(s): Ward, William J.
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2007
Pages: 00111
Institution: Michigan State University; 0128
Advisor: Adviser Bruce Vanden Bergh
Source: DAI, 68, no. 09A (2007): p. 3656
Standard No: ISBN: 978-0-549-24247-5

Abstract: Low or high motivation related to personal relevance has been an important indicator of the likelihood that receivers will engage in elaboration or thinking about the information contained in a persuasive effort (Petty and Cacioppo 1986). However, the concept of systematic, in-depth cognitive analysis and or heuristic, superficial processing of information, have not previously been applied to moviegoers. In this study, ten hypotheses were tested and the data provided additional validation to involvement and "market maven" measures (Feick and Price 1987) with the frequency of movie attendance and with the Heuristic-Systematic Model (Todorov, Chaiken et al. 2002) for total thoughts and heuristic thought processing. The significance of this research is that it incorporates involvement, heuristic and systematic processing, and motivation constructs into theories of moviegoing behavior.

The study administered an intercept survey to moviegoers (N=373) at a Midwest cinema and applied the Heuristic-Systematic Model to the entire decision process to see a film at the theatre, considering all of the information a consumer used before a decision was made. The study found both involvement (Zaichkowsky's 1987) and "market maven" measures (Feick and Price 1987) to be correlated with frequency of movie attendance. The findings also supported the role of involvement with the combined number of systematic and heuristic thoughts and the number of heuristic thoughts. Contrary to expectations, there was no support for the role of involvement with the number of systematic thoughts or with the familiarity of a film, and with different levels or types of processing related to the genre of the film. Explanations and implications for these findings are discussed and the study concludes with suggestions for future research.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,480
Views on SlideShare
2,355
Embed Views
125

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
20
Comments
0

4 Embeds 125

http://www.dr4ward.com 117
http://www.linkedin.com 4
http://www.typepad.com 3
https://www.linkedin.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

The Heuristic And Systematic Processing Of Brand Attributes And Neutral Information Sources In The Decision To See A Film At The Theatre The Heuristic And Systematic Processing Of Brand Attributes And Neutral Information Sources In The Decision To See A Film At The Theatre Presentation Transcript

  • ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Media and Information Studies! ! ! ! ! ! ! (MIS) Doctoral Program  • Department of Advertising, Public Relations, and Retailing • The School of Journalism • Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies & Media • Ranked No 3 among the media Ph.D. programs in the United States ~ National Research Council (NRC) on Sept. 28, 2010. • Ranked No. 2 in the category of mass communication ~ The Chronicle of Higher Education 2007
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model Petty & Cacioppo 1986
  • Heuristic-Systematic Persuasion Model Chaiken 1987
  • Heuristic-Systematic Persuasion Model Chaiken 1987• Heuristic - Information is processed in a low-involvement and low-effort way with shortcuts, cues, and feelings
  • Heuristic-Systematic Persuasion Model Chaiken 1987• Heuristic - Information is processed in a low-involvement and low-effort way with shortcuts, cues, and feelings• Systematic - Information is processed in a high-involvement and high-effort systematic way
  • Market Mavens Feick and Price 1987• Purchasing involvement and general marketplace expertise to describe the individual marketplace influencers or Market Mavens.ʼ
  • New Research & Theory
  • New Research & Theory• Using brand attributes of film and neutral information sources to help understand the individual decision process.
  • New Research & Theory• Using brand attributes of film and neutral information sources to help understand the individual decision process.• The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency
  • New Research & Theory• Using brand attributes of film and neutral information sources to help understand the individual decision process.• The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers
  • New Research & Theory• Using brand attributes of film and neutral information sources to help understand the individual decision process.• The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• The Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing
  • New Research & Theory• Using brand attributes of film and neutral information sources to help understand the individual decision process.• The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• The Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing• The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity
  • Heuristic - Brand attributes include pre-soldelements or information about a movie suchas:
  • Heuristic - Brand attributes include pre-soldelements or information about a movie suchas: • filmʼs genre
  • Heuristic - Brand attributes include pre-soldelements or information about a movie suchas: • filmʼs genre • star
  • Heuristic - Brand attributes include pre-soldelements or information about a movie suchas: • filmʼs genre • star • director
  • Heuristic - Brand attributes include pre-soldelements or information about a movie suchas: • filmʼs genre • star • director • story
  • Heuristic - Brand attributes include pre-soldelements or information about a movie suchas: • filmʼs genre • star • director • story • included in advertising and PR
  • Systematic - Neutral sources of informationabout a film include:
  • Systematic - Neutral sources of informationabout a film include: • word-of-mouth
  • Systematic - Neutral sources of informationabout a film include: • word-of-mouth • criticʼs comments
  • Systematic - Neutral sources of informationabout a film include: • word-of-mouth • criticʼs comments • awards
  • Questionnaire 
  • Questionnaire • Moviegoersʼ involvement with seeing films at the theatre (ELM, Zaichokowsky 1987)
  • Questionnaire • Moviegoersʼ involvement with seeing films at the theatre (ELM, Zaichokowsky 1987)• Movie frequency (MPA)
  • Questionnaire • Moviegoersʼ involvement with seeing films at the theatre (ELM, Zaichokowsky 1987)• Movie frequency (MPA)• Film selection (HSM)
  • Questionnaire • Moviegoersʼ involvement with seeing films at the theatre (ELM, Zaichokowsky 1987)• Movie frequency (MPA)• Film selection (HSM)• Familiarity with the film
  • Questionnaire • Moviegoersʼ involvement with seeing films at the theatre (ELM, Zaichokowsky 1987)• Movie frequency (MPA)• Film selection (HSM)• Familiarity with the film• Opinion leadership (MM)
  • Method • 373 moviegoers received a personal intercept survey on their way into a Midwest cinema in June 2006Demographics59% Female / 41% MaleAges           Percent12 to 17          16%18 to 24           19%25 to 39           24%40 to 59           32%60 plus               7%
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation(Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level)
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level)The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level)The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level) The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• H1A:  The level of involvement with seeing a film at the theatre will be positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .343, p<.01)
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level) The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• H1A:  The level of involvement with seeing a film at the theatre will be positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .343, p<.01)
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level) The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• H1A:  The level of involvement with seeing a film at the theatre will be positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .343, p<.01)• H1B:  Movie Maven influence is positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .312, p<.01)
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level) The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• H1A:  The level of involvement with seeing a film at the theatre will be positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .343, p<.01)• H1B:  Movie Maven influence is positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .312, p<.01)
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level) The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• H1A:  The level of involvement with seeing a film at the theatre will be positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .343, p<.01)• H1B:  Movie Maven influence is positively related to the number of movies an individual has seen in a theatre. (r = .312, p<.01)• H1C:  Level of involvement with seeing a film at the theatre will be positively related to Movie Maven influence.  (r = .521, p<.01)
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation(Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level)
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level)The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level)The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers
  • Theory & Results Supported - Significant and Positive Correlation (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Significant at .01 Level) The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• H2A:  The level of involvement with seeing films at the theatre will be positively related to the number of attributes and information sources considered before a decision was made. (r = .187, p<.01)
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant(Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• H2B:  The level of involvement with seeing films at the theatre will be positively related to the amount of systematic processing of film related material.
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• H2B:  The level of involvement with seeing films at the theatre will be positively related to the amount of systematic processing of film related material.
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• H2B:  The level of involvement with seeing films at the theatre will be positively related to the amount of systematic processing of film related material.• H2C:  The level of involvement with seeing films at the theatre will be inversely related to the amount of heuristic processing of film- related material.
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant(Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)The Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)The Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing• H3A:  Individuals with high levels of involvement will report seeing a different set of film genres than individuals with lower levels of involvement.
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing• H3A:  Individuals with high levels of involvement will report seeing a different set of film genres than individuals with lower levels of involvement.• H3B:  Systematic processors will report seeing a different set of film genres than heuristic processors. 
