Windows & Doors For Wind Borne Debris

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Windows & Doors For Wind Borne Debris

  1. 1. “Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris” CGI Windows & Doors continuing education program for architects. AIA Course Reference: CGI101 This course qualifies for 1.0 LU AIA/CES credits
  2. 2. CGI Windows & Doors is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credits earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non- AIA members available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  3. 3. CGI Windows & Doors   Established in 1994   Founded on basis of developing and manufacturing high end impact-resistant windows and doors   Premier aluminum impact windows and doors   Offering Miami-Dade County impact-resistant windows & doors Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  4. 4. CGI Applications   New & Retrofit Construction   Residential & Light Commercial   Single Family Homes   Multi Family   Condos   Schools / Institutional   Low and mid-rise commercial   Government Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  5. 5. CGI Products   Casement Windows   Single-Hung Windows   ProjectOut   Fix Windows   Custom Windows   French Doors   Sliding Glass Doors All CGI products are Miami-Dade county approved for large and small missiles – NOA’s available on all products Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  6. 6. New From CGI Sliding Glass Door   +120/ -170 PSF Design Load (4’x8’ panels)   +120 / -140 PSF Design Load (4’x10’ panels)   +90 / -90 PSF Design Load (5’x10’ panels)   Minimal covers, snaps & extra parts   Simple frame assembly with a single row of fasteners   Installation ease provides cost saving Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  7. 7. New From CGI Aspen Collection   Wood grain finishes   Blends the warmth of wood with the strength of aluminum   Unique patented wood painting process   Nine Finishes: Honey Pine, Burlwood, Honey Cherry, Chestnut, Cherry, English Oak, Hazelnut Brown, Mahogany Red, Walnut Brown & Cinnamon Red Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  8. 8. CGI Architectural Educational Programs   Architectural Symposiums (3hr AIA CEU)   Bonita Springs – November 16, 2007   Deerfield Beach – March 7, 2008   Tampa/St. Petersburg – June, 2008   Jacksonville – September, 2008   Orlando – December, 2008   AIA Presentations (1hr AIA CEU)   CGI 101 “Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris”   CGI 102 “Glazing Green with Impact Resistance”   CGI 103 “Understanding Wind Loads and Design Pressures” Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  9. 9. Learning Topics Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 1)  Effects of a Hurricane & Building Codes 2)  Approved Products & Critical Components 3)  Product Availability & Design Options Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 9 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  10. 10. Section One Effects of a Hurricane & Building Codes This section will provide background on hurricanes and their effects on buildings and the building codes developed to minimize wind-borne debris damage Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 10 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  11. 11. Most Destructive Hurricanes (Atlantic) section one Note: damages are listed in US Dollars and are not adjusted for inflation Source: www.mthhurricane.com Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 11 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Introduction 2008
  12. 12. Dynamics of a Hurricane section one   High velocity winds create flying debris acting as shooting missiles   Flying debris breaks through windows or doors allowing pressure to build up inside the structure   Rapid changes in both negative and positive wind pressures can cause severe structural damage Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 12 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  13. 13. Maintaining the Building Envelope section one   Walls   Roofs   Louvers   Solid/Glazed Curtain Wall   Windows & Doors   Air   Water   Wind   Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 13 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  14. 14. Code Objective section one The overall objective of building codes developed for intensive hurricane winds and wind-borne debris is to prevent the penetration (or opening) of the envelop of a structure thus minimizing the potential damage to the structure Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 14 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  15. 15. Hurricane Code History section one 1936: Miami requires storm shutters, capable of withstanding a wind pressure of 30 pounds per square foot 1957: South Florid Building Code (SFBC) adopted, storm shutters were no longer required, but if used deflection criteria were established to prevent contact with glass 1994: SFBC revised as a direct reaction to hurricane Andrew, include wind-borne debris adoption (impact, uniform load, cyclic) 1995: SBCCI creates wind-borne debris standard: SSTD 12 (adopted by Palm Beach County, FL) 1996: Texas Department of Insurance creates wind-borne debris standard 2000: International Building Code (IBC & IRC) adopts ASTM E1886 & E1996 (wind-borne debris test standard) 2001: Florida Building Code (FBC) replaces SBCCI and includes wind-borne debris standards for the state of Florida – HVHZ replace SFBC 2004: FBC internal pressure design option eliminated from code 2007: FBC amendment to Florida pan handle Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 15 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  16. 