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  • 1. 1 A PROJECT REPORT ON WATER TESTING AND WATER DISTRIBUTION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement For the Diploma in Engineering In CIVIL ENGINEERING 2011-2014 GUIDED BY:- APPROVED BY Mrs.Varsh gupta Mr.R.J.PANDEY Submitted By DEEPAK KUMAR TOPPO (2792011005) ) Department of Civil Engineering Govt. Polytechnic Korea Baikunthpur, Korea, Chhattisgarh INTRODUCTION
  • 2. 2  Drinking Water Supply is one of the most important sectors for intervention. There are existing water supply systems in the towns proposed to be covered. The demands for the system improvements in these towns can be very large. Theproposals for improvement of the water supply will therefore have to be tailored to be within the limitations of the funds available for the sector in the town. Acomparative benefit/cost of different works should be considered and the mostbeneficial and cost effective proposals have to be prepared after interaction with the PHED and the local city level authorities. The following guidelines should beconsidered during taking up projects under this sector:  Specifically, this Report provides Garfield County with evidence that provision has been Made for an adequate potable treatment meeting the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment ("CDPHE") drinking water quality standards for the Project, as Part of the overall water supply, and that an adequate potable water delivery system Can be designed, constructed and made available. With respect to the raw water delivery to the Project, the design of the raw water supply and distribution system is Documented in the Raw Water Supply and Distribution Plan. The Water Supply Plan demonstrates that the legal supply and source for the potable and raw water systems is available . . 2 Objective The objective of public protected water supply system is to supply safe and cleanwater in adequate quantity, conveniently and as economically as possible. Watersupplied should be free from pathogenic organisms, clear, palatable and free fromundesirable taste and odour, of reasonable temperature, neither corrosive nor scaleforming and free from minerals which could produce undesirable physiologicaleffects. A. WATER SUPPLY SOURCE
  • 3. 3  In order to design a water distribution system, it is appropriate to first consider the Likely sources. These potential sources include the use of existing or development of alluvial wells and surface water diversions. More specifically, if the potable water supply will be provided by the RFWSD, alluvial wells located in the Aspen Glen and Coryell Ranch subdivision and surface diversions from the Roaring Fork River using the Robertson Ditch Rose Ranch Enlargement, Posy Pump and Pipeline (Iron Bridge Subdivision), or the RBC Roaring Fork Diversion (River Edge Colorado) water rightswould be utilized. However, if the Project is served by a privately-operated and self-sufficient public system, the potable water supply will come from surface diversions from the Roaring Fork River using the RBC Roaring Fork Diversion (River Edge Colorado). Water source for our project is Sepaged water from Gauge river collected to Intake well Khutanpara Baikunthpur from there pump to Treatment plant for filtaratoin of raw water after filtersation water send to high head water tank and to water tank by Gravitaional distribution we supply the water to consumers. TREATMENT
  • 4. 4 DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF WATER TESTING KIT  Environmental awareness plays a vital role in prevention and control of pollution in industrial as well as at community levels. Assessment of water quality in a particular water body to understand any impact of water pollution needs a laboratory facility, which is not possible to have it in everywhere. Keeping this fact in view, the Central Pollution Control Board has developed a Water Testing Kit (WTK) to assess the water quality of surface, ground and potable water bodies in field condition. The kit designed and developed by a team of scientists of the Board is intended for students, NGOs and public.  This Water Testing Kit (WTK) has been fabricated as a portable laboratory provided with the apparatus and reagents needed for the field testing to assess the quality of water under field conditions. The water testing field kit enables the user to assess the physical, chemical, bacteriological and biological quality of water in the field. The main objectives of this WTK are to create mass awareness among students, NGO's and the public and to provide low-cost Water Testing facility. The kit has been designed not only to test water samples but also to serve as a scientific, informative, thought-provoking and educative tool to students, NGO's and the public. It can be used by even person with little or no knowledge of analytical techniques by following the instruction mentioned in the manual. The kit will definitely provide the information whether pollutants are above or below the permissible limit based on quantitative as well as qualitative analysis.
