Gregg Reference Manual
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Gregg Reference Manual

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Think it, speak it, but write it correctly.

Think it, speak it, but write it correctly.

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Gregg Reference Manual Gregg Reference Manual Presentation Transcript

  •  
    • CONTENTS
    • PART 1. Grammar, Usage, and Style
    • SECTION 1. Punctuation: Major Marks
    • SECTION 2. Punctuation: Other Marks
    • SECTION 3. Capitalization
    • SECTION 4. Numbers
    • SECTION 5. Abbreviations
    • SECTION 6. Plurals and Possessives
    • SECTION 7. Spelling
    • SECTION 8. Compound Words
    • SECTION 9. Word Division
    • SECTION 10. Grammar
    • SECTION 11. Usage
    Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. Click the section title to advance to each section .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 101a. Use a period to mark the end of a sentence that makes a statement or expresses a command. THE PERIOD Statement: I question the need to merge the two companies. Command: Make sure that the doors open at 10 a.m. Slide 1-1
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 110a. Use a question mark at the end of a direct question. ¶ 104. Use a period at the end of an indirect question. THE QUESTION MARK Direct question: Why is the policy being changed? Indirect question: I would like to know why the policy is being changed. Slide 1-2
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 119a. Use an exclamation point at the end of a sentence to express enthusiasm or some other strong feeling. THE EXCLAMATION POINT Exclamation: Your article about the Internet was the best I’ve ever read! Slide 1-3
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 103. Use a question mark at the end of a sentence that asks a favor. Use a period at the end of a sentence that expresses a polite command. THE PERIOD AND THE QUESTION MARK Favor: Will you please let me borrow your Corvette? Polite command: Will you please let me know whether you plan to stay overnight. Slide 1-4
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 101b, 111, 119a. Use a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point (as appropriate) at the end of an elliptical expression —a word or phrase that represents a complete sentence. THE PERIOD, THE QUESTION MARK, AND THE EXCLAMATION POINT When am I leaving? In a week or so . I heard that you’re resigning. Why ? What a great job ! Congratulations ! Slide 1-5
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 107a. Use periods after elements displayed on separate lines in a list when they are long or are essential to the grammatical completeness of the statement that introduces the list. THE PERIOD This software will help you to: 1. Maintain your checkbook. 2. Prepare a realistic monthly budget. 3. Monitor your monthly expenses. Slide 1-6
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 107b. No periods are needed after elements in a list if the introductory statement is grammatically complete. THE PERIOD
    • We can provide the following kinds of software:
    • Customer information systems
    • Product information systems
    • Decision support systems
    Slide 1-7
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 102a. As a general rule, use one space after the period or any other mark at the end of a sentence, but switch to two spaces whenever a stronger visual break between sentences is needed. THE PERIOD One space after the period: Let’s meet on Friday. How does 10 a.m. sound? Two spaces after the period: Let’s meet on Friday. How does 10 a.m. sound? Slide 1-8
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 102e. When an abbreviation ends one sentence and begins the next, the use of one space after the period that ends the sentence may be inadequate. Use two spaces for a stronger visual break. THE PERIOD One space after the period: Lunch begins at 1 p.m. F. J. Rae will be the speaker. Two spaces after the period: Lunch begins at 1 p.m. F. J. Rae will be the speaker. Slide 1-9
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 122. Use commas to set off nonessential expressions —words, phrases, and clauses that are not needed to complete the meaning or the structure of a sentence. COMMAS THAT SET OFF Nonessential: Let’s ask Muriel Spock, who is familiar with this type of transaction . Essential: Let’s ask someone who is familiar with this type of transaction . Slide 1-10
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 COMMAS THAT SET OFF Nonessential: I have decided, therefore , to withdraw my bid. Essential: I have therefore decided to withdraw my bid. Slide 1-11 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 643,346,Slide 346 ¶ 122. Use commas to set off nonessential expressions —words, phrases, and clauses that are not needed to complete the meaning or the structure of a sentence.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 122a. Use commas to set off interrupting elements —words, phrases, and clauses that break the flow of a sentence from subject to verb to object or complement. COMMAS THAT SET OFF Interrupting: We could meet this Thursday or, if you prefer , next Tuesday. Interrupting: We can wait for a week, can’t we , to see what happens? Slide 1-12
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 122b. Use commas to set off afterthoughts —words, phrases, and clauses loosely added onto the end of a sentence. COMMAS THAT SET OFF Afterthought: The merger took place last July, if I remember correctly . Afterthought: It’s not too late to enroll, is it ? Slide 1-13
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 122c. Use commas to set off transitional expressions and similar elements that are not essential to the meaning or the structure of a sentence. COMMAS THAT SET OFF Nonessential: It is true, nevertheless , that Carl supplied us with useful information. Essential: It is nevertheless true that Carl supplied us with useful information. Slide 1-14
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 122c. Use commas to set off independent comments and similar elements that are not essential to the meaning or the structure of a sentence. COMMAS THAT SET OFF Nonessential: It is our plan, of course , to get a second opinion. Essential: It is of course our plan to get a second opinion. Slide 1-15
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 122d. Use commas to set off descriptive expressions and similar elements that are not essential to the meaning or the structure of a sentence. COMMAS THAT SET OFF Nonessential: Many thanks for your letter of May 1, in which you reviewed my manuscript . Essential: Many thanks for the letter in which you reviewed my manuscript . Slide 1-16
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 122e-f. Use commas to set off descriptive expressions and similar elements that are not essential to the meaning or the structure of a sentence. COMMAS THAT SET OFF Dates: The meeting planned for November 5, 2003 , will have to be rescheduled for February 2004 . Names: Ann Garcia, M.D. , is moving to Logan, Utah . Names: Paul Poe Jr. is leaving Green Inc. next week. Slide 1-17