16. Current Code Status section one   2006, IBC – ASTM E1886 & E1996   State adoption of I-Codes with wind-borne debris protection   FL, GA, MS, LA, TX, SC, NC, CT, MA, VA, NY, RI   NC 1,500 feet from water   TX in areas with building deportments or TDI program   MA 1 mile from water, not including Boston   RI 1 mile from water   CT 6 coastal counties   Alabama, legislation pending to increase   Missing States: New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 16 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  17. 17. Key Influences section one   Insurance Industry   Government Bodies   Building Associations   Architects/Engineers   Hurricane Activity Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 17 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  18. 18. Wind-Borne Debris Standards section one   Wind-borne debris requirements are defined by missile level and wind zone (building height and location)   Wind-borne debris requirements are only applicable where mandated by local or regional building codes   It is up to the architect to determine the right product performance and code approval for the project. Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 18 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  19. 19. Wind Zones section one Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 19 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  20. 20. Wind Zones & Missile Types section one Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 20 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  21. 21. Wind Zones section one Designing Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & for Impact 21 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Section Two 2008
  22. 22. Impact Missile Requirements section one Missile Missile Impact Speed Typical Use Level feet/sec (mph) A 2 gram steel ball 130 (89) Above 30 ft Wind Zone 1 through 4 B 2 lb. Lumber 50 (34) Skylights < 30 ft. Wind Zone 2 (Basic) C 4.5 lb. Lumber 40 (27) Less than 30 ft. Wind Zone 1 & 2 (Basic) D 9 lb. Lumber 50 (34) Less than 30 ft. Wind Zone 3 & 4 (Basic) Wind Zone 1 & 2 (Enhanced) E 9 lb. Lumber 80 (55) Less than 30 ft. Wind Zone 3 & 4 (Enhanced) Wind Zone 1 – 110mph Wind Zone 2 – 120mph Wind Zone 3 – 130mph Wind Zone 4 – 140mph Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 22 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  23. 23. Small & Large Missile Requirements section one Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 23 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  24. 24. Cyclical Pressure Testing section one   Designed to simulate the positive and negative pressures caused by a hurricane   Determines the maximum positive and negative design pressures of each approved window and door system   9,000 total cycles with 3 seconds per cycle of design pressure   Cycling occurs after impact Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 24 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  25. 25. Cyclic Static Air Pressure Loading section one 9,000 total Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 25 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  26. 26. Critical Elements section one   Size and type of glass   Framing components and design   Thickness of extrusions   Method of anchoring the glass   Type and location of fasteners   Type and thickness of interlayer (missile dependant)   Glass can not be punctured upon impact   Glass must remain in framing after impact and cycling Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  27. 27. Certification Process section one   Must be tested in certified test laboratory   Engineering witness and review   Proper labeling of the glass   Three identical units must past   Test results, applications, and check submitted to Dade County Product Control Division for Notice of Acceptance (NOA) Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 27 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  28. 28. Industry Facts section one   South Florida leads the nation in addressing hurricane protection & building codes   Miami-Dade County & Broward County were the first to adopt building codes that mandate impact resistant shutters or impact resistant glazing   South Florida is the only region in the world to adopt provisions expanding impact resistant construction to the entire building envelope Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 28 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  29. 29. Section Two Approved Products & Critical Components This section will review glazing products that meet the various code requirements and the critical components used in those systems Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 29 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  30. 30. Code Approved Products section two Glazed openings must be protected   Impact-resistant panels or plywood   Impact-resistant shutters   Impact-resistant glazing system Windows30 Doors for Wind-Borne Debris & Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  31. 31. System Approval section two Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 31 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  32. 32. Critical Glazing Components section two   Glass   Structural Sealant   Gaskets   Fasteners (assembly and installation)   Hardware   Frame material (aluminum, wood or PVC) Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  33. 33. Impact-Resistant Glass section two   One of the most critical components   Various options based on price and performance   Glass may break, but must maintain it’s integrity after impact Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  34. 34. Impact-Resistant Glass CYCLING EFFECTS section two Polycarb Glass Stormglass, Saflex HP Saflex® 90g (PVB) Clad PET’s & SGP <5” 4” to 8” 8” to 14” 10” to 20” <13cm 10 to 20cm 10 to 35cm 25 to 50cm Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  35. 