User Types in Service Design


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Our presentation to the World Usability Day 2012 Conference at the Department of Immigration and Citize

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  • JUSTINHi everyone.We are Justin Barrie and Mel Edwards from Service Design Consultancy – DMA.Our presentation today is designed to help you understand our world of service design and how it relates to usability. We’re going to do that through a presentation about one of our fundamental service design tools – user typologies.And user typologies – frameworks that describe different types of users at a high level – as a springboard for understanding and designing for the variables of real user experience.We are service designers with a background in both the private and public sectors who have spent the last decade using service design as a way to make a difference…
  • But first, just a quick check in on what we mean when we say service design, as on a day like today you will hear from a range of different disciplines – and service design is a discipline, not just a buzz word!
  • We use the following definition of service design.And let’s be clear that service design is not customer service: ‘Customer service is important to me, but it doesn’t drive my loyalty. How you help to meet my need drives my loyalty.’‘customer service’ is - what you do for customers who need help and ‘service’ is -how you meet their needBusiness effectiveness comes from the latter and not from the former. If all your customer experience work is focused on providing great customer service, you’ll have an efficient service but it’ll never be effective at achieving truly great experiences.We are dealing with designing for the needs of humans using a service, not Actors moving through a system.
  • There are customers who have goals
  • There are touchpoints – channels – interactions
  • There are paths to reach those goals based on the trigger for the customer to want to achieve that goal, and the pathway they take is based on their life circumstance, their access to channels, devices.We, as service designers, craft the system touchpoints, support, strategy, infrastructure, process, so that the quality of the experience means they satisfy their goals and they want more. The value of the service is as much about the quality of the experience for all the people involved (customer, service provider) as it is about the resolution.So what’s a government service like?
  • It’s basically the same.  However what underlies the experience and delivery is different. As is the reason that service exists. Choice - social outcomesThere is only one organisation that collects taxWhere else do you go to receive a benefit or access an entitlement? Delivery - Noisier than other servicesMultiple agencies and even non-for-profits may play a role depending on the need, or on the legislated outcomeBreadth of users means it has to be designed to cater often for every citizen, or every user, or every potential user Compliance - More demanding on usersWhen you fill out a form often there is legislation behind particular pieces of information sought. In fact, even filling out the form may be a form of law abiding! – those who flew in from outside of Australia will be familiar with that.It’s about participation and engaging people – whether they want to or not – for example there’s a reason why someone has to report to a branch regularly to receive a new start allowance.Compliance is all about public perception – because if people don’t comply it gives them an advantage over everyone else – how would you feel about doing the right thing if you knew the person next to you wasn’t
  • And through our work, we’ve found, these are the types of things people say about using a government service Perhaps unlike the private sector, a Government service is essentially about satisfying people’s NEEDS, not wants. And it’s also about satisfying the needs of the social outcome and policy intent. It’s at this point we would hate for you to think that there’s no desire for government services to ‘delight’. However, delivering a service to people which matches what they think you should be doing already and doing that well – that’s a great government service. Fulfilling a government obligation is very rarely someone’s vocation.
  • So I’ve mentioned ‘experience’ within the scope of service design, so it’s worth touching on specifically how we define experience.We think it’s also important for us to define as many of you are involved in what is called usability and user experience design, to make the point that experience for us is not merely about perfecting a touchpoint.You can see the definition here. We break down our view of the user in the following way.And when we say user in this context we mean both external (the service recipient) and internal (the people who delivery the service)
  • JUSTINThere’s are additional layers of complexity that public sector organisations are dealing with. External factors that make their operating environment complex include:•Life cycle of change is driven byElectoral cycle – as I mentioned increasingly closer to 18 months than three years (but we’ll see how that goes this time)Public / political discourse including an ever increasing and aggressive media cycleBudget measures determining priorities which are influenced by both local fiscal movements and increasingly global Everything comes back to a legal framework that they are bound to work in but are also the custodians of and developing themselves all the timeAs well as these external factors, and in fact potentially because of them, the internal environment is highly complex as well: Significant pieces of work are driven by key policy documents that contain policy intent that may drive and in fact pre-determine service outcomesCapability building for people is key – capability is considered a key asset because these organisation inherently strive to minimise turn over as it directly affects services and retain institutional knowledgeDecision making is overwhelmingly driven by where it is made rather than what the decision is! These organisations strive for consistency, order and predictability and this manifests in structure determining decisions. And this notion that organisations aren’t meritocracies – this can happen in the public and private sector – is overt and part of the every day language.For example:“I’d really like to do that, it makes sense but I’m not sure my Band 3 would champion that because it came from 6’s – it needs to be an EL2 formulated response for me to get it to the Band 1 at the very least.”Not that there’s anything wrong with that ;)
  • MelSo how do we design for users and how does that lead us into the use of user typologies. 
  • We stick to what is, in essence, a pretty simple design process (on paper).in process terms –we harness and define intent (often a piece of work in its own right), then move through analysis and synthesis of evidence through to definition of the solution.Simple process
  • We use a range of research techniques to build out evidence base around a particular piece of design.We apply these techniques as is appropriate – we don’t blindly move through the same process with the same activities and techniques all of the time because each job is different – you can’t pre-determine a design process any more than you can know the answer to the problem before you start.Research to understand with usersStart with the intent and a brief and protocol INTENT OF THE SERVICE TO BE DESIGNED, Variety of techniquesAnd our focus is understanding what the real user experience is like and changing that into research that will drive business outcomes
  • What we do with that activity is shape the deign of the service. As we’ve said about the connections between people, touchpoints and outcomes and there are three key artefacts that capture:The customer experience map describes how the service is experienced.Blueprint described how the service works (in reality wit the many layers a complex organisation has).The User Typology described the expectations, behaviours and motivations of types of people who will be using the serviceWho they are (in relation to the service)How they operate (within the system)What they expectWhat frustrates themFrom all of this material we are able to determine a desired experience for both customer (external user) and business (internal user).Use cases,Personas,Archetypes,Actors,Users,Customers,People,Humans,Staff,Citizens,Consumers,Demographics
  • So let’s discuss a case study where we can show you how typologies are presented and used. To come back to our theme of the day around financial systems, this case study involved improving interactions with government online, which in this case meant interaction with many government benefits and payments systems.
  • First of all we discovered what we could about the actual user experience from backgroundQuantitative data, statisticsStaff views, helpdesk viewsUsability tests Nothing that could tell us what wasn’t working Nothing that could tell us WHY someone would even want to use the serviceSpecifically we were focused on understanding users’ expectations of interacting online and their values regarding online identity and online services (both with private industry and government).We also wanted to know very practical things like their preferences for features such as logging in, online accounts, connecting with other services and security.Card sorting on types of activities done onlineHow they grouped the activitiesFrequencyThem differentiate between government service experience
  • In analysis we always start with the user experience we observed identify patterns of behaviour, motivation and experienceAnonymisingconversation, notes analysis, plugging the card sorting data into a spreadsheet and looking for patternsFRAMEWORK: think, do, useBroadlyIn relation to the service From debriefs in conversation saw different types of users emerge – and now what we necessarily expected. - Generational attitudes meant nothing – some of the most extreme in terms of security consciousness were younger and technology savvy. - Rural location mean technology was favoured for reasons we didn’t expect – such as not wanting everyone in town to see me in a government office.What emerges as typologies as a breakdown of high level - Who they are
  • Which meant we could not only define our users through a typology but also use these to build prototypes and test them back with another group of users.Who were able to describe who the users are in relation to online government services:Summary statement about themHow they operated online (preferences for levels of control, security, platforms etc)What they expect (support, effort required, privacy, difference between government and business, trade offs of convenience over functionality)What frustrates them (technology over practicality, over engineered processes, fear of doing it wrong)Understanding all of this helped us understand who we were designing for (which wasn’t all types of users) and understanding what they expected and what frustrated them directly influenced the design principles and we had success measures to design to.Before we even finished the project requested changes from another agency meant we could put the typologies into action and validate the change as one that users would engage with.
  • User Types in Service Design

