Slides for BIM Strategy: Leverage Your Business for Profit and Growth A 4-part webinar series . Seminar organized by Patti Wysocki&quot; < [email_address] > ____________________________ Today, people in diverse industries are talking about faceted classification, parametric indexing and search, and web services. Some industries, such as the airlines and web services like Expedia – already use faceted classification systems. Parametric indexing and search are already working. Anyone can use these services without expertise about airplanes, airport locations, wind speed and so forth. This is not true for the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry. Faceted classification systems such as OmniClass are being developed by experts for experts – there is no one bigger picture to show the basic geometry and relationships between entities like this mathematical shape by Woobius scribbles, a collaboration between architects and technologists. Today, there is still a fence between architects and technologists when it comes to BIM specifications, parametric indexing, search and the web services to support that. Ideally soon, basic knowledge about common geometries, and shared properties can help to streamline similar efforts to allow both kinds of architecture, building and database, to develop a common framework at least.
As discussed already by Mark Kalin and John McCaffrey, CSI, SCIP and other organizations have worked through 3 classifications for the AEC industry to meet most user needs from concept to occupancy. These 3 systems: UniFormat MasterFormat OmniClass All have their own histories and stories, have evolved at their own pace and occasionally can work together like a machine, or gears like this graphic shows In reality though, unlike these gears, changes to UniFormat do not affect the workings of MasterFormat or so on up the line to reach OmniClass
Lets talk about the benefits and unique characteristics of each classification system UniFormat is perfect for a request for proposal Its an organized way for large owners like government organizations to define consistent levels of performance for all of their facilities UniFormat is perfect for concept and schematic design Blocking out zones At the end of the process when a facility is occupied, UniFormat, larger assemblies and zones are once again ideal for large scale information sharing Basic communication with local building authorities and so on. The Specifiers Property Sets project Mark Kalin spoke about earlier is a premier example of getting UniFormat and MasterFormat to work together reliably.
MasterFormat was my first love. The overall numbering pattern, consistent internal structure of Section Format parts, and tone of the language are beauty itself. The leap in complexity from UniFormat for planning and sharing to MasterFormat for construction documents and technical libraries is significant. MasterFormat is clearly the right place, and level of detail for sustainable design information to live. And to use as a consistent framework for new ideas like the barcodes John McCaffrey introduced.
Until at last we reach OmniClass The MacDaddy of all AEC Classifications so far. Each table, class, and subclass be a lifelong pursuit in themselves. Where OmniClass really starts to get exciting is where tables can combine The delimiters shown on the left are rarely used but certainly seem like any one product, space, or facility could be tagged up to infinity. Imagine the power precise parameters could have for a fire department, or HVAC manufacturer - or communications between fire departments, HVAC manufacturers, and mechanical engineers? It is unlikely regular people will be able to quickly recognize and use the numbers and delimiters as easily as the words. The challenge today however is still – to define the preferred sets of terminology and quit reinventing the wheel. UniFormat and MasterFormat are already built into OmniClass – within some number of years or cycles – the 3 should really work together with minimal redundancy.
To wrap this comparison up – look at any one simple item – in this case a brick. All of the potential data about this object has ways of being reported out using all 3 classification systems UniFormat – Costs for example – if the numbers are coming in too high, perhaps a different construction method could be compared. Once the elements can be broken into the proper chunks, huge savings could be realized by changing from brick cavity wall to other materials while preserving other important parts of the design. UniFormat provides a mechanism to break a project into discrete, large, consistent assemblies to tweak the overall. MasterFormat – Construction Schedule for example – at this point the quantity and types of products are very precise. The sequence of installation, testing and other parameters all impact the schedule, which impacts the price, which impacts the success and profitability of the project. Once the facility is occupied, systems like COBIE are essential for being able to dig back into these fast-paced intensive records to capture the data only once, get and retain only those parts you need. For example, a particular air handling unit. If no longer available, then the performance requirements for that in either UniFormat or MasterFormat to identify an acceptable alternative. Time and Money have always been classic drivers of Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner, Operator Projects. There is not yet a similar, practical way of reporting a long, multifaceted classification from OmniClass to have the same utility, day in and day out, for any and every project, the same way one simple facet like costs, or sequence and timing can be reported. This is the next challenge for the whole industry – what do we even want to use multi-faceted classification for? What web services are needed?
