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Open Source Culture and Transdisciplinary Practice

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  • 1. Open  Source  Culture   Transdisciplinary  Prac5ce    
  • 2.  Open  Source  ~  Openness.   Contrary  to  the  more  narrow  term  Free   So/ware,  Open  Source  seems  be;er  suited  to   label  a  general  collabora4ve  approach  not   limited  to  code.     Felix  Stalder   OPEN  SOURCE  INTELLIGENCE  (v1.2)  
  • 3. “Open  source  is  an  experiment  in  building  a  poli5cal   economy  –  that  is,  a  system  of  sustainable  value   crea4on  and  a  set  of  governance  mechanism.    In  this  case  it  is  a  governance  system  that  holds   together  a  community  of  producers  around  this   counterintui5ve  no5on  of  property  rights  as   distribu5on.”    (Weber,  2004  p.1)   Open  Source  –  Poli4cal  Economy        
  • 4. “It  is  also  a  poli5cal  economy  taps  into  a  broad  range  of   human  mo5va5ons  and  relies  on  a  crea5ve    and   evolving  set  of  organiza5onal  structures  to   coordinate  behavior.”    (Weber,  2004  p.1)   Open  Source  –  Poli4cal  Economy        
  • 5. Open  source  doesn't  just  mean  access  to  the  source   code.    The  distribu5on  terms  of  open-­‐source  soPware  must   comply  with  the  following  criteria:   h;p://www.opensource.org/docs/osd   Open  Source  –  Legal  Aspects/Licensing        
  • 6. 1.  Free  Redistribu4on    The  license  shall  not  restrict  any  party  from  selling  or   giving  away  the  soPware  as  a  component  of  an   aggregate  soPware  distribu5on  containing  programs   from  several  different  sources.  The  license  shall  not   require  a  royalty  or  other  fee  for  such  sale.  
  • 7.  2.  Source  Code    The  program  must  include  source  code,  and  must  allow  distribu5on  in   source  code  as  well  as  compiled  form.     The  source  code  must  be  the  preferred  form  in  which  a  programmer  would   modify  the  program.     Deliberately  obfuscated  source  code  is  not  allowed.    
  • 8.  3.  Derived  Works   The  license  must  allow  modifica5ons  and  derived   works,  and  must  allow  them  to  be  distributed  under   the  same  terms  as  the  license  of  the  original   soPware.  
  • 9.  4.  Integrity  of  The  Author's  Source  Code    The  license  may  restrict  source-­‐code  from   being  distributed  in  modified  form  only  if  the   license  allows  the  distribu5on  of  "patch  files"   with  the  source  code  for  the  purpose  of   modifying  the  program  at  build  5me.    
  • 10. •    5.  No  Discrimina4on  Against  Persons  or  Groups    The  license  must  not  discriminate  against  any   person  or  group  of  persons.   Some  countries,  including  the  United  States,   have  export  restric5ons  for  certain  types  of   soPware  
  • 11.  6.  No  Discrimina4on  Against  Fields  of  Endeavor    The  license  must  not  restrict  anyone  from  making  use   of  the  program  in  a  specific  field  of  endeavor.  For   example,  it  may  not  restrict  the  program  from  being   used  in  a  business,  or  from  being  used  for  gene5c   research.  
  • 12.  7.  Distribu4on  of  License   •  The  rights  a;ached  to  the  program  must  apply  to  all   to  whom  the  program  is  redistributed  without  the   need  for  execu5on  of  an  addi5onal  license  by  those   par5es.  
  • 13.  8.  License  Must  Not  Be  Specific  to  a  Product   •  The  rights  a;ached  to  the  program  must  not   depend  on  the  program's  being  part  of  a   par5cular  soPware  distribu5on.     .  
  • 14.  9.  License  Must  Not  Restrict  Other  So/ware   The  license  must  not  place  restric5ons  on  other   soPware  that  is  distributed  along  with  the   licensed  soPware.  For  example,  the  license  must   not  insist  that  all  other  programs  distributed  on   the  same  medium  must  be  open-­‐source   soPware.  
  • 15.  10.  License  Must  Be  Technology-­‐Neutral  
  • 16. What  is  the  impact  of  open  source?    Open  source  provides  the  compe55ve   advantage  in  the  Internet  Age.    The  Cathedral  and  the  Bazaar:  Musings  on  Linux  and  Open  Source  by  an  Accidental  Revolu4onary    Authors:  Eric  S.  Raymond  
  • 17. Case  Study:  Linux    The  word  Linux  is  generally  used  to  describe  an  Open  Source   computer  Opera.ng  System  based  on  the  Linux  Kernel  that   typically  forms  the  basis  for  free  alterna5ves  to  Microso5   Windows  or  offerings  from  Apple  computers.  
  • 18. •  Linux  is  the  first  truly  free  Unix-­‐like  opera5ng  system.   •  Linus  Torvalds  invented  Linux  itself.  In  1991,  Torvalds  was  a   student  at  the  University  of  Helsinki  in  Finland  where  he  had   been  using  Minix,  a  non-­‐free  Unix-­‐like  system,  and  began   wri5ng  his  own  kernel.  This  kernel,  which  is  called  Linux,  was   aPerwards  combined  with  the  GNU  system  to  produce  a   complete  free  opera5ng  system.    