35. Impact-Resistant Glass STRUCTURAL BOND section two Glass wants to pull out of frame Positive/negative pressures from cycling 50 to 200+ PSF Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 35 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  36. 36. Hardware section two   Info   Info   info Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 36 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  37. 37. Common Locking Hardware Types section two   Single Lock   Single action multipoint locking systems (one operation activates several locks)   Multi step locking system (more than one action required to activate two or more locking points   Self closing locks (locks that engage automatically when product is closed) Many options and strengths available in each type. While a self closing lock may work great for a window, you would not want it on a door. Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 37 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  38. 38. Framing Member Construction and Installation Fasteners section two Corner Assembly of Framing Members   Aluminum Products- usually secured with sheet metal screws (SMS) ranging in sizes from #8 to #14 x specific lengths. Some products may be weld or crimped.   Wood Product- Coped/Notched wood secured with nails, staples, screws or glue   PVC- Generally fusion weld Common Installation Fasteners (please format)   Into masonry- Concrete anchors in diameters from 3/16” to 5/16”  Into wood- Sheet metal screws, lag bolts or even concrete anchors (will thread into wood)  Into metal- Sheet metal screws or self-drilling screws (such as a Tek screw) Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  39. 39. Fasteners section two   Info   Info   info Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  40. 40. Window and Door Frames section two   Aluminum – durable and strong. Maintains structural characteristics.   Wood – Traditional and good thermal performance. Not as strong as aluminum and degrades in humid climates. Often clad in PVC or Aluminum on exterior.   PVC – Maintenance free and good thermal performance. May require internal reinforcing and could be adversely effected by UV in certain climates.   Fiberglass- new to market Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  41. 41. Glass Attachment Methods (referred to as “GLAZING”) section two   Wet Glazing A method of securing glass in a frame that uses sealants (often 100% silicone) or glazing compounds instead of preformed, resilient gaskets   Dry Glazing A method of securing glass in a frame that uses preformed, resilient gaskets instead of a wet sealant or glazing compound.   Wet/Dry Combination Glazing A method that combines some sort of Wet and Dry Glazing   Marine Glazing A dry glazing method where the framing member is build around the glass using a channel gasket. Glass replacement requires the framing member to be disassembled. Most common on operable windows and doors for the panels or sash.   Inside Glazed A method in which glass is replaceable from inside the building Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  42. 42. Aluminum Extrusions section two   Info   Info   info Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  43. 43. Details section two   Info   Info   info Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  44. 44. Section Three Product Availability & Design Options This section will review the various design and product options available to architects and owners. Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 44 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  45. 45. What to consider when selecting an impact system for a project   Select a system that uses framing materials that are appropriate for your geographical zone   Check the performance rating of the product you are considering. Impact resistant products are rated based on + & - PSF (positive & negative pounds per square foot). The higher the PSF the better.   There are small missile and large missile rated products. Large missile can be used to satisfy small missile, but small missile will not satisfy large missile requirements. Small missile easier to pass.   Try to avoid systems that require reinforcing to meet the minimum standard. This indicates a poorly designed system.   Systems may require reinforcing for very large units or at very high PSF and that’s acceptable, but avoid carbon steel reinforcing that can rust (non- magnetic stainless steel reinforcing is fine).   A system capable of high PSF ratings without any reinforcing is better. Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  46. 46. What is important for a successful impact system   Good glass bite on frame (dry systems require more bite than a wet system with a good bond)   Frame material that is strong enough to resist the effects of 9,000 cycles after the glass has been impacted   Strong corner connections on frames   Frame materials that won’t deteriorate or lose significant strength due to climate conditions   Systems designed for impact from the start are generally better than older non-impact systems adapted for impact resistance Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  47. 47. Product Options section three Active Glazing Options   Plywood that meets Code specifications   Code approved screens   Code approved storm panels   Code approved shutters Passive Glazing Options   Code approved impact-resistant windows & doors   Wood   Aluminum Clad   Aluminum   Vinyl   Fiberglass Designing Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & for Impact 47 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Section Three 2008
