Multilevel Access to our Cultural Heritage (MACH)<br />
People who participated in the project<br />Egon L. van den Broek 	(AI, VU Amsterdam /<br />						NICI, RU Nijmegen)<br />...
In addition…The people who worked on the foundation of M4ART<br />Frans Gremmen 		(RTOG, RU Nijmegen)<br />Maarten A. Hend...
NWO research line ToKeN<br />Two projects within the ToKeN research line:<br />Eidetic<br />VindIT<br />A few of the aims ...
Key notions of this talk<br />Aim: Access and enhancement of knowledge<br />Domain: Cultural heritage; more specific: The ...
Current state-of-the-art in museum access through the Internet<br />Four examples:<br />	Virtual Catalogue for Art History...
Why this aim in this domain?<br />Attract people to museums through Internet<br />Make museums better accessible for laype...
Information Retrieval (e.g., as with Google)<br />
Color-Based Image Retrieval:3 methods of querying<br />Browsing the catalogue<br />Providing an image from the Internet, b...
From simple to complex user interfaces<br />M4ART can be described using 2 dimensions:<br />	1) Retrieval method; either I...
Complex IR querying (1)<br />Exclusion of terms<br />Boolean search, using AND and/or OR operators<br />Utilizing specific...
Complex IR querying (2)<br />
Complex CBIR querying (1)<br />Color space<br />Quantization scheme; i.e., how any colors do you want to distinguish?<br /...
Complex CBIR querying (2)<br />
Gaining understanding …<br />Showing the features …<br />Compare IR and CBIR techniques<br />
Showing the features<br />
Distance matrix<br />
Advanced schemes incorporated<br />11 color categories quantization scheme<br />Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis<br />
Color spaces (and their quantizations)<br />RGB<br />HSV <br />YUV/YIQ<br />CIE XYZ<br />CIE LUV<br />11 colors ...<br />
Its all only in 11 color categories<br />Most famous: Berlin & Kay (1969) with their book<br />	“Basic color terms: Their ...
The practical use of fundamental research: Color categories<br />People perceive in color categories<br />People talk in c...
THE 11 colors<br /><ul><li>Yellow
Purple
Pink
Orange
Brown</li></ul>Black<br />Gray<br />White<br />Red<br />Green<br />Blue<br />
Texture defined …<br />Cross and Jain (1983): There is no universally accepted definition for texture<br />Bovik, Clarke, ...
Texture Analysis<br />Palm (2004) noted: “The integration of color and texture is still exceptional.” Others: Drimbarean a...
Gray versus Color<br />
Parallel-Sequential texture analysis*<br />* More info? Broek, E. L. van den and Rikxoort, E. M. van (2005). Parallel-sequ...
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DE Conferentie 2005 Egon v.d. Broek

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DE Conferentie 2005 Egon v.d. Broek

  1. 1. Multilevel Access to our Cultural Heritage (MACH)<br />
  2. 2. People who participated in the project<br />Egon L. van den Broek (AI, VU Amsterdam /<br /> NICI, RU Nijmegen)<br />Thijs Kok (ICIS, RU Nijmegen)<br />Eduard Hoenkamp (NICI, RU Nijmegen)<br />Theo E. Schouten (ICIS, RU Nijmegen)<br />Peter J. Petiet (AI, VU Amsterdam)<br />Louis G. Vuurpijl (NICI, RU Nijmegen)<br />
  3. 3. In addition…The people who worked on the foundation of M4ART<br />Frans Gremmen (RTOG, RU Nijmegen)<br />Maarten A. Hendriks (freelance)<br />Peter Kisters (freelance)<br />Harco C. Kuppens (ICIS, RU Nijmegen)<br />Eva M. van Rikxoort (ISI, UMC Utrecht)<br />Charles M. de Weert (Soc. Fac., RU Nijmegen)<br />
  4. 4. NWO research line ToKeN<br />Two projects within the ToKeN research line:<br />Eidetic<br />VindIT<br />A few of the aims of the projects<br />Access and enhancement of our cultural heritage <br />Combining Computer Science and Cognitive Science<br />Combining (text-based) Information Retrieval (IR) and Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)<br />Launching a CBIR system for the National Gallery of Arts (Het Rijksmuseum)<br />
  5. 5. Key notions of this talk<br />Aim: Access and enhancement of knowledge<br />Domain: Cultural heritage; more specific: The National Gallery of Arts (Het Rijksmuseum)<br />Characteristics: <br />Digital photographs of objects<br />Annotations of these objects; i.e., descriptions of the artist, the material, the content/theme of the object etc. <br />For … both laypersons (i.e., non-experts) and experts<br />How: (text-based) Information Retrieval (IR) and Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)<br />Additionally, facilitating:<br />The user’s understanding of CBIR<br />Comparison of IR and CBIR<br />
  6. 6. Current state-of-the-art in museum access through the Internet<br />Four examples:<br /> Virtual Catalogue for Art History<br /> The National Gallery of Art (Het Rijksmuseum)<br /> The hermitage museum (powered by IBM)<br />