  • 6. 6 4) Funnels 5) Tissue papers 6) Wash bottle THEORY: Fresh distilled water has a pH of 7. Acidic waters have a pH of 0to 7, whereas alkaline waters have a pH of 7 to 14. Ammonia and Lime solution have pH of about 12 where as many cool drinks, lime juice, battery, etc. have pH of less than 4. As pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, water having a pH of 6to 10 times more acidic than the natural water, water having a pH of 4 is 1000 times more acidic than water with pH 7 and a pH of 2 is 100000 times more acidic than a pH of 7. PH of a solution can be found easily by using pH strips (paper) or a pH meter gives very accurate values whereas pH strips gives approximate values. pH is determined by the measurement of electromotive force of a cell comprising an indicator electrode responsive to hydrogen ions (such as glass electrode) immersed in the test solution and a reference electrode is usually achieved by means of a liquid junction, which forms a part of the reference electrode. The ‘emf’ of this cell is immersed with pH meter. This is high impedance electrometer calibrated in terms of pH. 2) DETERMINATION OF TURBIDITY APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1) Nephelometric turbidity meter, 2) Nessler’s tubes with stand, 3) Standard flasks, 4) Wash bottle. PRINCIPLE:
  • 7. 7 The tungsten filament produces a converging light beam. It is then scattered by the suspended particles present in the given sample of water. The scattered light is sensed by a photo cell kept at 90 in light path and the amount of scattered light is a direct measure of tubidity of the solution. As table and regulated DC supply is used to excite the lamp. Similarly a high gain amplifier is used to convert the photocell output into measurable signal. THEORY: Turbidity is a measure of the transparency of the water. Turbidity is the property of water because of which it offers resistance to passage of light. It is caused by suspended solids (such as silt and clay), living or dead algae and other microorganisms. It depends on the type of soil over which water has run and the velocity of run-off. As sand is a good filtering methods, ground waters are less turbid. River/ canal waters are highly turbid (upto 300 NTU) during monsoon. River water have negligible turbidity during summer, as river flow is mostly contributed by ground water during summer. Turbidity is measured by “Turbidity Rod” or “Jackson Turbidity Meter” (in JT Units) or by “Nephelometer” (in NT Units ). Insoluble particles of soil, organics, micro-organisms and other inorganic material, impede the passage of light by scattering and absorbing rays. The scattering of light is generally proportional to the turbidity. The turbidity is thus measured from the amount of light scattered by the sample taking a reference with standard turbidity suspension. Turbidity is expressed as the amount of suspended matter in liquid in parts per million or milligrams per liter, determine by the optical observations. The standard unit of turbidity is “that produced by one part of finely dissolved silica in one million parts of distilled water” for potable water allowable turbidity is between 5 to 10 mg/l. 3) DETERMINATION HARDNESS APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Burette,
  • 8. 8 2. Pipette, 3. Conical flask, 4. Beakers, 5. Standardflask, 6. PVC bottle. PRINCIPLE: Hardness is generally caused by the calcium and magnesium ions present in water. Polyvalent ions of some other metals like strontium, iron, aluminum, zinc and manganese etc. Are also capable of precipitating the soap and thus contributing to the hardness. However, the concentration of these ions is very low in natural waters, therefore,hardness is generally measured as concentration of only calcium and magnesium which are far higher in qualities over other hardness producing ions. 4) DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE APPARATUS: 1. Conical flasks, 2. burette, pipette, 3. Standard flask. PRINCIPLE: Chlorine is primarily added to the water for destroying the harmful micro organisms, presence of excess chlorine intensities the taste and odours of many other compound such as phenol, etc., It may also be harmful to many aquatic microorganisms in combination with ammonia. Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent and liberates iodine from potassium iodide. The liberated iodine is equivalent t the amount of chlorine and can be titrated against sodium thiosulphate using starch as an indicat 5) DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES
  • 9. 9 APPARATUS REQUIRED: o Conical flasks, o Burette o Pipette, o Standard flask, o Funnel o Wash bottle PRINCIPLE: Silver nitrate reacts with chloride to form very slightly soluble white precipitate of AgCl2 . At the and point when all the chloride get precipitated, free silver ions react with chromate to form silver chromate of reddish brown color 6) DETERMINATION OF SULPHATE APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1) Silica crucible, 2) Desiccators, 3) Ash less filter paper, 4) Beaker.
