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Behavioral changes observed in the acute phase include:
Restlessness, agitation, tremor, dyskinesia, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors such as picking at the skin or foraging for drugs ("punding," "hung-up activity") (Rosse et al, 1993).
Physiological effects observed in this stage include:
Tachycardia, pupil dilation, diaphoresis, and nausea, all reflecting stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
Animal research has shown that repeated exposure to cocaine depletes glutamate levels in brain regions associated with development of dependence and addiction, and that increasing glutamate concentrations will block reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in rats—a model of relapse to drug abuse in humans (Dackis et al, 2005).