    1. 1. USER TYPES INSERVICE DESIGNWorld Usability Day 2012
    2. 2. DESIGNING THE SERVICEBy designing the whole experience
    3. 3. What’s Service Design? The conscious & creative process of crafting meaningful connections (be they tangible touchpoints and interactions, or more intangible experiences) between user, business/provider/ government goals and outcomes (be they effective and efficient operations, social good/ improvement, or positive profile).
    4. 4. What’s a Service? People Goals
    5. 5. What’s a Service? People Touchpoints Goals
    6. 6. What’s a Service? People Touchpoints Pathways Goals
    7. 7. What’s a Government Service? The same, except: Choice Delivery Compliance
    8. 8. And here’s what people say: “They have “I have a knot the resources and in my stomach” responsibility to make it easier” “I’m OK with less frills if I can “With government, just get it done” simplifying doesn’t always mean no hassle” “I don’t have very high expectations - if it works, it’s good”
    9. 9. What we need to understand about users‘experience’What users THINK (Cognitive Domain) motivations, folklore, perceptions, beliefs, expectations, mental processes What users DO (Behavioural Domain) activities, processes, routines, patterns, interactions, relationships What users USE (Material Domain) products, services, brands, environments, messages, systems
    10. 10. The complex government organisation Customers Touchpoints Operations Strategy Government
    11. 11. DESIGNING FOR USERSBy engaging with them
    12. 12. A broad approach to service design !#$% ()* +,-%#($,- .,$/0#*1* =,(,( 20,(#3#*()* )//$?)%$(3), :;3,*( =@6/@,(* 456/)% =(%$(3), :#3, 1*$, 7%)()(06*1* 20,(#3# ()*48$/9$(
    13. 13. Utilising appropriateresearch techniques
    14. 14. Articulating the experiencein order to design a ServiceCustomer Experience Map Service Blueprint User Typologies How the service is experienced How the service works The type of people who use the service
    15. 15. CASE STUDYImproving interactions with government online
    16. 16. Exploring experience throughwhat people think, do, use
    17. 17. Analysing what we found inorder to synthesise meaning Dra$  types,  whiteboard  drawing,  notes  photo  
    18. 18. Prototyping the experienceand defining the user types
    19. 19. SUMMARYUser types as an evidence-based tangible outputof the service design process: •  Are relevant beyond the touchpoint •  Document and define the user experience across the whole service •  Stay with the organisation as reusable knowledge
    20. 20. Thanks!Justin Barrie Mel Edwards @JustinBarrie @skewiff @DMA_Canberra
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