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 123b. Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE The Foxes, the Perrys, and the Joneses have said yes. I’m still waiting to hear from the Sheas and the Poes . Slide 1-18
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 123c. Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives that modify the same noun. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Gillian is a thoughtful, considerate person . But: I would like to thank you for your thoughtful editorial comments. Slide 1-19
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 123d. Use a comma to separate the digits of large numbers into groups of thousands. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-20 10,575 200,000 3,500,000 But: 3000 3.14159265
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 123e. Use a comma to indicate the omission of key words. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-21 Employees with at least one year of service are entitled to two weeks of vacation; those with at least three years of service, three weeks.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 123e. Use a comma to indicate unusual word order. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-22 How that happened, we’ll never know.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 123e. Use a comma to preserve clarity. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-23 All an insurance policy is, is a contract for services.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 124. Use a comma after most introductory elements that begin a sentence and precede the subject and verb of the main clause. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-24 Introductory word: Well , what can we do? Introductory phrase: To start a successful business , you need to do a lot of planning. But: To start a successful business requires a lot of planning.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 124. Use a comma after most introductory elements that begin a sentence and precede the subject and verb of the main clause. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-25 Introductory clause: Before we invest more money in the company , we need to see an updated financial analysis. Introductory verbal phrase: In reviewing the sketches , I noticed several problems.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 124. Use a comma after most introductory elements that begin a sentence and precede the subject and verb of the main clause. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-26 Introductory adverb: Tomorrow I’ll give you our decision. Introductory phrase: In 2003 I may retire. Introductory phrase: In the morning I’ll have more time.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 124b. Use a comma after a transitional expression or an independent comment that begins a sentence. COMMAS THAT SEPARATE Slide 1-27 Transitional expression: In any case , we don’t have to decide right away. Independent comment: In my opinion , she needs help.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 126-128. Use a comma to separate two main clauses when they are joined by and , but , or , or nor . COMMAS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES Slide 1-28 Compound sentence: I finished the report last week , and I will now write a one-page executive summary . Compound predicate: I finished the report last week and will now write a one-page executive summary .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 126-128. Do not use a comma to separate two main clauses when they are not joined by and, but, or, or nor . COMMAS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES Slide 1-29 Run-on sentence: I finished the report last week, I will now write a one-page executive summary. (A comma is incorrect.) Correct alternatives: . . . last week. I will . . . . . . last week; I will . . . . . . last week, and I will . . .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 130. Use a comma to separate a dependent clause that precedes the main clause. COMMAS IN COMPLEX SENTENCES Slide 1-30 Before we meet with the sales staff , we need to complete this study.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 131, 132. Use a comma to separate a nonessential dependent clause that follows the main clause. COMMAS IN COMPLEX SENTENCES Slide 1-31 Nonessential: We need to complete this study by Friday, before we meet with the CEO. Essential: We need to complete this study before we meet with the CEO.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 176. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses when the clauses are not linked by a coordinating conjunction ( and, but, or, or nor ). THE SEMICOLON Slide 1-32 Sheila wants to buy an SUV; Paul would rather get a convertible. Also correct: Sheila wants to buy an SUV. Paul would rather get a convertible.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 178. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses when the clauses are linked by a transitional expression (such as however, moreover, or therefore ). THE SEMICOLON Slide 1-33 My partners want to sign the contract; however, I have some misgivings. Also correct: My partners want to sign the contract. However, I have some misgivings.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 187a. Use a colon to separate two independent clauses (1) when the second clause explains the first clause and (2) the clauses are not linked by a coordinating conjunction or a transitional expression. THE COLON Slide 1-34 It has been said that a successful project goes through three stages: it won’t work, it costs too much, and I always knew it was a good idea.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 187b. Compare the use of the colon and the semicolon in these examples: THE COLON Slide 1-35 Colon: This job sounds very attractive: the salary, the benefits, and the opportunities for advance-ment seem excellent. (The second clause explains the first clause.) Semicolon: This job sounds very attractive; it is the kind of job I have been looking for. ( Also correct: This job sounds very attractive. It is the . . . . )
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 181a. Ordinarily, use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses when they are linked by for example, namely, or that is . FOR EXAMPLE , NAMELY , AND THAT IS Semicolon: Pamela Hearst is well qualified for this sales job; for example, she spent three years working as a sales representative for one of our major competitors. Slide 1-36
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 181b. Use a colon before for example, namely, or that is if (1) the first inde-pendent clause directs attention to the second independent clause and (2) the second clause carries the real emphasis in the sentence. FOR EXAMPLE , NAMELY , AND THAT IS Colon: Your proposal covers all but one point: namely, who is going to foot the bill? Slide 1-37
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 182a. Use a semicolon before for example, namely, or that is if (1) the preceding part of the sentence expresses a complete thought and (2) what follows is an afterthought, providing additional information that is nice to know but nonessential. FOR EXAMPLE , NAMELY , AND THAT IS Semicolon: Always use figures with abbre-viations; for example, 6 ft, 8 lb, 11 a.m. Slide 1-38