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  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Why this aim in this domain?<br />Attract people to museums through Internet<br />Make museums better accessible for laypersons<br />Make museums better accessible for experts<br />Providing more information through new methods of access<br />Gaining more understanding of CBIR through using it<br />Future aims:<br />Interaction between users and the system through agent technology<br />Extracting information of artists directly from their art<br />
  14. 14. Information Retrieval (e.g., as with Google)<br />
  15. 15. Color-Based Image Retrieval:3 methods of querying<br />Browsing the catalogue<br />Providing an image from the Internet, by way of an URL<br />Uploading a local image from your desktop<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. From simple to complex user interfaces<br />M4ART can be described using 2 dimensions:<br /> 1) Retrieval method; either IR or CBIR<br /> 2) Complexity of querying; <br /> - straightforward queries<br /> - specified/combined queries<br />
  18. 18. Complex IR querying (1)<br />Exclusion of terms<br />Boolean search, using AND and/or OR operators<br />Utilizing specific tags (fields) of the annotations<br />
  19. 19. Complex IR querying (2)<br />
  20. 20. Complex CBIR querying (1)<br />Color space<br />Quantization scheme; i.e., how any colors do you want to distinguish?<br />Distance measure<br />Optionally: include texture<br />
  21. 21. Complex CBIR querying (2)<br />
  22. 22. Gaining understanding …<br />Showing the features …<br />Compare IR and CBIR techniques<br />
  23. 23. Showing the features<br />
  24. 24. Distance matrix<br />
  25. 25. Advanced schemes incorporated<br />11 color categories quantization scheme<br />Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis<br />
  26. 26. Color spaces (and their quantizations)<br />RGB<br />HSV <br />YUV/YIQ<br />CIE XYZ<br />CIE LUV<br />11 colors ...<br />
  27. 27. Its all only in 11 color categories<br />Most famous: Berlin & Kay (1969) with their book<br /> “Basic color terms: Their universals and evolution”<br />But already 15 years before them Brown and Lenneberg (1954) presented their work in the paper: “A study in language and cognition”<br />More recently:<br />Derefeldt, Swartling, Berggrund, and Bodrogi (2004)<br />Moroney (2004)<br />Regier, Kay, and Cook (2005)<br />
  28. 28. The practical use of fundamental research: Color categories<br />People perceive in color categories<br />People talk in color categories<br />Human memory uses color categories<br />Robust to inter and intra personal variability<br />Computationally inexpensive<br />
  29. 29. THE 11 colors<br /><ul><li>Yellow
  30. 30. Purple
  31. 31. Pink
  32. 32. Orange
  33. 33. Brown</li></ul>Black<br />Gray<br />White<br />Red<br />Green<br />Blue<br />
  34. 34. Texture defined …<br />Cross and Jain (1983): There is no universally accepted definition for texture<br />Bovik, Clarke, and Geisler (1990): an exact definition of texture either as a surface property or as an image property has never been adequately formulated.<br />Gonzales and Woods (2002) state: No formal definition of texture exists, intuitively this descriptor provides measures of properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity.<br />
  35. 35. Texture Analysis<br />Palm (2004) noted: “The integration of color and texture is still exceptional.” Others: Drimbarean and Whelan (2001) and Mäenpää and Pietikäinen (2004)<br />Techniques applied in literature, so far:<br />Global color analysis (e.g., color histograms)<br />Local gray-scale texture analysis (e.g., co-occurrence matrix)<br />Local color-based texture analysis (e.g., color correlogram)<br />Global color analysis combined with local gray-scale texture analysis (e.g., parallel approach)<br />What is used in M4ART: Parallel-sequential texture analysis<br />Global and local color analysis in parallel: the color histogram and the color correlogram combined.<br />
  36. 36. Gray versus Color<br />
  37. 37. Parallel-Sequential texture analysis*<br />* More info? Broek, E. L. van den and Rikxoort, E. M. van (2005). Parallel-sequential texture analysis. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Advances in Pattern Recognition), 3687, 532-541.<br />
  38. 38. Back to C-BAR: Some last remarks<br />Technical specifications<br />Freely accessible<br />Questions?<br />
  39. 39. Technical specifications<br />W3C HTML 4.01 validated<br />W3C CSS validated<br />Running on an Apache HTTP server<br />PHP 5.1 powered<br />Running on a MySQL database<br />
  40. 40. Freely accessible<br />All feedback = welcome!<br />How to get there …<br /> Use Google query on ‘M4ART’ or go through:<br />http://cai.nici.ru.nl/M4ART/<br />
  41. 41. Thank you for your attention!Questions?<br />
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