  • 10. 10 PRINCIPLE: Sulphate is precipitated as barium sulphate in the hydrochloric acid medium by addition of barium chloride solution. The reaction is carried out near the boiling temperature. The precipitation is filtered, washed to remove the chlorides, cried or ignited and weighed as BaSO4. Many substances interfere in performing this test. Suspended matter, Silica, nitrate and sulphate lead to the positive errors where the results are on the higher side. Alkali metal sulphate causes the low results. Presence of other metals such as iron and chromium also yield low results due to the formation of metals sulphates. 9. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM The purpose of the distribution system is to convey wholesome water to the consumer at adequate residual pressure in sufficient quantity at convenient points. Water distribution usually accounts for 40 to 70% of the capital cost of the water supply project. As such proper design and layout of the system is of great importance. Metering is recommended for all cities. • In the continuous system of supply, water is made to consumer all the twenty-four hours a day, whereas in the intermittent system, the consumer gets supply only for certain fixed hours (a few hours in the morning and a few hours in the evening). The intermittent supplies system suffers from several disadvantages and does not promote hygiene and hence wherever possible, intermittent supply should be discouraged and is uneconomical. • To ensures equalization of supply of water throughout the area Zoning in
  • 11. 11 the distribution system is essential. The zoning depends upon (a) density of population (b) type of locality (c) topography and (d) facility of isolating for assessment of waste and leak detection. If there is an average elevation • water could be conveyed by gravity or by pumping, or gravity-cumpumping. Any of these three modes could be selected based mainly on the elevation of the source of supply with respect of the town • The location of service reservoirs is important for regulation of pressures in the distribution system as well as for coping up with fluctuating demands. In a distribution system fed by a single reservoir, the ideal location is a central place in the distribution system, which effects maximum economy on pipe sizes, Where the system is fed by direct pumping as well as through reservoirs, the location of the reservoirs may be at the tail end of the System. If topography permits, ground level reservoirs may be located taking full advantage of differences in elevation. Even when the system is fed by a central reservoir, it may be desirable to have tail end reservoirs for the more distant districts. These tail end reservoirs may be fed by direct supply during lean hours or booster facilities may be provided. Method of Distribution The main object of a Distribution system is to develop adequate water pressure at various points of the consumers taps. Depending upon the level of the source of water that of the city, Topography of area, and other local conditions and consideration, may be forced in to the Distribution system in the followin three ways.
  • 12. 12 1. By Gravitational System 2. By Pumping System 3. By combine Garavity and Pumping System. 1. By Gravitational System – In this system the water from the high levelled source is disributed to the consumers at lower levels, by the mere action of gravity without any pumping. For proper functioning of this system, the difference of head available between the source and the localities, must be sufficient enough, as to maintain adequate pressure at the consumer door-steps, after allowing the frictional and other losses in the pipe. This method is the most economical and reliable, since no pumping is involved at any stage. However, it needs a lake or a reservior as a source of supply.. 2. By Pumping System – In the pumping system, the traded water is directly pumped in to the distribution mains without storing it anywhere. For this reason, this system is also sume times called pumping without storage system. 3. By combine Garavity and Pumping System.