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 182b. Use a colon before for example , namely , or that is if (1) the preceding part of the sentence leads up to what follows and (2) the real emphasis of the sentence is to fall on what follows. FOR EXAMPLE , NAMELY , AND THAT IS Colon: There are two things I’d like you to do while I’m away: namely, answer all my phone calls and don’t let anyone know that I’m away. Slide 1-39
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 182c. Use a comma before for example , namely , or that is if it introduces a word or phrase that explains an expression immediately preceding. FOR EXAMPLE , NAMELY , AND THAT IS This batch of mail will be processed by an OCR, that is, an optical character reader. Slide 1-40
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 183, 201. When for example , namely , or that is introduces an expression within a sentence, use dashes to set off the complete expression if you want to give it special emphasis. DASHES Three of our customers—namely, Foley, Florio, and Gabor—have not reordered. Slide 2-1
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 183, 219. When for example , namely , or that is introduces an expression within a sentence, use parentheses to set off the complete expression if you want to de-emphasize it. PARENTHESES Three of our customers (namely, Foley, Florio, and Gabor) have not reordered. Slide 2-2
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 183. When for example , namely , or that is introduces an expression within a sentence, use commas to set off the complete expression if (1) no special treatment is required and (2) the expression does not contain a series of items separated by commas. COMMAS A few of our customers, for example, Foley and Florio, have called to complain. Slide 2-3
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 227. Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation , that is, the exact words of a speaker or writer. QUOTATION MARKS Jack simply said, “I have decided to resign.” Slide 2-4
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 228. Do not use quotation marks for an indirect quotation , that is, a restatement of a person’s exact words. QUOTATION MARKS Jack simply said that he had decided to resign. Slide 2-5
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 253a. When a quoted statement falls at the beginning of a sentence, insert a comma (not a period) before the closing quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS “ Let’s try to meet next Thursday,” Jean suggested. Slide 2-6
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 254. When a quoted question falls at the beginning of a sentence, insert a question mark (not a comma) before the closing quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS “ Why do we need to meet?” Steve asked. Slide 2-7
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 254. When a quoted exclamation falls at the beginning of a sentence, insert an exclamation point (not a comma) before the closing quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS “ I don’t believe it!” Burt shouted. Slide 2-8
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 256a. When a quoted sentence falls at the end of a larger sentence, insert a comma before the opening quotation mark if the quotation is introduced by a simple phrase like She said . QUOTATION MARKS Marsha said, “We need to make a decision today.” Slide 2-9
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 256b. When a quoted sentence falls at the end of a larger sentence, insert a colon before the opening quotation mark if the quotation is introduced by a complete sentence like She said this . QUOTATION MARKS Marsha’s reaction was fierce: “We need to make a decision today.” Slide 2-10
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 247a, 257. When a quoted statement falls at the end of a statement , insert a period before the closing quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS Marsha said, “We need to make a decision today.” Slide 2-11
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 249a, 257. When a quoted question falls at the end of a statement , insert a question mark before the closing quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS Ralph replied, “Why do we have to decide today?” Slide 2-12
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶ 249b, 257. When a quoted statement falls at the end of a question , insert a question mark after the closing quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS Did Marsha really say, “We need to make a decision today”? Slide 2-13
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 257. When a quoted question falls at the end of a question , insert a question mark before the closing quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS Did Marsha really say, “Why do we need to make a decision today?” Slide 2-14
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 242. Use quotation marks to enclose titles that represent only part of a complete work (such as an article in a magazine or a chapter in a book). QUOTATION MARKS I’m enclosing a copy of an article entitled “Reinventing Retailing to Compete With E-Tailing.” Slide 2-15
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 289a. Use italics or underlining to set off titles that represent complete works (such as a magazine or a book). ITALICS AND UNDERLINING For an excellent book on conflict resolution, read Getting to Yes . ( Or: Getting to Yes .) Slide 2-16
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 285a. Use italics or underlining to set off words used as words. ITALICS AND UNDERLINING What does the term mouse potato mean? Slide 2-17
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶ 287. Use italics or underlining to set off foreign expressions unless they are considered part of the English language. ITALICS AND UNDERLINING What they said is true, n’est-ce pas? ( Or: n’est-ce pas ?) But: I’m all for preserving the status quo. Slide 2-18
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶301a . Capitalize the first word of every sentence. CAPITALIZATION—FIRST WORDS W e didn’t know that. H ow did you find out? Slide 3-1
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶301b . Capitalize the first word of an expression used as a sentence. CAPITALIZATION—FIRST WORDS R eally? U nbelievable! I ndeed. S o much for that. Slide 3-2
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶301c . Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence. CAPITALIZATION—FIRST WORDS Mr. Potter asked, “ W hen can we expect a decision?” Slide 3-3
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶301d . Capitalize the first word of an independent question within a sentence. CAPITALIZATION—FIRST WORDS The question is, W hat should we do now? Slide 3-4
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶301e . Capitalize the first word of each item displayed in a list or an outline. CAPITALIZATION—FIRST WORDS Slide 3-5
    • This problem-solving tool will help you:
    • B ecome an effective leader.
    • I mprove your relations with colleagues.