Assuming this could all be figured out some day – there are still a number of basic challenges to overcome. Challenges that are no longer unique to building buildings. Solutions to many of these issues are already addressed in other industries such as the normalization of namespaces, the use of XML, explaining what different variations of words mean to a computer. We can’t really get into a truly parametric indexing and search situation, like a washing machine on the left, or coordinate points on the right, without getting the basic knowledge into machine readable form. At some point, there is a limit to the number of materials, concepts, processes and combinations. There are a number of repeated elements and steps in the execution of any building design, construction and operation processes.
This issue is talking to machines and networks. Every aspect needs to be defined. The example shown here is Revit Families and the nesting concept. There is no universal consensus on the parameters, values, and formulas yet. The software will let you define whatever you want. BIM managers need to be geniuses. There is currently no way to import attributes and properties en masse at the organization or individual use level. We depend on the software companies to build-in. Which is actually working.
But it needs to work like this, more continuously. There needs to be more consistent ways to connect something like Revit families, “out of the box” and custom parameters in software, to consensus properties such as the upcoming Table 49 and SPIE projects. The connections themselves need work or at least a demonstration for going from here to here to here From a variety of individual user, stakeholder perspectives and the cold hearted, no-nonsense, nonjudgemental point of view machines and networks
The best example so far of mapping between standards and formats To achieve interoperability from 50,000 feet high to the most intricate level of detail is Onuma Planning System. A COBIE workflow is shown here – from Excel and bubble diagrams that could use UniFormat – to adding equipment and more detail, beginning to capture the data once which could translate into MasterFormat and construction documents, and onwards into the AEC stratosphere All of these files need to be resolved – and exported – into something cleaner like COBIE and the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) Using a consistent serialization process like XML to find things Then ending up as a BIM anyone can read from the perspective of an Owner, to a manufacturer, architect, project manager. On the people side, there will always be a number of pressing, simultaneous factors that all need to work together before standards, serializations, classifications etc can even be applied. For example, at this point there are still a number of lifecycle issues that need to be pinned down. Does this information belong in OmniClass? Is there a workflow diagram of what is nested in what to get from here to there?
These exchanges can’t occur without metadata The simplest explanation is XML is like laying out consistent coordinates and points Better metadata systems try to connect these as efficiently as possible 80 4-point near-alignments of 137 random points
Ontologies are exhaustive endeavors to define these efficient routes On the left here is an interesting study from Stanford looking at the supply chain Where OmniClass Table 22 (aka MasterFormat) is matched up to IfcXML, the furthermore compared to building codes. Because each building is a site specific installation, there will always be a limit to large scale indexing and search. There will always be a limit to the tasks that can be automated versus the tasks that require a thinking person However, to allow more time to be spent on thinking and designing - semantic web ontologies, multi-agent systems and web services like the example on the right can help reduce the number of repetitive tasks. Narrow down all the available options to only those which work for a particular conditions
The simplest mistakes can derail the process Even if the world of construction and life cycle data was cohesive and organized The smallest markup errors, such as extra commas, can confound the search process The more standards that can be used, the less fat-finger data entry, the more pre-selections that can be done, The more modular interrelated parts can be – Will all lead to more satisfying results and better web services
The reason this needs to be done is not just for the AEC industry, or needs of a specification writer such as myself All standards development organizations need this, for example NEMA manufacturers can agree on the preferred name of an electrical panel, everyone should use that. Currently there is not one place or master wikipedia to store these discussions and candidates Shape representation here means all buildings, all maps, all products and how they fit together regardless of manufacturer or name Manufacturers, libraries, publishers are tied together in one related group for researchers, students, and purchasers Sustainable design is a host of issues in their own right that have a long term point of view that is unlike many current AEC problem solving projects Open exchange and the semantic web have their own requirements Emergency exchanges and clean data for fire departments as an example – see the Open Floor Plan Display project – have a very short list of things needed from a BIM or set of BIM specifications Tying building models down to the geospatial data has huge potential for everyone Then the impact to building codes, for safety sustainability and regional differences – All of these need BIM specifications to work together better, more consistently
Using BIM Specifications for Parametric Indexing, Search, and Web Services Parametric design revolves around a basic knowledge of geometry and relationships between entities. These properties can then be altered, giving different outcomes of form. Woobius Scribbles Bob Leung (architect), Daniel Tenner (technologist), And the Masked Architect 1 Deborah MacPherson Specifications and Research, Cannon Design
Specs are a combination of UniFormat, MasterFormat, and OmniClass 2
A1010 Standard Foundations 1 Performance a Basic Function: i Provide standard foundations as required to support the completed and occupied building safely and without uncontrolled subsidence or other movement. ii Standard foundations comprise the following elements: • Spread footings below columns and piers. • Continuous footings below walls. • Foundation walls not a part of basements. • Caisson caps. iii Where standard foundations are integral with elements defined within another element group, meet requirements of both element groups. iv Provide frost protection for foundations in accordance with UFC 3-310-01. 2 Products a Do not use any of the following: i Wood foundation systems. ii Masonry footings. b Cast-in-Place concrete materials, installation, etc. shall be in accordance with UFGS specification 03 31 00.00 10, Cast-in-Place Structural Concrete. Whitby Mental Health Centre UniFormat 3
Structural Performance Characteristics: As follows:
Provide gypsum board shaft-wall assemblies for horizontal duct enclosures capable of spanning distances indicated within the deflection limits indicated.