  • 13. 13 In this system, the treated water is pumped at a constant rate and stored into an elevated distribution reservoir, from where it is distributed to the consumers by the mere action of gravity. Sometimes the entire a times it is pumped into the distribution mains and reserviors, simultaneously. This meted thus, combines pumping as well as gravity flow, and is some times called pumping with storage system. Here for Baikunthpur area we addopted Gravitational distribution system… B. PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Project is a proposal to create a walkable clustered-form of residential development With neighborhood amenities including naturalized open space and enhanced wildlife Habitat, community recreation, parks, and neighborhood agriculture that is designed to Serve the residents and preserve and provide reference to the rural character and Agricultural roots of the Roaring Fork Valley. The Project aims to have a strong historic Identity back to the days of ‘old Colorado’ when compact neighborhoods formed with a Strong sense of community based on the land and surrounding landscape. The RECLandscape aesthetic will be simple, informal, and place emphasis in the use o f plant and
  • 14. 14 Landscape materials local, adaptable and appropriate to the climate and environment of The area. The Project will include approximately 366 residential units of various sizes and types including 55 affordable homes and one exclusive executive lot for a custom home. Housing types will range from attached homes to small single family attached And detached garden homes, village homes, and larger estate homes. Smaller garden c. Infiltration works i. Quality of sub surface water. ii. Whether river is perennial? What is the lean surface flow in the river? iii. A grid work of tell tale borings at 30-60m intervals for full width of the river 120m upstream and 120m down steam, of the proposed site for infiltration works. iv. Effective size and uniformity coefficient of sand at different depths. v. Maximum flood level and minimum summer water level. vi. Scour depth arrived at for the structures nearby constructed, by PWD, Highways etc.,
  • 15. 15 d. Ground Water Source i. Availability of ground water and its quality. ii. Geophysical survey to locate bores. iii. Examination of hydro geological and hydrological factors. iv. Topographical survey. e. Pump houses and treatment works i. Topographical survey to decide the best location of treatment plant. ii. Trial pit particulars and safe bearing capacity of soil g. Service Reservoir The following particulars are to be collected i. Operational records to study storage requirements. ii. Highest elevation in the area of town are to be identified for locating the Service Reservoirs. iii. Spot levels at site proposed for the Service Reservoir. iv.Contours of the town for dividing the area into numbers of zones. v. Foundation details. Vi. Trial pit particulars to assess the safe bearing capacity of soil at the site. vii. Maximum and minimum ground water levels.
  • 16. 16 h. Distribution System The following particulars are to be collected. i. Town map in the scale of 1:200 showing all streets with names. ii. Number of houses in each street, prospects of further development, Nature of houses, number of floors and height. iii. Kinds of roads. Such as concrete, BT, WBM roads iv. Town planning proposals. If any, with proposed approved layout. v. L.S. streets at 30m intervals. vi. Trail pit particulars at 500m intervals along the proposed alignments vii. A plan showing the existing distribution lines, if available with year of installation. viii.The number of existing public fountains and existing house service connection. Aeration Aim : i. to remove objectionable tastes and odours . ii. for expulsion of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide . iii. to precipitate impurities iron and manganese present.
  • 17. 17 iv. For increasing the dissolved oxygen content to water for imparting Pre – Chlorination Aim : i. to prevent biological growth in raw water ii. for reduction of colour . iii. for destruction of some taste & odour producing compounds . iv. For oxidation of iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide. v. to aid coagulation. vi. for minimizing post-chlorination dosage . Dosage : 1 to 5 ppm depending on the degree of pollution . Plain Sedimentation Aim : To separate suspended impurities from water by gravitation . Detention period : One to several days for sedimentation without subsequent filtration to 4 hours for sedimentation in conjunction with filters .( much longer settling time for basins preceding slow sand filters than for rapid sand filters ) . Loading rate: 2.4 to 24m3 / day / m2 Chemical dosing Aim : i. For coagulation, flocculation . ii. disinfection and softening .