    • C ope with stressful situations on the job.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶301g . Capitalize the first word of the salutation and the complimentary closing of a letter. CAPITALIZATION—FIRST WORDS Slide 3-6 D ear Ms. Porcini: S incerely,
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶303, 311, 320 . Capitalize every proper noun , that is, the official name of a particular person, place, or thing. CAPITALIZATION—PROPER NOUNS Slide 3-7 Persons: D r. M artin L uther K ing, J r. E leanor R oosevelt Organizations: C isco S ystems the R ed C ross
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶303, 325, 335 . Capitalize every proper noun , that is, the official name of a particular person, place, or thing. CAPITALIZATION—PROPER NOUNS Slide 3-8 Governmental units: the H ouse of R epresentatives But: the federal government the V ermont S tate B oard of E ducation But: the state of V ermont
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶303, 331 . Capitalize every proper noun , that is, the official name of a particular person, place, or thing. CAPITALIZATION—PROPER NOUNS Slide 3-9 Places: the H oliday I nn B ath, M aine L ake C hamplain O ’ H are A irport
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶303, 331, 356, 360, 364 . Capitalize every proper noun , that is, the official name of a particular person, place, or thing. CAPITALIZATION—PROPER NOUNS Slide 3-10 Things: the S tatue of L iberty K leenex G one W ith the W ind an O scar
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶303, 342 . Capitalize every proper noun , that is, the official name of a particular person, place, or thing. CAPITALIZATION—PROPER NOUNS Slide 3-11 Days: W ednesday S aturday Months: F ebruary 14 O ctober 31 Holidays: the F ourth of J uly M other’s D ay
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶303, 344a-b . Capitalize every proper noun , that is, the official name of a particular person, place, or thing. CAPITALIZATION—PROPER NOUNS Slide 3-12 Events: W orld W ar II the M iddle A ges the H olocaust the R enaissance
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶303, 348 . Capitalize every proper noun , that is, the official name of a particular person, place, or thing. CAPITALIZATION—PROPER NOUNS Slide 3-13 Races: C aucasians N ative A mericans Peoples: the K oreans A frican A mericans Languages: speak S wedish read J apanese
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶307 . Do not capitalize common nouns , that is, nouns that refer to a class of things. CAPITALIZATION—COMMON NOUNS Slide 3-14 books all books every book
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶308 . Do not capitalize common nouns , that is, nouns that refer to a particular person, place, or thing without using the full official name. CAPITALIZATION—COMMON NOUNS Slide 3-15 my book this book these books
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶309 . Capitalize a common noun when it is part of a proper noun but not when it is used as a short form in place of the complete official name. CAPITALIZATION—COMMON NOUNS Slide 3-16 Proper nouns: Common nouns: Dr. Milano my doctor Professor Piasecki the professor the Poe Company the company
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶309 . Capitalize a common noun when it is part of a proper noun but not when it is used as a short form in place of the complete official name. CAPITALIZATION—COMMON NOUNS Slide 3-17 Proper nouns: Common nouns: Boston University the university Hotel Pierre the hotel Logan Airport the airport
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶309, 331, 346a . Capitalize a common noun when it is part of a proper noun but not when it is used as a short form in place of the complete official name. CAPITALIZATION—COMMON NOUNS Slide 3-18 Proper nouns: Common nouns: the Hudson River the river Fifth Avenue the avenue the Civil Rights Act the act
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶312a . Capitalize a title when it precedes a person’s name. CAPITALIZATION—TITLES Slide 3-19 Personal titles: Mr. Arnst Ms. La Voix Executive titles: President Roy Fox
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶312a . Capitalize a title when it precedes a person’s name. CAPITALIZATION—TITLES Slide 3-20 Professional titles: Dr. Cheng Professor Romero Governmental titles: Governor Foy Senator Cohen
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶313a . In most cases, do not capitalize these titles when they follow a person’s name or are used in place of a person’s name. CAPITALIZATION—TITLES Slide 3-21 Roy Fox, president of the Century Club, asked . . . The president of the Century Club asked . . .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶313b . Always capitalize the titles of high-ranking officials and dignitaries, even when they follow a person’s name or are used in place of a person’s name. CAPITALIZATION—TITLES Slide 3-22 National officials: the President the Vice President State officials: the Governor the Lieutenant Governor
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶313b . Always capitalize the titles of high-ranking officials and dignitaries, even when they follow a person’s name or are used in place of a person’s name. CAPITALIZATION—TITLES Slide 3-23 Foreign dignitaries: the Queen the Prime Minister International figures: the Pope the Secretary General
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶313c-d . Ordinarily, do not capitalize the titles of local officials or company officials when they follow or are used in place of a person’s name. CAPITALIZATION—TITLES Slide 3-24 The mayor announced . . . The treasurer of the club . . .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶401a . Spell out numbers from 1 through 10. Use figures for numbers over 10. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-1 Please make ten copies of this article. Please make 11 copies of this article.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶402 . Express related numbers the same way. If some are above 10 and some below 10, put them all in figures. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-2 Please send 10 copies of this article to our Boise office and 11 copies to our Topeka office.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶401d . Always spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-3 Forty men showed up.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶401c . Always spell out indefinite numbers and amounts. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-4 a few thousand brochures hundreds of acres
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶401d . Always spell out nontechnical or nonemphatic references to age, periods of time, and measurements. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-5 when I turn forty sixty years ago lose fifty pounds
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶401d . Some numbers are usually spelled out. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-6 Ordinal numbers: my twenty-fifth birthday Fractions: over one-third of the callers
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶401b, 410 . In expressions of dates, where numbers have technical signifi- cance or need to stand out for quick comprehension, use all figures—even for the numbers 1 through 10. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-7 On April 8, 2003, we will . . . ( Not: April 8th) In April 2003 we will . . . the May 2003 issue But: the May 2, 2003, issue
