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DE Conferentie 2004 Matthew Stiff
 

DE Conferentie 2004 Matthew Stiff

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    DE Conferentie 2004 Matthew Stiff DE Conferentie 2004 Matthew Stiff Presentation Transcript

    • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model Dr Matthew Stiff Information Standards and Partnerships Manager, National Monument Record (English Heritage) 1 December 2004 With acknowledgement for content from Nick Crofts, Martin Doerr, Tony Gill and Stephen Stead
    • Outline
      • What is a model?
      • What is the CIDOC CRM?
      • CRM Structures
      • Examples: Activities, Time, Periods, Places, Stuff, Appellations,
      • Taxonomic Discourse
      • Visual Contents and Subject
      • Mapping to the CRM
      • Use of the CRM in English Heritage
      • Summary of Benefits
    • What is a model?
      • A model is a
      • representation of some aspect of reality.
      • The purpose of creating a model is to help
      • understand,
      • describe, or
      • predict
      • how things work in the real world by
      • exploring a simplified representation of a particular entity or phenomenon
    • Models and Schema A model illustrating the cantilever principle.
    • Models and Schema An engineering drawing of the Forth Railway Bridge – effectively a schema using the cantilever model
    • Models and Schema The Forth Railway Bridge – effectively an implementation of the Forth Railway Bridge design or schema
    • Models and Schema Another implementation of the cantilever model….
    • Models and Schema
      • And another-
      • Tower 42 (formerly the Nat West Tower) is reckoned to be the tallest cantilever building in the world.
      • The point being that there is more than one way to implement a model, and they can be quite different….
    • What is the CIDOC CRM?
      • The CRM
      • is not a metadata standard
        • it should become our language for semantic interoperability,
        • it is a Conceptual Reference Model for analyzing and designing cultural information systems
      • is limited to the underlying semantics of database schemata and document structures used in cultural heritage and museum documentation
      • does not define the terminology used to document these data structures
      • does not say what cultural institutions should document
      • aims to explain the logic of what they actually do document
    • What is the CRM
      • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model
        • is a collaboration with the International Council of Museums
        • is an ontology of 81 classes and 130 properties for culture (and a great deal more )
        • has the capacity to explain dozens of (meta)data formats
        • has been accepted by ISO TC46 in Sept. 2000, now
        • ISO/AWI 21127 Committee Draft
      • S er ves a s:
        • an intellectual guide to create schemata, formats, profiles
        • a language for analysis of existing sources for integration
          • “ Identify elements with common meaning ”
        • a transportation format for data integration / migration / Internet
    • Top-level Entities relevant for Integration E39 Actors E55 Types E28 Conceptual Objects E18 Physical Stuff E2 Temporal Entities E41 Appellation s refer to / identif y at within participate in affect or / refer to refer to / refine location E53 Places E52 Time-Spans
      • Identification of real world items by real world names.
      • Classification of real world items.
      • Part-decomposition and structural properties of Conceptual & Physical Objects, Periods, Actors, Places and Times.
      • Participation of persistent items in temporal entities.
        • creates a notion of history: “world-lines” meeting in space-time.
      • Location of periods in space-time and physical objects in space.
      • Influence of objects on activities and products and vice-versa.
      • Reference of information objects to any real-world item.
      A Classification of its Relationships
    • CRM Structures
      • Classes: The class hierarchy contain the conceptual building-blocks of the CRM. There is an isa relationship between sub-classes and super-classes: Activity isa Event.
      • Properties: These provide the specific relationships between the classes. It acts like a verb, demanding both domain and range, and is bi-directional: Physical Man-Made Stuff depicts CRM Entity CRM Entity is depicted by Physical Man-Made Stuff
      • Inheritence: Subclasses inherit the properties from their super-classes. Multiple inheritance means that a sub-class may have more than one super-class (in which case, it inherits the properties of all its parents.
    • Example: The Temporal Entity Hierarchy
      • E2 Temporal Entity
        • Scope Note:
        • This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time……..
        • is limited in time, is the only link to time, but not time itself
        • spreads out over a place or object (physical or not).
        • the core of a model of physical history, open for unlimited specialisation.
      Example: The Temporal Entity Hierarchy
      • E4 Period
        • binds together related phenomena
        • introduces inclusion topologies - parts etc.