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant(Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level)The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity• H4A:  Level of involvement is positively related to familiarity with the film.
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity• H4A:  Level of involvement is positively related to familiarity with the film.
  • Theory & Results Not Supported - Not Significant (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Was Not Significant at .01 Level) The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity• H4A:  Level of involvement is positively related to familiarity with the film.• H4B:  Heuristic processors with high involvement will report a different level of familiarity with the film than heuristic processors with low involvement. 
  • Significance of FindingsThe Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency
  • Significance of Findings The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• 24% of Americans who go to the movies attend a film at least once a month and account for 80% of all tickets sold. MPA 2005
  • Significance of Findings The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• 24% of Americans who go to the movies attend a film at least once a month and account for 80% of all tickets sold. MPA 2005• Establish involvement and heuristic and systematic processing constructs into theories of moviegoing behavior.
  • Significance of Findings The Relationship of Involvement with Movie Mavens and Frequency• 24% of Americans who go to the movies attend a film at least once a month and account for 80% of all tickets sold. MPA 2005• Establish involvement and heuristic and systematic processing constructs into theories of moviegoing behavior.• Involvement (Zaichkowskyʼs 19851987) and “Market Maven” measures (Feick and Price 1987) were both found to be reliable measures of the constructs.
  • Significance of FindingsThe Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers
  • Significance of Findings The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• The HSM posits that highly motivated or involved people will engage in more systematic analysis while people who are less motivated will engage in superficial processing of information (Todorov, Chaiken et al. 2002).
  • Significance of Findings The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• The HSM posits that highly motivated or involved people will engage in more systematic analysis while people who are less motivated will engage in superficial processing of information (Todorov, Chaiken et al. 2002).• There was support for the role of involvement with the combined number of systematic and heuristic thoughts and the number of heuristic thoughts.
  • Significance of Findings The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• The HSM posits that highly motivated or involved people will engage in more systematic analysis while people who are less motivated will engage in superficial processing of information (Todorov, Chaiken et al. 2002).• There was support for the role of involvement with the combined number of systematic and heuristic thoughts and the number of heuristic thoughts.• There was little support for the role of involvement with the number of unaided systematic thoughts. (Unaided)
  • Significance of FindingsThe Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers
  • Significance of Findings The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• When aided with direct response questions there was support for the role of involvement with systematic processing. One of the reasons for the lack of effect on unaided responses to systematic processing may be that the thought listing method is problematic and triggers more heuristic responses.
  • Significance of Findings The Role of Systematic and Heuristic Processing with Moviegoers• When aided with direct response questions there was support for the role of involvement with systematic processing. One of the reasons for the lack of effect on unaided responses to systematic processing may be that the thought listing method is problematic and triggers more heuristic responses.• Highly involved moviegoers who see more films than low involvement moviegoers also have a higher level of confidence and turn to heuristic cues when reviewing a message.
  • Significance of FindingsThe Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing
  • Significance of FindingsThe Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing• Currently six or seven movies out of any 10 major theatrical films produced are unprofitable at the theater. (Litman 1998).
  • Significance of FindingsThe Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing• Currently six or seven movies out of any 10 major theatrical films produced are unprofitable at the theater. (Litman 1998).• Changing consumer tastes and the nearly two-year lead time required to produce and release a new film complicate the needs of studios to have a continual stream of new ideas that will match consumer demand (Litman 1998).
  • Significance of FindingsThe Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing• Currently six or seven movies out of any 10 major theatrical films produced are unprofitable at the theater. (Litman 1998).• Changing consumer tastes and the nearly two-year lead time required to produce and release a new film complicate the needs of studios to have a continual stream of new ideas that will match consumer demand (Litman 1998).• Risky return on investment proposition for individual participants coupled with a short life cycle and rapid decay in revenue.
  • Significance of FindingsThe Relationship of Genre to Involvement and Processing• Currently six or seven movies out of any 10 major theatrical films produced are unprofitable at the theater. (Litman 1998).• Changing consumer tastes and the nearly two-year lead time required to produce and release a new film complicate the needs of studios to have a continual stream of new ideas that will match consumer demand (Litman 1998).• Risky return on investment proposition for individual participants coupled with a short life cycle and rapid decay in revenue.• Genre may allow the audience to associate with the familiarity of a filmʼs story. However, it is difficult to use as brand differentiation and consumersʼ preferences are distributed across multiple genres. (Bakker 2001).
  • Significance of FindingsThe Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity
  • Significance of Findings The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity• It was expected that moviegoers with low involvement who see fewer films would be motivated to systematically process information to become more familiar with a film.
  • Significance of Findings The Role of Involvement and Processing with Familiarity• It was expected that moviegoers with low involvement who see fewer films would be motivated to systematically process information to become more familiar with a film.• The HSM posits that highly motivated or involved people will engage in more systematic analysis while people who are less motivated will engage in superficial processing of information (Todorov, Chaiken et al. 2002).
  • Limitations• Reliance on Self Report• Unaided vs. Aided
  • Future Research
  • Future Research• Testing moviegoers response to movie communications & tracking attendance
  • Future Research• Testing moviegoers response to movie communications & tracking attendance
  • Future Research• Testing moviegoers response to movie communications & tracking attendance• Tracking word-of-mouth and Movie Maven influence
  • Future Research• Testing moviegoers response to movie communications & tracking attendance• Tracking word-of-mouth and Movie Maven influence
  • Future Research• Testing moviegoers response to movie communications & tracking attendance• Tracking word-of-mouth and Movie Maven influence• Social influence related to attendance
  • Future Research• Testing moviegoers response to movie communications & tracking attendance• Tracking word-of-mouth and Movie Maven influence• Social influence related to attendance 42% of moviegoers reported thoughts not specific to the film content but related to going to the movies in general for mostly social reasons.
  • Future Research• Testing moviegoers response to movie communications & tracking attendance• Tracking word-of-mouth and Movie Maven influence• Social influence related to attendance 42% of moviegoers reported thoughts not specific to the film content but related to going to the movies in general for mostly social reasons.• Tracking word-of-mouth and social engagement
  • • Questions? Bill (Dr. William J. Ward) a.k.a. DR4WARD http://www.dr4ward.com/ http://twitter.com/DR4WARD http://www.linkedin.com/in/dr4ward email: dr4ward@me.com