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶401b, 403a, 413a, 418a. In expressions of money, where numbers have technical significance or need to stand out for quick comprehension, use all figures—even for the numbers 1 through 10. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-8 from $4.95 to $9 $5,000,000 Or: $5 million 10 cents But: not worth two cents
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶401b, 453. When numbers precede abbreviations and symbols, use all figures—even for the numbers 1 through 10. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-9 8 a.m. 7.5 lb 250 MB 9°F
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶401b. With technical or emphatic references to age, use all figures— even for the numbers 1 through 10. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-10 Technical: a study of 2-year-olds Nontechnical: my two-year-old son
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶401b, 436. With technical or emphatic references to periods of time, use all figures—even for the numbers 1 through 10. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-11 Technical: a 20-year mortgage Nontechnical: over twenty years ago
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶401b, 429. With technical or emphatic references to measure- ments, use all figures—even for the numbers 1 through 10. NUMBERS—FIGURE STYLE Slide 4-12 Technical: packages over 5 pounds Nontechnical: need to lose five pounds
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶404. Spell out numbers from 1 through 100. Also spell out numbers above 100 that require only one or two words. NUMBERS—WORD STYLE Slide 4-13 sixty-five ( one word) three hundred ( two words ) But: 350 ( would require three words ) ninety-five million But: 125 million
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶405. Express related numbers the same way. If some numbers require one or two words and others require more than two words, put them all in figures. NUMBERS—WORD STYLE Slide 4-14 We sent out 350 invitations and have already received over 300 acceptances. Our corporation projected revenues of $125 million last year but earned only $95 million .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶502a. Avoid using abbreviations except on business forms, in catalogs, in tables, and in informal documents shared with your colleagues. When in doubt, spell it out. ABBREVIATIONS Slide 5-1
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶502b. Some abbreviations are always acceptable, such as those that accompany a person’s name. ABBREVIATIONS Slide 5-2 Mr. Ms. Jr. M.D. Esq. Mrs. Sr. Ph.D.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶502b. Some abbreviations are always acceptable, such as those that are part of an organization’s name. ABBREVIATIONS Slide 5-3 Co. Corp. Inc. Ltd.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶502c. Some abbreviations are always acceptable, such as those used in place of a long organizational name. ABBREVIATIONS Slide 5-4 NAACP SEC IRS NBC
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶502b. Some abbreviations are always acceptable, such as those used in expressions of time. ABBREVIATIONS Slide 5-5 a.m. p.m. PST EDT
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶503. When alternative forms are available, use the form that is the shortest without any sacrifice of clarity. ABBREVIATIONS Slide 5-6 cont. ( rather than contd.) 2 lb ( rather than 2 lbs) Enc. 2 ( rather than Encs. 2 OR Encl. 2) 2d ( rather than 2nd)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶506a. Use a period after the abbreviation of a single word. ABBREVIATIONS—PUNCTUATION Slide 5-7 Mrs. Corp. pp. Wed. Jr. Inc. Nos. Dec.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶507. When a small-letter abbreviation consists of single initials representing two or more words, insert a period after each initial but insert no space after each internal period. ABBREVIATIONS— PUNCTUATION AND SPACING Slide 5-8 a.m. i.e. BUT: rpm p.m. e.g. mph
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶508. As a general rule, do not use periods in all-capital abbreviations consisting of single initials representing two or more words. ABBREVIATIONS— PUNCTUATION AND SPACING Slide 5-9 CBS CEO ASAP MIT FYI CD-ROM
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶508. As an exception to the general rule, insert periods in all-capital abbreviations when they consist of single initials and they represent: ABBREVIATIONS— PUNCTUATION AND SPACING Slide 5-10
    • Geographic names: U.S. N.J. D.C.
    • Academic degrees: B.A. M.S. M.D.
    • Miscellaneous expressions: A.D. B.C. P.O.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶509. When an abbreviation consists of more than single initials, insert a period and a space after each element in the abbreviation. ABBREVIATIONS— PUNCTUATION AND SPACING Slide 5-11
    • N. Mex. Lt. Col. Rt. Rev. loc. cit.
    • Exceptions:
    • Academic abbreviations: Ph.D. LL.B.
    • Units of measurement: sq ft cu cm
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶510. Do not use a period after shortened forms of words. ABBREVIATIONS—PUNCTUATION Slide 5-12 deli temp hype demo typo condo fax info co-op
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶516a. Insert a period and a space after each initial in a person’s name. ABBREVIATIONS— PUNCTUATION AND SPACING Slide 5-13 M. A. Devine F. E. Hollings W. E. B. Du Bois B. J. Malone
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶516b. As a rule, omit periods when a person’s name is expressed entirely in initials. ABBREVIATIONS—PUNCTUATION Slide 5-14 JFK FDR
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶522a. Do not use periods in acronyms (all-cap initials that are pronounced like a word). ABBREVIATIONS—PUNCTUATION Slide 5-15 PIN BOGSAT NIMBY MEGO WOMBAT PEBCAK
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶601. To form the plural of most words, simply add s . PLURALS Slide 6-1 idea s committee s taxi s menu s comb s rhythm s depth s right s
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶602. To form the plural of words that end in s , x , ch , sh , and z , add es . PLURALS Slide 6-2 business es box es crash es summons es match es brush es fax es sketch es buzz es
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶605. To form the plural of words that end in a vowel plus y, add s. PLURALS Slide 6-3 holiday s attorney s joy s guy s
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶604. To form the plural of words that end in a consonant plus y, change the y to i and add es. PLURALS Slide 6-4 polic y  polic ies liabilit y  liabilit ies cop y  cop ies rall y  rall ies
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶606. To form the plural of words that end in a vowel plus o, add s. PLURALS Slide 6-5 stere os rati os shampo os du os
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶607. To form the plural of words that end in a consonant plus o , add s to some words and es to others. (Check your manual or a dictionary to be sure.) PLURALS Slide 6-6 photo s memo s potato es echo es macro s two s hero es fiasco es