  • 19. Linux  Community     The  largest  part  of  the  work  on  Linux  is  performed  by  the   community:  the  thousands  of  programmers  around  the  world   that  use  Linux  and  send  their  suggested  improvements  to  the   maintainers.     Various  companies  have  also  helped  not  only  with  the   development  of  the  Kernels,  but  also  with  the  wri5ng  of  the   body  of  auxiliary  soPware,  which  is  distributed  with  Linux.  
  • 20. Processing  /  Adriano  Communi5es     •  Arduino  is  an  open-­‐source  electronics  prototyping  plagorm  based   on  flexible,  easy-­‐to-­‐use  hardware  and  soPware.  It's  intended  for   ar5sts,  designers,  hobbyists,  and  anyone  interested  in  crea5ng   interac5ve  objects  or  environments.      h;p://www.arduino.cc    The  microcontroller  on  the  board  is  programmed  using  the   Arduino  programming  language  (based  on  Wiring)  and  the  Arduino   development  environment  (based  on  Processing).   •  Processing  is  a  programming  language,  development  environment,   and  online  community  that  since  2001  has  promoted  soPware   literacy  within  the  visual  arts.  Ini5ally  created  to  serve  as  a  soPware   sketchbook  and  to  teach  fundamentals  of  computer  programming   within  a  visual  context,  Processing  quickly  developed  into  a  tool  for   crea5ng  finished  professional  work  as  well.      h;p://processing.org/    h;p://www.openprocessing.org/  
  • 21. Open  Source  Culture     Impact  and  Cultural  Implica5ons  of  Open  Source   License/Distribu5on/Community    
  • 22. Open  Source  Culture     •  Accessibility:     Technological  Freedom   Ar5s5c  Freedom   •  Social  Implica5ons     New  Type  of  Community     Underground  Movements   New  type  of  prac55oner  
  • 23. Brainstorming   Crea4ve  Prac4ces  +  Open  Source   Benefits/Disadvantage    of  Open  Source  License/Distribu5on/Community/ Culture  
  • 24. Other  significant  Aspect  of  Contemporary   Prac5ce:   In-­‐Between  Disciplines   For  Example:  Art  –  Design  -­‐  Science  -­‐  Technology  
  • 25. Interdisciplinarity   •  For  the  Canadian  Ins5tutes  of  Health  Research  (CIHR,  2005):   Interdisciplinary  is  defined  as  the  ability  to  analyze,  synthesize  and  harmonize  links  between   disciplines  into  a  coordinated  and  coherent  whole.   •      •  Mansilla  and  Gardner  (2005)  state:   In  this  study  we  defined  “interdisciplinary  work”  as  work  that  integrates  knowledge  and  modes  of   thinking  from  two  or  more  disciplines.  Such  work  embraces  the  goal  of  advancing   understanding  (e.g.,  explain  phenomena,  craP  solu5ons,  raise  new  ques5ons)     •  in  ways  that  would  have  not  been  possible  through  single  disciplinary  means.   •  The  Idaho  State  Board  of  Educa5on  (2002)  note:   In  spanning  mul5ple  disciplines,  interdisciplinary  programs  by  their  very  nature   reach  across  the  tradi5onal  boundaries  of  colleges  and  departments.  In  this  context,   interdisciplinary  is  defined  as  meaning  University-­‐wide,  or  programs  involving  faculty  from   more  than  two  colleges  where  no  single  college  has  a  majority  of  the  curriculum  or  faculty.    
  • 26. Interdisciplinarity   Mul5disciplinarity   •  Natural  Sciences  and  Engineering  Research  Council  of  Canada  (undated)  states,   pragma5cally,  that:    A  simple  defini5on  of  interdisciplinary  research  is  “research  that  involves  the   interac5on  among  two  or  more  different  disciplines”.  This  may  range  from  the   sharing  of  ideas  to  full  integra5on  of  concepts,  methodology,  procedures,  theory,   terminology,  data  and  organiza5on  of  research  and  training  in  a  fairly  large  field.    Mul4disciplinary  research  draws  on  knowledge  from  different  disciplines  but  stays   within  the  boundaries  of  those  fields.  In  this  document,  ‘interdisciplinary’  is  used   to  refer  to  both  types  of  research  that  may  be  conducted  by  individual  researchers   as  well  as  groups.  For  administra5ve  purposes,  NSERC  defines  interdisciplinary   grant  applica5ons  as  those  that  require  the  selec5on  of  referees  from  more  than   one  discipline,  the  establishment  of  a  review  panel  with  members  from  more  than   one  discipline,  or  the  exper5se  of  more  than  one  selec5on  commi;ee  or  panel  in   the  peer  review  process.    
  • 27. Transdisciplinarity   •  ‘…transdisciplinarity  concerns  that  which  is  at  once   between  the  disciplines,  across  the  different   disciplines,  and  beyond  all  discipline.  Its  goal  is  the   understanding  of  the  present  world  ,  of  which  one  of   the  impera5ves  is  the  unity  of  knowledge.’    (Nicolescu  1997,  np.)  
  • 28. Open  Access  Dynamic  Archive:  Media  Art  Tube    
  • 29. Other  Readings   •  The  simple  Economics  of  Open  Source  Economics     h;p://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download? doi=10.1.1.145.3577&rep=rep1&type=pdf   •  Steve  Weber:  The  Success  of  Open  Source   Eric  S.  Raymond:  The  Cathedral  and  the  Bazaar:  Musings  on   Linux  and  Open  Source  by  an  Accidental  Revolu4onary