Endocrine Disruptors by @toxipedia

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An Introduction to the Health Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)
by @toxipedia

* Toxipedia website;
http://www.toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/Endocrine+Disruptors

* Endocrine Disruptors: Sexy Stuff:
http://desdaughter.wordpress.com/2012/12/16/endocrine-disruptors-sexy-stuff/

* All our posts about Endocrine Disruptors:
http://desdaughter.wordpress.com/tag/endocrine-disruptors/

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Endocrine Disruptors by @toxipedia

  1. 1. A Small Dose of EDC An Introduction To The Health Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  2. 2. EDCs Defined Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals A broad range of chemicals that interact with endocrine system of humans and animals and produce a range of adverse effects A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  3. 3. Case Study - Hormonal Contraceptives  Oral contraceptives - ultimate endocrine disruptor  May 9, 1960, the Food and Drug Administration approved “the Pill”  Combination of an estrogen and a progesterone, to inhibit female fertility  Patient reports of blood clots and pulmonary embolism A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  4. 4. Case Study - DES  1938 - synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES)  1941 the FDA approved its use for menopausal symptoms and 1947 to prevent miscarriages  1953 the first study indicating that DES was not effective in preventing miscarriages  1971 first study was published link DES to vaginal cancer in female offspring A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  5. 5. Case Study - BPA  1891 - Bisphenol-A (BPA), created by Aleksandr Dianin  1940s and 1950s, the chemical industry discovered that BPA was an excellent hardener for epoxy resins and plastic polycarbonate  estimated use per year of 6 billion pounds – used in consumer products  effects on the endocrine system occur at very low doses A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  6. 6. Case Study - Atrazine  herbicides like Atrazine, used to kill broadleaf and grassy weeds  banned in the European Union as a persistent ground water contaminant  most widely used herbicides in the US  Atrazine feminizes male frogs by disrupting the endocrine system A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  7. 7. Introduction - EDC  1991 - endocrine disruptor first used at a conference at the Wingspread Conference Center in Racine, Wisconsin. This conference was chaired by Theo Colburn,  The term was introduced into the scientific literature in 1993. Colborn T, vom Saal FS, Soto AM (EHP, 101(5) October 1993). A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  8. 8. Health Effects - EDCs  reproductive issues  reduced fertility  male and female reproductive tract abnormalities  skewed male/female sex ratios changes in hormone levels  early puberty  brain and behavior problems  impaired immune functions  various cancers A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  9. 9. Chemicals - EDCs Hormones (natural & synthetic) Plant constituents Pesticides compounds used in the plastics industry and in consumer products  other industrial by-products and pollutants     A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  10. 10. Chemicals - EDCs      DDT Bisphenol A Polychlorinated biphenyls Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Phthalates A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  11. 11. Endocrine System The endocrine system is the body’s chemical communication system, using the blood vessels to move chemicals throughout the body to communicate will different cells of the body. The endocrine system regulates metabolism, growth, development and puberty, and organ function. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  12. 12. Glands that excrete Hormones Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Adrenal gland Pancreas Ovary Testes A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  13. 13. Hormones and Function – I Gland (location) Example hormone Function Pineal gland (brain) Melatonin Sleep Pituitary gland (brain) Growth hormone Growth, cell reproduction Prolactin Milk production, sexual gratification Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates thyroid gland to secrete T3 and T4 Luteinizing hormone Female: ovulation Male: regulates testosterone Thyroxine (T4) Metabolism Triiodothyronine (T3) Metabolism Thyroid gland (neck) A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  14. 14. Hormones and Function – II Gland (location) Example hormone Function Adrenal gland (kidney) Glucocorticoids Effects glucose uptake Adrenaline Fight-or-flight response (range of effects) Pancreas (kidney) Insulin Regulates glucose Ovary (female) Progesterone Pregnancy, muscle relaxation, range of effects Estrogens Growth, sexual characteristics Testosterone (androgen) Muscle mass, bone density, sexual maturation Testes (male) A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  15. 15. Silent Spring I “As crude a weapon as a cave man’s club, the chemical barrage has been hurled against the fabric of life.” Rachel Carson – Silent Spring (1962) A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  16. 16. Silent Spring II “The “control of nature” is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the Neanderthal age of biology and the convenience of man.” Rachel Carson – Silent Spring (1962) A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  17. 17. A Small Dose of ED A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  18. 18. Additional Information  Web Sites  US National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health - Endocrine Disruptors http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/endocrine /index.cfm  The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, Inc. (TEDX) http://www.endocrinedisruption.com/home.php A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09
  19. 19. Authorship Information This presentation is supplement to “A Small Dose of Toxicology” For Additional Information Contact Steven G. Gilbert, PhD, DABT E-mail: sgilbert@innd.org Web: www.asmalldoseof.org www.toxipedia.org A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of EDCs – 06/01/09

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