  • 18. 18 iii. algal and corrosion control . iv. for fluoridisation . Types :( i) Dry feed . (ii) Solution feed .Strength of solution :To be not more than 5% for manual feed and not more than10% for mechanical feed.Alum is the most common coagulant used and economical.Lime is also added when PH and alkalinity are low Dosage for alum : 20-100 mg / 1 (1-5 grain / gallon )Dosage for lime: About one third that of alumDensity of lime = 670 kg / m3 Density of alum = 980 kg / m3  Rapid Sand Filters: The rapid sand filter comprises of a bed of sand serving as a single medium granular matrix supported on gravel overlaying an under drainage system. Filtration rate 80-100 lpm/m2 or 4.8-6m/hr at normal rate :10 m/h at max..prudent arrangement would be at 4.8 m/hr Head loss allowed : 1.8 to 2.0 m . Depth of sand : 60-75 cm thick Depth of gravel : Gravel is placed between the sand and the under drainage system to prevent sand from entering the under drains and to aid distribution of waste water Varying from 25 to 65mm at bottom and 2 to 5 mm at 47 top with a depth 0.45m. Depth of water over sand :1.0-2.0 m. Size of Filter bed :100 m2 (max ) for a single unit comprising Two halves 50 m2 each . No. of Units :4 ( min ) and 2 for small plants . Overall depth : minimum 2.6 m including a free board of 0.5 m Ratio of length to width : 1.25-1.33
  • 19. 19 Pressure Filters Same principle as gravity type rapid sand filters; butWater is passed through the filters under pressure.Tank axis may be vertical or horizontal. Disadvantages: (i). Pretreatment is not possible without secondary Pumping. (ii) Complicates effective feeding mixing and flocculation. (iii) Adequate contact time for chemicals not possible (iv) Observance of effectiveness of back was not possible (v) Difficult to inspect clean and replace. Advantages :is. Secondary pumping is avoided for treated water. ii. Filter backwash is less complicated . iii. Suitable for small industries and swimming pools.
  • 20. 20 * WATER SOURC, AND WATER QUALIT Y AND TREATMENT This section of the design report identifies the proposed source of the water for the Potable water system and the treatment program or system necessary to ensure the Water supply meets the applicable CDPHE drinking water standards. The potable water Treatment systems necessary to meet CDPHE drinking water standards depend on the Source that will be utilized to supply the potable water system, as detailed in this Section. STANDARDS VALUE OF PARAMETERR 1. PH-6.5-8.5 2. TURIDITY-5-10 NTU 3. CHLORIDE-250 mg/l 4. NITRATE – 45 Mg/l 5. FLORIDE – 1.5 PPM 6. IRON -0.3 Mg/l 7. RESIDUAL CHLORIN -CONCENTRATION
  • 22. 22 TYPES OF FILTERS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION As pointed out earier, there are mainly three type of filter  Slow sand filters  Rapid gravity filters and  Pressure filters Houever ,when classification on the basis of the rate of their filtration , the filters can be divided as follous. FILTER SLOW SAND FILTER RAPID SAND FILTER RAPID GRAVITY FILTERS PRESURE FILTER
  • 23. 23 Similarly ,theis classification ,when based upon the consideration of gravity and presure , is indicated below FILTER Gravity filter Pressure filter Slow sand filter Rapit SAND FILTERS
  • 24. 24 Certificate This is to certify that project report entitled “ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY INDEX “(CASE STUDY BAIKUNTHPUR) submitted by AMIT SAHU, DEEPAK KUMAR TOPPO students of DIPLOMA FINAL YEAR (DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING G.P.KOREA) in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the diploma in engineering them benefited presentation of the work done by them under my guidance and supervision. Department of civil Engineering GOVT. POLYTECHNIC KOREA BAIKUNTHPUR C.G
  • 25. 25 The intake well or the collector well is a circular or more preferably an oblong well ,located in the river bedd ,some what away from the river bank,amidst water,so that it always remains surrounded with water , even during low flow it always remains surrounded with water , even during low flow stage .the well is build in masonry or concrete .and is raised above the river HFL and coverd at the top by wooden sleepers etc a sto Make it approachable from the river bank through a foot bridge arrangement this River water enters in to this well thought the opening or ports, which are the left in the well steining and fitted with vertical iron bars of 20 mm dia placed