        • Is confined in space and time
        • the basic unit for temporal-spatial reasoning
      • E5 Event
        • looks at the input and the outcome
        • the basic unit for causal reasoning
        • each event is a period if we study the process
      • E7 Activity
        • brings the people in
        • adds purpose
      Example: The Temporal Entity Subclasses
    • Temporal Entity- Main Properties
      • E2 Temporal Entity
        • Properties:
        • P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
      • E4 Period
        • Properties:
        • P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
        • P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
        • P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
      • E5 Event
        • Properties:
        • P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
        • P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Ite
      • E7 Activity
        • Properties:
        • P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor
        • P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E7 Activity
        • P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
    • A ctivities 0,1 0,n 0,n 0,n 1,n 0,n P14 carried out by (performed) P14.1 in the role of P3 has note E1 CRM Entity CIDOC Notion E59 Primitive Value E55 Type E7 Activity E5 Event P2 has type (is type of) E62 String E39 Actor
    • 1,n 0,n 1,1 0,n 1,1 0,n Activities: Measurement Event P90 has value P91 unit P39 was measured by (measured) P40 observed dimension (was observed by) E54 Dimension E16 Measurement Event E18 Physical Stuff E13 Attribute Assignment P43 has dimension (is dimension of)
    • Activities: Measurement Event 205ft (62.4m)
    • 1,n 0,n 1,n 0,n 1,n 1,1 0,n 0,n E18 Physical Stuff E3 Condition State P44 has condition (condition of) P34 was assessed by (concerns) P35 has identified (identified by) P14 carried out by (performed) P14.1 in the role of E2 Temporal Entity Activities: Condition Assessment E7 Activity E14 Condition Assessment E39 Actor
    • 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n E7 Activity E39 Actor E18 Physical Stuff P52 is current owner of (has current owner) P51 is former or current owner of (has former or current owner) P22 acquired title of (transferred title to) P23 surrendered title of (transferred title from) Activities: Acquisition Event 1,n E8 Acquisition Event P24 transferred title of (changed ownership by)
    • 1,n 0,n 1,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 1,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 1,n 0,n E7 Activity E9 Move E19 Physical Object E53 Place P25 moved by (moved) P26 moved to (was destination of) P55 has current location (currently holds) P27 moved from (was origin of) E55 Type P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) Activities: Move
    • 0,n 1,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 0,n 1,n 0,n 1,n E7 Activity E11 Modification Event E18 Physical Stuff P31 has modified (was modified by) E39 Actor P14 carried out by (performed) in the role of E55 Type P32 used general technique (was technique of) E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff E29 Design or Procedure P33 used specific technique (was used by) E57 Material P68 usually employs (is usually employed by) Activities: Modification/Production Event P 126 employed (was employed by) P45 consists of (is incorporated in)
    • Entity: Modification Event
      • Properties:
      • P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
      • P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
      • P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
      • P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor
      • (P14.1 in the role of : E55 Type)
      • P31 has modified (was modified by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff
      • P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
      • P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Stuff
      • (P16.1 mode of use: E62 String)
      • P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
      • P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure
      • P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
      • P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Stuff
      • (P19.1 mode of use: E62 String)
      • P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E7 Activity
      • P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
      • P126 employed (was employed by): E57 Material
      declared properties inherited properties inherited properties declared properties inherited properties declared properties
    • Time Uncertainty, Certainty and Duration Event time before P82 at some time within P81 ongoing throughout after “ intensity” Duration (P83,P84)
    • Allen Operators – an example
      • P120: E2 Temporal Entity. occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
      • E2 Temporal entity (A) is known to precede E2 Temporal Entity (B), and it is known that a gap in time exists between these two temporal entities. Where it is known that E2 Temporal entity (A) finishes at the same point in time as the beginning of E2 Temporal Entity (B), the Allen operator “Meets” should be used. No contextual link between the temporal entities is implied.