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶608a. To form the plural of most words ending in f , fe , or ff , add s . PLURALS Slide 6-7 belief s proof s safe s sheriff s chief s reef s café s tariff s
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶608b. To form the plural of some words ending in f , fe , or ff , change the ending to ve and add s . PLURALS Slide 6-8 wi fe  wi ves sel f  sel ves li fe  li ves shel f  shel ves
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶609-610. Some words have an irregular plural. Check your manual or a dictionary if you are not sure of the correct form. PLURALS Slide 6-9 man  men foot  feet woman  women goose  geese child  children mouse  mice
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶611. Solid Compound Nouns. Pluralize the final element in the compound as if it stood alone. PLURALS Slide 6-10 cross roads hat boxes hand kerchiefs birth days eye witnesses hair brushes book shelves blue berries photo copies
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶612a. Spaced or Hyphenated Compound Nouns. To form the plural, add s or es to the chief element of the compound. PLURALS Slide 6-11 mother s -in-law editor s in chief runner s -up account s payable
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶612b. Spaced or Hyphenated Compound Nouns. When this type of compound does not contain a noun as one of its elements, simply add s or es to the final element to form the plural. PLURALS Slide 6-12 hang-up s get-together s go-between s run-through s
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶614. When words of foreign origin have acceptable English plurals, add s or es as appropriate. PLURALS Slide 6-13 agenda  agenda s stadium  stadium s census  census es appendix  appendix es
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶614. Some words of foreign origin require foreign plurals. Check your manual or a dictionary for the correct forms. PLURALS Slide 6-14 alumnus (m.)  alumni criterion  criteria alumna (f.)  alumnae analysis  analyses
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶619. To form the plural of most abbreviations, add s . PLURALS Slide 6-15 Vol.  Vol s . No.  No s . Dr.  Dr s .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶620. Abbreviations of measurements use the same form in the singular and the plural. PLURALS Slide 6-16 oz ft in lb km mL
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶621. To form the plural of a few abbreviations, double the singular form. PLURALS Slide 6-17 p.  pp. l.  ll. ¶  ¶¶
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶622. To form the plural of abbreviations that end in a capital letter, add s . PLURALS Slide 6-18 VIP s CEO s M.D. s Ph.D. s
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶623. To form the plural of abbreviations that end in a small letter, add an apostrophe plus s . PLURALS Slide 6-19 received four c.o.d. ’s minding one’s p ’s and q ’s
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶630. To form the possessive of singular nouns that do not end with an s sound, add an apostrophe plus s . SINGULAR POSSESSIVES Slide 6-20 my attorney ’s advice Illinois ’s highways the committee ’s vote Arkansas ’s lakes
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶631a. To form the possessive of singular nouns that do end with an s sound, be guided by your pronunciation. If you create a new syllable when you pronounce the possessive, add an apostrophe plus s . SINGULAR POSSESSIVES Slide 6-21 your boss ’s approval Dallas ’s parks our coach ’s strategy Phoenix ’s suburbs
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶631b. To form the possessive of singular nouns that do end with an s sound, be guided by your pronunciation. If adding an extra syllable makes the word hard to pronounce, add only an apostrophe. SINGULAR POSSESSIVES Slide 6-22 for goodness ’ sake New Orleans ’ chefs Massachusetts ’ roads Los Angeles ’ freeways
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶634. To form the possessive of singular compound nouns, add an apostrophe plus s to the last element of the compound. SINGULAR POSSESSIVES Slide 6-23 an eyewitness ’s story my stockbroker ’s advice my son-in-law ’s job the attorney general ’s plan
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶632. To form the possessive of regular plural nouns (those that end in s or es ), add only an apostrophe. PLURAL POSSESSIVES Slide 6-24 attorneys ’ fees the witnesses ’ testimony ten dollars ’ worth our bosses ’ decisions
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶633. To form the possessive of irregular plural nouns (those that do not end in s or es ), add an apostrophe plus s . PLURAL POSSESSIVES Slide 6-25 men ’s ties children ’s toys women ’s skirts the alumni ’s contributions
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶635a. To form the possessive of plural compound nouns that end in s , add only an apostrophe. PLURAL POSSESSIVES Slide 6-26 the stockholders ’ votes the vice presidents ’ jobs
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶635b. To form the possessive of plural compound nouns that do not end in s , add an apostrophe plus s . PLURAL POSSESSIVES Slide 6-27 the editors in chief ’s judgments my sons-in-law ’s Internet start-up
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶636. To form the possessive of personal pronouns, never use an apostrophe. Use the special possessive forms. POSSESSIVES—PRONOUNS Slide 6-28 my idea your bills the idea was mine these bills are yours
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶636. To form the possessive of personal pronouns, never use an apostrophe. Use the special possessive forms. POSSESSIVES—PRONOUNS Slide 6-29 his palmtop our CD collection that palmtop is his those CDs are ours
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶636. To form the possessive of personal pronouns, never use an apostrophe. Use the special possessive forms. POSSESSIVES—PRONOUNS Slide 6-30 her e-mail their summer cottage this e-mail is hers that cottage is theirs
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶636. To form the possessive of personal pronouns, never use an apostrophe. Use the special possessive forms. POSSESSIVES—PRONOUNS Slide 6-31 Each group uses its own forms. (NOT: it’s) The decision has to be yours . (NOT: your’s) The responsibility is theirs . (NOT: their’s)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶637. To form the possessive of singular indefinite pronouns, add an apostrophe plus s . POSSESSIVES—PRONOUNS Slide 6-32 anybody ’s guess someone else ’s problem no one ’s fault one another ’s children
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶637. To form the possessive of singular indefinite pronouns, add an apostrophe plus s . POSSESSIVES—PRONOUNS Slide 6-33 someone ’s chance each other ’s rights BUT: the needs of each (NOT: each’s needs)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶615a. To form the plural of most surnames, just add s . SURNAMES—PLURAL FORMS Slide 6-34 Mr. and Mrs. Carter  the Carter s Mr. and Mrs. Shea  the Shea s
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶615b. To form the plural of surnames ending in s or x , add es . SURNAMES—PLURAL FORMS Slide 6-35 Mr. and Mrs. Bass  the Bass es Mr. and Mrs. Fox  the Fox es