  • 26. 26 vertically@clear spacing and fitted to a angle iron frame , which the fixed properly in the opening .Depending upon the discharge to be entered in to the inlet well , the total area of such opening can be worked out by restricating the flow vellosity river water enters in to the well through the opening or ports,which are left in the well steining and fitted with vertical bar screens . These to make GROUND WATER QUALITY OF PARAMETERS  pH : is a measure of activity of hudrogen ion concentration. Standard value is 6-8.5 Source are acids and alkaline in water less than 7 water becoms acidic & pH grater then 7 it becomes alkaline.  Residule clorine: is a remaining chlorine concentration after the chlorine demand. Addedchlorine for disinfection purpose source are added chlorine for distribution purpose low concentration causes disease & high concentration causes taste problem.  Sulphur : combine with oxygen and forms sulphats ion standard value are 200 mg/Lsourses are industrial efflunt ,fuel buring , mining etc. highe concentration is toxic to aquatic organism.
  • 27. 27  TDS: is trotal weight of all solid that discovered in given value of water .standard value is 500mg/l source are leaves rocks and atmosphere . high concentration cause undesirable test like salty , bitterest.  TURBIDITY: is a measure of the degree to which water losses its transparency. Standard value is 1-5 NTUSources are sediment from erosion , waste discharge etc. causes dirty look and also hinder in disinfection Process.  DO: is amount of oxygen dissolved in given quantity of water at given temp & atm pressure . standardValue is 8-10 mg/l . source is atmosphere. Low DO harmful to aquatic life and high DO causes “gas bubble disease “ in fish.  Chloride: is one of two components of sodium chloride, also known as table salt or rock salt . when saltDissolved in water, it separates into sodium (Na+) ions and chloride (Cl-) ions. Standard value is 0.05mg/l.Sources are soap , detergent , industrial and commercial process etc. high concentration causes taste Problem.  Fluorides : is a element essential for the teeth and bones. Sources are fertilizer industries, fluoride-Containing mineral, coal burning low conc. Causes dental cavities and high conc. Causes mottlingOf teeth  HARDNESS: is property which prevents leathering of soap. Standard value is 300 mg/l. sources areSedimentary rocks, limestone ,chalk etc. low conc. Causes heart illness causes greater soap consumption.
  • 28. 28  IRON: is an element which forms part of hemoglobin and gives blood its dark red colour .Standard value is 0.3 mg/l.sources are nature, ferrous boreholes, industrial effluents etc.Low conc. Causes fatigue and high conc. Causes discolouation and accelerate ageing.  MAGNESIUM: is an element which keeps muscle and nerve functioning normal.standardValue is 20 mg/l .sources are nature, industrial effluents etc. low conc. Causes fatigue ,Insomnia , pain in neck and high conc causes diarrheal and laxatives.  ALKALINIT: is ability of solution to neutrilise acid to the equivalence point of carbonate Or bicarbonate . standard value is 200-600mg/l .sources are naturally found alkalies andAlkalies from wastes. Low alkalinity causes melting and ice high alkalinity causes damage To coral reef ecosystem.  CALCIUM: is major inorganic cations in salt water and fresh water. Standard value is 0-100 mg/l.Sources are from rocks and soil and domestic and industrial wastes. Excess causes deposit In plumbing and decreases cleansing action of soap
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 30 REFERENCES  Environmental engineering By S.K.Garg.  Environmental engineering By B.C.Punmia  Environmental engineering By Shivanda kamde  Water pollution By Mahida,U.N.  Water supply and sanitary engg.Dhanpat rai
  • 31. 31