      E2 Temporal Entity (A) E2 Temporal Entity (B) Time
    • E4 Period – an example Place Time B A P10: E4 Period falls within (contains) E4 Period The spatio-temporal extent of E4 Period (A) is entirely contained within the spatio-temporal extent of E4 Period (B). No contextual link between such instances of E4 Period is implied. B A
    • E3 Condition State E4 Period E5 Event E50 Date E49 Time Appellation E41 Appellation E2 Temporal Entity E52 Time Span E1 CRM Entity E53 Place P4 has time-span (is time-span of) P86 falls within (contains) P10 falls within (contains) P9 consists of (forms part of) P78 is identified by (identifies) E 52 Time-Span E77 Persistent Item E61 Time Primitive P81 ongoing throughout P82 at some time within P7 took place at (witnessed)
    • E53 Place – an example B A P121: E53 Place overlaps with E53 Place Part of the area constituting E53 Place (A) overlaps with part of the area constituting E53 Place (B). The relationship is symmetric. No contextual relationship between such instances of E53 Place is implied.
    • E70 Stuff (Thing)
    • E18 Physical Stuff
    • E28 Conceptual Object
    • Changing Stuff E18 Physical Stuff E 11 Modification Event P111 added (was added by) E 79 Part Addition E 80 Part Removal P110 added to (was augmented by) E24 Ph. M.-Made Stuff P113 removed (was added by) P111removed from (was diminished by) E 77 Persistent Item E 81 Transformation E 64 End of Existence E 63 Beginning of Existence P124 transformed (was transformed by) P123 resulted in (was result of ) P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by) P93 took out of existence (was taken o.o.e. by) P31 has modified (was modified by)
    • Appellation
    • Taxonomic discourse E 2 8 Conceptual Object E 7 Activity E 17 Type Assignment E55 Type P136 was based on (supported type creation ) P42 assigned (was assigned by) E 1 CRM Entity E 83 Type Creation E 65 Creation Event P137 is exemplified by (exemplifies) P41 classified (was classified by) P94 has created (was created by) P135 created type (was created by) P136.1 in the taxonomic role P13 7 .1 in the taxonomic role
    • Visual Contents and Subject E24 Ph ysical M an -Made Stuff E 55 Type E 1 CRM Entity P62 depicts ( is depicted by) P62.1 mode of depiction P65 shows visual item (is shown by) E36 Visual Item P138 visualizes (has visualization) E73 Information Object E3 8 Visual Image P67 refers to (is referred to by) E23 Information Carrier P128 is carried of (is materialized by) P138.1 mode of depiction
    • Mapping D ublin C ore to the CIDOC CRM Type: text Title: Mapping of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set to the CIDOC CRM Creator: Martin Doerr Publisher: ICS-FORTH Identifier: FORTH-ICS / TR 274 July 2000 Language: English Example: Partial DC Record about a Technical Report
    • was created by is identified by … .. Event: 0001 carried out by is identified by Event: 0002 carried out by has type was used for has type is identified by has language Mapping D ublin C ore to the CIDOC CRM (RDF style) Actor:0002 is identified by (background knowledge not in the DC record) E41 Appellation Name: Mapping of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set to the CIDOC CRM E33 Linguistic Object Object: FORTH-ICS / TR-274 July 2000 E82 Actor Appellation Name: Martin Doerr E65 Creation Event E82 Actor Appellation Name: ICS-FORTH E7 Activity E55 Type Type: Publication E75 Conceptual Object Appellation Name: FORTH-ICS / TR-274 July 2000 E55 Type Type:FORTH Identifier E56 Language Lang.: English E39 Actor Actor:0001 E39 Actor
    • Use of the CRM within English Heritage
      • Ontological modelling – The Revelation Project (Centre for Archaeology)
      • Data mapping – Heritage Protection Review
      • XML schema design – FISH Toolkit & MIDAS XML
      • Database schema design – English Heritage “Common Data Layer”
      • Data integration – Heritage Gateway
      • Partnership work – SPECTRUM 3
      • Elegant and simple compared to comparable Entity-Relationship models
      • Coherently integrates information at varying degrees of detail
      • Readily extensible through O-O class typing and specializations
      • Richer semantic content; allows inferences to be made from underspecified data elements
      • Designed for mediation of cultural heritage information
      Summary of Benefits of the CRM
    • Contact Details: Dr Matthew Stiff Information Standards and Partnerships Manager National Monuments Record Kemble Drive Swindon SN2 2GZ (t) +44 (0)7939 151510 (m) +44 (0)7939 151510 (e) [email_address] (w) http://www.english-heritage.org.uk CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group (w) http:// cidoc.ics.forth.gr