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶615b . To form the plural of surnames ending in ch, sh, or z, add es. SURNAMES—PLURAL FORMS Mr. and Mrs. French  the French es Mr. and Mrs. Marsh  the Marsh es Mr. and Mrs. Perez  the Perez es Slide 6-36
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶615b . If adding es makes the plural surname hard to pronounce, use the singular form for the plural. SURNAMES—PLURAL FORMS Mr. and Mrs. Hastings  the Hasting s (NOT: the Hastingses) Slide 6-37
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶615c . When forming the plural of a surname, do not change the spelling. Simply add s or es . SURNAMES—PLURAL FORMS the Kennedy s (NOT: the Kennedies) the Wolf s (NOT: the Wolves) the Fairchild s (NOT: the Fairchildren) Slide 6-38
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶631a . To form the singular possessive of a surname, add an apostrophe plus s . SURNAMES—POSSESSIVE FORMS Mrs. Jones ’s article Mr. and Mrs. Marx ’s house Mr. Harris ’s report Mr. and Mrs. Hertz ’s car Note that Mr. and Mrs. is followed by the singular form of the possessive. Slide 6-39
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶631b . To form the singular possessive of a surname, add only an apostrophe if the addition of an apostrophe plus s makes the name hard to pronounce. SURNAMES—POSSESSIVE FORMS Mrs. Hodges’ fax (NOT: Mrs. Hodges’s fax) Mr. and Mrs. Hastings’ party (NOT: Mr. and Mrs. Hastings’s party) Slide 6-40
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶632a . To form the plural possessive of a surname, add only an apostrophe. SURNAMES—POSSESSIVE FORMS the Joneses’ farm the Marxes’ house the Harrises’ son the Hertzes’ car the Hodges’ condo the Hastings’ party Slide 6-41
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶701 . When a word of one syllable ends with a single consonant (ba g ) preceded by a single vowel (b a g), double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel or before the suffix y . SPELLING bagg age bagg ed bagg ing bagg y Slide 7-1
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶702 . When a word of two or more syllables ends in a single consonant (refe r ) preceded by a single vowel (ref e r), double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel (referr ed ) if the accent falls on the last syllable of the root word (reFERred or reFERring). SPELLING forBIDd en beGINn ing ocCURr ed reGRETt able Slide 7-2
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶703 . When a word of one syllable ends with a single consonant (ba d ) preceded by a single vowel (b a d), do not double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a consonant (bad ly ). SPELLING joy ful joy less glad ly glad ness Slide 7-3
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶704 . When a word of two or more syllables ends in a single consonant (tota l ) preceded by a single vowel (tot a l), do not double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel (total ed ) if the accent does not fall on the last syllable of the root word. SPELLING CANcel ed DIFfer ent BENefit ing Exceptions: PROgramm ed FORmatt ing Slide 7-4
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶705 . Do not double the final consonant of the root word before a suffix if the root word ends in a single consonant preceded by two vowels. SPELLING g ain ful ch ief ly dr eam ing r iot ous Slide 7-5
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶706 . Do not double the final consonant of the root word before a suffix if the root word ends in two consonants. SPELLING cli mb ing se lf ish ba ck ward wa rm ly Slide 7-6
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶707 . Words ending in a silent e usually drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel. SPELLING stor age manag ing BUT: mile age manage able Slide 7-7
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶708 . Words ending in a silent e usually retain the e before a suffix beginning with a consonant. SPELLING hope ful manage ment BUT: aw ful judg ment Slide 7-8
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶710 . Words ending in y preceded by a consonant change the y to i before most suffixes. SPELLING happi ness heavi er defi ant fifti eth BUT: countrywide shyly Slide 7-9
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶710 . Words ending in y preceded by a consonant retain the y before a suffix beginning with i. SPELLING try ing thirty ish lobby ist BUT: academy  academ ic economy  econom ic Slide 7-10
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶712 . The letter i usually comes before e. SPELLING bel ie ve f ie ld fr ie nd rel ie f y ie ld v ie w BUT: ei ther for ei gn Slide 7-11
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶712 . The letter e usually comes before i when these letters follow c. SPELLING rec ei ve perc ei ve conc ei t dec ei tful c ei ling rec ei pt BUT: anc ie nt sc ie nce Slide 7-12
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶712 . The letter e comes before i when these two letters are pronounced like ay (as in day ). SPELLING fr ei ght n ei ghbor ei ght th ei r w ei ght v ei n sl ei gh h ei r Slide 7-13
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶715a . Most words that end with the sound of eyes are spelled with the ending ize. SPELLING author ize emphas ize real ize special ize critic ize organ ize recogn ize visual ize pr ize Slide 7-14
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶715b . Some common words that end with the sound of eyes are spelled with the ending ise. SPELLING advert ise comprom ise enterpr ise superv ise adv ise dev ise exerc ise surpr ise telev ise Slide 7-15
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶715c . A few words that end with the sound of eyes are spelled with the ending yze. SPELLING anal yze paral yze Slide 7-16
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶716c . When words end with the sound of seed, they usually end with cede. SPELLING ac cede inter cede re cede con cede pre cede se cede Slide 7-17
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶716b . Three words that end with the sound of seed are spelled with the ending ceed. SPELLING ex ceed pro ceed suc ceed Slide 7-18
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶716a . Only one word that ends with the sound of seed is spelled with the ending sede. SPELLING super sede Slide 7-19
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶801a . Some compound nouns are written solid, some are spaced, and some are hyphenated. COMPOUND NOUNS checklist check mark check-in goodwill good sense good-bye trademark trade name trade-in Slide 8-1
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶802 . Distinguish between compound nouns that are solid or hyphenated and verb phrases (which are always spaced). COMPOUND NOUNS AND VERBS COMPOUND NOUN VERB PHRASE a follow-up on my memo follow up on my memo a breakdown in the talks when talks break down Slide 8-2
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶802 . Distinguish between compound nouns that are solid or hyphenated and verb phrases (which are always spaced). COMPOUND NOUNS AND VERBS COMPOUND NOUN VERB PHRASE plan a get-together plan to get together to reduce staff turnover to turn over the deed Slide 8-3