  48. 48. Windows & Door Materials section three   Aluminum   Wood with Aluminum Exterior Clad   Wood   Vinyl   Fiberglass Design performance will vary dramatically by manufacturers Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 48 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  49. 49. Window & Door Types section three   Casement Window   Single-Hung Window   Fix/Picture Window   Project Out Windows   Sliding Windows   French Doors   Sliding Glass Doors No longer limited in design choices Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 49 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  50. 50. Product Characteristics section three   High Design Loads   Limited Glazing Size   Limited Overall Size   Extremely Heavy   More Expensive   Higher Quality All impact products are not created equal! Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 50 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  51. 51. Quality Characteristics section three   PVB Laminated Glass (90g)   Strong Glass Bite (wet glazed with Silicone)   Thicker Extrusions (higher design pressures)   Stainless Steel Hardware (longer life)   Quality Vendors on Hardware (longer life)   Extruded Screens Small details make a big difference Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 51 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  52. 52. Product Limitations section three Aluminum impact-resistant windows typically give designers the greatest selection in product selection, glass size and design pressures offering the largest glazed openings and the highest design pressures compared to wood, vinyl and fiberglass Designing Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & for Impact 52 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Section Three 2008
  53. 53. Performance Charts section three Example: manufacturers performance charts Designing Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & for Impact 53 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Section Three 2008
  54. 54. Product Selection section three Example: manufacturers specification sheet Designing Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & for Impact 54 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Section Three 2008
  55. 55. Critical Design Elements section three   Physical location of structure   Type of windows/door (aluminum, wood, vinyl)   Overall window/door size   Missile approval (large or small)   Design pressures (to meet local requirements)   Product code approval meets project specifications   Produce design & aesthetics Designing Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & for Impact 55 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Section Three 2008
  56. 56. Notice of Acceptance section three   There should be an NOA prior to specifying a product   The NOA provides all the critical performance data   All NOA’s are accessible on-line at www.miamidade.gov/buildingcode   Confirm the promised performance with the approved NOA   Check on the expiration date Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 56 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  57. 57. Installation Conditions section three Example: manufacturers installation specifications Designing Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & for Impact 57 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Section Three 2008
  58. 58. Buyer (architect) Beware section three   Confirm the companies promise on product availability and performance   Request a copy of the Notice of Acceptance (NOA)   Make sure the product is approved for impact   Check size and design pressures   Make sure it meets the proper NOTE: we may change this slide to top 10 list impact requirement (large versus small) Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 58 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  59. 59. Exceeding the Requirements section three   Building codes are minimum requirements   Info NOTE: idea is to survey industry experts   Info (Paul B., John K, Vinu A.) and get their   Info comments/perspective on exceeding requirements Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 59 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  60. 60. Details and Terminology section two   Muntins- are members that divides a glass pane within a window or door. In the past they were structural members which required many small panes to be used, but current codes (due to higher performance requirement) have done away with most true muntins. Today they are commonly surface applied on one or both sides. May be contoured (pictured) or flat. In the kitchen cabinet industry, these are referred to as mullions.   Glazing Beads/Glazing Stops- the member that holds the glass in place from one side and is removable.   Mullions- Members used to structurally support windows and/or doors when being joined together. Some products have build in structural members that serve the same purpose as a mullion, but generally at lesser performance level. Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  61. 61. Section One Summary summary Effects of a hurricane & building codes   Summary point1   Summary point 2   Summary point 3   Summary point 4 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 61 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  62. 62. Section Two Summary summary Approved products & critical components   Summary point 1   Summary point 2   Summary point 3   Summary point 4 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 62 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  63. 63. Section Three Summary summary Product availability & design options   Summary point 1   Summary point 2   Summary point 3   Summary point 4 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 63 Windows & Doors for Wind-Borne Debris 2008
  64. 64. THANK YOU Len Quist CGI Marketing Director For additional information on CGI visit: www.cgiwindows.com

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