Deaf trials of oppression and discrimination PPT Danielle Devery


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Deaf trials of oppression and discrimination PPT Danielle Devery

  1. 1. Danielle Devery Toby Welch SLNG 1347 Deaf Cultures
  2. 2. 1.) Bible Days The first recognized Deaf individual was the one biblically referenced as the one Jesus healed. 2.) 1000 BC Hebrew Law, stated that the Deaf have “limited” rights to marriage and property. It wouldn’t allow the discrimination of others onto them because of their Deafness, however it did limit their ability to participate and be active in their faith, at least in the Temple.
  3. 3. • 3.) 360 BC- Plato’s Cratylus • Socrates basically states that even though an individual is perceived to be perfect at birth, that without speech there was no sign of intelligence, making them incapable of language. 4.) 355 BC- Aristotle Said, "Those who are born deaf all become senseless and incapable of reason.” 5.) There are many noted literary works denouncing the Deaf, their intelligence, and their ability of language and to learn. * (later, Alexander Graham Bell) Socrates, Aristotle, Lucretius and his work De Rerum Natura. And many more.
  4. 4. • 6.) 77 AD- Pliny the Elder published his work titled Natural History, in which he mentioned and artist named Quintus Pedius who was Deaf, and how in order for him to be an Artist he had to have permission from Caesar Augustus • 7.) 354-430 AD- Augustine believed and had stated his belief of deafness being a hindrance to faith, “faith cometh by hearing” On that note though he had also stated that he believed that Deaf people were capable of language, learning and communicating so in turn he believed they were capable of faith and receiving salvation. (However due to his original statement and belief that “Faith cometh by hearing” many people misconstrued the statement to fit their biased opinion on the Deaf and their equality or lack thereof.
  5. 5. • 8.) 529- The Justinian Code, (Emperor Justinian) denied Deaf individuals the right to write a valid will, control/own/inherit property, make contracts. • Taking a Step Further in time • 9.) 1880’s- Alexander Graham Bell, was a firm believer in Oralism, he also believed that Deafness weakened society and that is not weeded out and controlled it would grow and eventually cause a Deaf world, which he believed to be a great “calamity”. He proposed many ways to “fix” this “problem” ex. Not allowing Deaf people to marry Deaf people, or for Deaf people to have children with other Deaf people, and so on.
  6. 6. • 1.) 721 – Early documentation of teaching a deaf-mute, recognized by St. Bede, St Bede wrote about how St. John of Beverly taught a deaf-mute to speak. (while it’s not quite what we imagined, it is a step into the right direction- as in someone recognized that being Deaf does not mean you are incapable of learning.) • 2.) 1485- Another documented education of a Deaf individual, “Rudolphus Agricola wrote about a deaf-mute who learned to read and write.” • 3.) 1500- Girolamo Cardano was the first person to challenge Aristotle’s view that Deaf could not understand because they could not hear, he was also “the first physician to recognize the ability of the Deaf to reason”
  7. 7. • 4.) 1521- Rudolf Agricola, a Dutch humanist, made known his belief that understanding and speech are separate functions, and that the Deaf are capable of understanding. And that they could communicate through other mediums, like writing. • 5.) “1550 - Pedro Ponce de Leon began teaching the Deaf.” • 6.) 1755-1760 The First oral school for the deaf in Germany was established by Samuel Heinicke (Although it is a oral school, it is one step closer to acknowledging Deaf education) • .
  8. 8. • 7.) “1755 - Charles Michel Abbe de l’Epee established first free school for the deaf in the world, The Royal Institution of Deaf and Mutes in Paris, France. L'Epee supported the school at his own expense until his death. Later, the government began to support the school. His successor was the Abbe Roch Concurrou Sicard (1742- 1822). It was Sicard who brought Laurent Clerc and Jean Massieu to London where they met Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet.” • (This is a large step forward in recognizing and practicing Deaf education!) • 8.) 1760 - Thomas Braidwood founded the first British Academy for the deaf in England • 9.) 1815 – Thomas H. Gallaudet went to Europe to learn more about how to teach the deaf.
  9. 9. • 10.) 1816- Laurent Clerc returned to the United States of America with Thomas H. Gallaudet • 11.) 1817- American School for the Deaf was founded by Laurent Clerc, Mason Cogswell, and Thomas H. Gallaudet, in Hartford Conneticut. (It was originally called the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf
  10. 10. • 12.) 1818 - The NY Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb was founded. • 13.) 1823 - Kentucky School for the Deaf opened in Danville. First school supported by state. • 14.) 1829 - Ohio School for the Deaf opened in Columbus. • 15.) From 1830 on, schools were opening left and right for the education of the Deaf people.
  11. 11. • Information • ntent&view=article&id=858:deaf-timelines-history-a- heritage&catid=37:deaf-ministry-resources&Itemid=58 language.html • Pictures • &source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=zlgJUpvKJqHc2Q WHwoD4CQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1024&bih=5 40#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=ca0dcecf8eae31b8&q=sign+lan guage+&sa=1&tbm=isch&imgdii=_ • &source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=zlgJUpvKJqHc2Q WHwoD4CQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1024&bih=5 40#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=ca0dcecf8eae31b8&q=trees&sa =1&tbm=isch&imgdii=_ • &source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=zlgJUpvKJqHc2Q WHwoD4CQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1024&bih=5 40#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=ca0dcecf8eae31b8&q=hear+Go ds+word&sa=1&tbm=isch&imgdii=_ • &source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=zlgJUpvKJqHc2Q WHwoD4CQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1024&bih=5 40#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=ca0dcecf8eae31b8&q=aristotle &sa=1&tbm=isch&imgdii=_