Product Data: For each gypsum board shaft-wall assembly specified.
Fire-Test-Response Reports: From a qualified independent testing and inspecting agency substantiating each gypsum board shaft-wall assembly’s required fire-resistance rating.
Product Data for Credit MR 4.1: For products having recycled content, documentation indicating percentages by weight of postconsumer and preconsumer recycled content. Include statement indicating costs for each product having recycled content.
Documentation for for Credit MR5: Materials shall be extracted, harvested and manufactured regionally within a radius of 800 km (500 miles) of the project site. Provide documentation identifying the location of manufacture, extraction and harvest of materials provided under this section.
Source Limitations: Obtain components for each gypsum board shaft-wall assembly indicated through one source from a single manufacturer.
Fire-Resistance-Rated Assemblies: Provide gypsum board shaft-wall assemblies as follows:
Assemblies comply with requirements of fire-response-tested assemblies indicated by GA File Numbers in GA-600, “Fire Resistance Design Manual”; or design designations in UL’s “Fire Resistance Directory” or certification listings of Warnock Hersey or another testing and inspecting agency acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction.
OmniClass 11-17 11/11-17 24 Office and Retail Facilities 11-17 11 11 An office building which is headquarters for an organization 21-51 51 00+13-15 11 34 11 Climate control system (HVAC) Products for office spaces 13-15 11 34 11<11-13 24 11 An office space which is part of a hospital 5
21-51 51 00+13-15 11 34 11> 11-13 24 11 Capital Construction Consultants Inc link GSA Format Estimate Report, Any New K-12 School, by Kisent link 6 Data about the same things can be reported different ways
Normalization of Facility, Space, and Product Type Namespaces Lab is-a Laboratory Brick Is-part-of Exterior Enclosure Load Bearing Wall Hospital is Use Group I-2 Site is in XYZ Jurisdiction. Design Criteria Are: Wind Speed 85 mph (3 second gust) Wind Exposure Site 'Swoosh' pavilion swoops into view Architectural Association, London link Kort for hovedet link 7
Attributes and Properties Simplifying the Creation of Revit Families by Nesting AECbytes link 8
Connecting Attributes and Properties Simplifying the Creation of Revit Families by Nesting AECbytes link 9
Mapping between Standards and Formats phases. Figure 3. Mapping GERA Lifecycle and TOGAF ADM Phases Analyzing The Open Group Architecture Framework from the GERAM Perspective Pallab Saha [ link ] Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE) Workflow Onuma Planning System [ link] 10
Role of Metadata 80 4-point near-alignments of 137 random points link Medical Asset Metadata Standard, Health Education Assets Library (HEAL) link 11
Role of Ontology 12 BOUN MultiAgentSystems Research Group Link Stanford Interoperability and Supply Chain Test Case: Mapping Between OmniClass and IfcXML Link
Avoiding Markup Disasters Snow.com niklas elmqvist | phd thesis 3D Occlusion Management and Causality Visualization link Rise Interactive, Keyword Builder link 13
Variety of Stakeholder Needs 14 BIM specifications Sustainable Design Emergency Shape Representation Manufacturers Libraries Publishers Standards Development Building Codes Open Geospatial