Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Readability of the Top 50 Prescribed Drugs in Wikipedia
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Readability of the Top 50 Prescribed Drugs in Wikipedia

1,450
views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,450
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Note: The sentence that notes the two lowest literacy levels for the 2003 survey is an interpretation referring to the DHHS information. It is a cross reference between the data which suggests that the majority of adult literacy falls in the categories of intermediate, basic, below basic. Here the results of the NAAL study were a combined reference about the two lowest literacy levels using the DHHS categories – not the four categories the NAAL used.
  • ASL is the average sentence length (AVG#words/sentence) and ASW is average syllables per word (AVG#syllables/word).
  • HTML means “HyperText Markup language.” This was a way to preserve the web pages for further analysis later if found to be necessary.
  • In response to the question after the 9-18-09 Med2.0 presentation: The outlier just above ninth reading grade level (FKGL) score is Dyazide. It was only three sentences and was easier to read when compared to the other entries found in Wikipedia. Dyazide is not a good example of an easy to read document. It is simply easier to read than the other 49 drug entries in the sample.
  • HIReA uses an opposite rating scale with regards to the Y-axis. The more negative the number is, the more difficult a document is to read. This suggests that both statistical tools used to measure readability portray similar findings when regarding the sample as a whole.
  • Lexical is synonymous with text unit-length features.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Devin Pelcher, USA
      Medicine 2.0
      Toronto, Canada
      September 18, 2009
    • 2. Devin P. Pelcher, Pharm.D. Candidate
      Nova Southeastern University
      Jennifer Miles, Pharm.D. Candidate
      Nova Southeastern University
      Kevin A. Clauson, Pharm.D.
      Nova Southeastern University
      Qing Zeng-Trietler, Ph.D.
      Harvard Medical School
      SasikiranKandula, M.S.
      Harvard Medical School
      Special thanks to Lisa Ferguson
      and Jennifer Parker
      Authors
    • 3. Introduction
      Use of the internet for finding health related information is increasing
      Survey conducted by Pew Research Center
      74% of American
      adults are currently
      using the internet
      Internet Use
      Respir Care. 2008 Oct;53(10):1310-5.
      Pew Internet & American Life Project. Dec 2008
    • 4. Introduction
      75%
      Internet Use
      use the internet to search for health and medical information
      Pew Internet & American Life Project. Dec 2008
    • 5. Introduction
      Wikipedia is often among the top results returned during internet searches
      User-edited online encyclopedic reference that is freely accessible
      Since 2001
      260 languages
      2.5 millionarticles in
      English
      Professional language may be difficult for lay public to understand
      Wikipedia
      Wikipedia. Apr 2009
    • 6. Introduction
      2003 survey conducted by the NCES
      Majority of adults
      within two lowest
      literacy levels
      DHHS considers information written at:
      NCES: National Center for Education Statistics
      DHHS: Department of Health and Human Services
      Literacy
      4th to 6th
      grade
      easy
      7th to 9th
      grade
      average
      above 9th grade
      difficult
      NCES. Sept 2006
      Respir Care. 2008 Oct;53(10):1310-5.
    • 7. Objective
      Previous research has evaluated readability of various types of
      health-related information
      Informed consent forms, printed journals and other internet sites
      The purpose of
      this study was to
      investigate the
      readability of
      drug information
      in Wikipedia
      Respir Care. 2008 Oct;53(10):1310-5.
      J Community Health. 2005 Jun;30(3):213-9.
      BMJ.1992 Nov 2;305(6864):1263–1264.
    • 8. Methods
      The sample consisted of the top 50 prescribed drugs
      Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL)
      Result is reported as a grade level
      Sample &
      FKGL
      Instrument
      (.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) – 15.59
      SFI Medical. 2008
      Respir Care. 2008 Oct;53(10):1310-5.
    • 9. Methods
      Wikipedia entries saved as HTML files and evaluated in raw text format
      Outcome measure ̶ FKGL of sample Wikipedia entries, reported as descriptive statistics
      The same outcome measure was repeated for HIReA and HIReA extracts
      FKGL
      Testing &
      Outcome
    • 10.
    • 11.
    • 12. Methods
      Text
      unit-length
      features
      # of characters/word,
      # sentences/paragraph,
      # of words/sentences
      HIReA
      Extract
      text features
      (four categories)
      1
      2
      3
      4
      Syntactic
      features
      # of Parts-of-Speeches/sentence
      (e.g., verb, noun, pronoun, etc..)
      Familiarity scores of terms and
      concepts from open access
      collaborative (OAC) consumer
      health vocabulary
      Semantic
      features
      # of overlapping concepts in
      adjacent sentences
      Cohesion
      AMIA AnnuSymp Proc 2008:353-7.
    • 13.
    • 14. Mean grade level of 15.5 is substantially above the reading level considered
      to be difficult
      (9th grade)
      Discussion
      Further analysis is recommended to assess any correlation between word count, grammar/spelling recommendations and FKGL score
      Functionally literate individuals may still lack the skills needed to make adequate health decision
      Individuals with differing literacy levels can access Wikipedia so it may be best to write information at a level that is considered easy to read
      Respir Care. 2008 Oct;53(10):1310-5.
      NNLM. June 2008
    • 15. Discussion
      Only the English version of Wikipedia was tested
      The sample of 50 drugs is a subset and may not be representative of all drugs within Wikipedia
      Words not found in the dictionary may be handled differently when scores are calculated using the same readability tools
      Limitations
    • 16. The reading difficulty of the sample drugs in this study represents a potential barrier to accurate interpretation and comprehension of the drug information presented in Wikipedia
      Conclusion
    • 17. For further information please contact:
      Devin Pelcher, USA
      pelcher@nova.edu
      (Please Reference Med2.0)