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶811 . Compound verbs are usually hyphenated or solid. To be sure of the spelling of compound verbs, check your manual or a dictionary. COMPOUND VERBS to air-condition to download to double-click to highlight to spot-check to proofread Slide 8-4
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶809a . When referring generally to men and women, avoid compound nouns ending in man or men. GENDER-FREE NOUNS IN PLACE OF: USE: laymen laypersons businessmen business owners business executives business managers business people Slide 8-5
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶809a . When referring generally to men and women, avoid compound nouns ending in man or men. GENDER-FREE NOUNS IN PLACE OF: USE: mankind people, humanity, human beings salesman salespeople, salespersons, sales representatives foremen supervisors Slide 8-6
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶840 . Avoid feminine suffixes like ess and ette. GENDER-FREE NOUNS author (NOT: authoress) flight attendant (NOT: stewardess) Slide 8-7
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶840 . A few terms ending with feminine suffixes like ess and ette are still widely used. GENDER-FREE NOUNS hostess heroine fiancée waitress Slide 8-8
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶813 . A compound adjective consists of two or more words that function as a unit and express a single thought. They are derived from adjective phrases or clauses. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVE PHRASE COMPOUND OR CLAUSE ADJECTIVE loans made for a long term long-term loans an actor who is well known a well-known actor a sale exempt from taxes a tax-exempt sale Slide 8-9
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶813 . A compound adjective consists of two or more words that function as a unit and express a single thought. They are derived from adjective phrases and clauses. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVE PHRASE COMPOUND OR CLAUSE ADJECTIVE a vacation for two weeks a two-week vacation a woman who speaks softly a soft-spoken woman Slide 8-10
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶814 . Hyphenate a compound adjective when it comes before a noun. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES long-range plans an eye-catching display a 40-hour week an old-fashioned gown Slide 8-11
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶815a . When the elements that make up a compound adjective come elsewhere in a sentence, do not hyphenate them if they occur in a normal form and in a normal word order. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES an all-day seminar a seminar that lasts all day a part-time job I work part of the time . BUT: I work part-time. Slide 8-12
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶815b . When the elements that make up a compound adjective come elsewhere in a sentence, retain the hyphen if these elements are in an inverted word order or an altered form. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES high-priced These items are high-priced . items BUT: They carry a high price . state-owned These lands are state-owned . lands BUT: They are owned by the state . Slide 8-13
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶816 . Adjective + Noun. Hyphenate before but not after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES a high-speed printer It runs at high speed . red-carpet treatment Roll out the red carpet . Slide 8-14
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶817 . Compound With Number or Letter. Hyphenate before but not after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES a three-hour job a job that took three hours a 20-year mortgage a mortgage running for 20 years Slide 8-15
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶818 . Compound Nouns as Adjectives. Do not hyphenate before or after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES a life insurance policy word processing software a real estate agent income tax payments Slide 8-16
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶819 . Proper Names as Adjectives. Do not hyphenate before or after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES a Park Avenue address a Supreme Court decision an L. L. Bean catalog Mickey Mouse procedures Slide 8-17
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶820 . Noun + Adjective. Hyphenate before and after. (Some words follow- ing this pattern are written solid.) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES a toll-free call You can call toll-free . a cost-effective plan must be cost-effective BUT: worldwide, storewide waterproof, fireproof Slide 8-18
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶821 . Noun + Participle. Hyphenate before and after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES market-tested products This has been market-tested . mind-boggling details The report was mind-boggling . Slide 8-19
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶822 . Adjective + Participle. Hyphenate before and after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES half-baked ideas All his ideas are half-baked . a friendly-looking dog That dog is friendly-looking . Slide 8-20
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶823 . Adjective + Noun + ed. Hyphenate before and after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES a quick-witted driver She was quick-witted . deep-seated problems These problems are deep-seated . Slide 8-21
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶826 . Participle + Adverb. Hyphenate before but not after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES filled-in forms forms to be filled in a cooling-off period a time for cooling off Slide 8-22
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶831 . Phrasal Compounds. Hyphenate before but not after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES up-to-date figures figures that are up to date down-to-earth ideas needs to come down to earth on-the-job training was trained on the job Slide 8-23
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶831 . Phrasal Compounds. Hyphenate before but not after. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES off-the-shelf software bought it off the shelf before-tax earnings earnings before taxes after-dinner speeches speeches after dinner Slide 8-24
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶833 . As a rule, do not use a hyphen to set off a prefix from the root word. PREFIXES after effects mis spell pre requisite anti trust multi purpose retro active hyper sensitive non essential semi annual Slide 8-25
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶833 . As a rule, do not use a hyphen to set off a suffix from the root word. SUFFIXES free dom trust ful happi ness five fold likeli hood hard ship Slide 8-26
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶835a . In most words beginning with re, pre, or de, the hyphen is omitted. PREFIXES re educate pre eminent de fraud re elect pre empt de regulate re emphasize pre existing BUT: de -emphasize Slide 8-27
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶835b . In most words beginning with co, the hyphen is omitted. PREFIXES co author co partner BUT: co -op co operate co signer co -opt co ordinate co worker co -owner Slide 8-28
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶836 . Use a hyphen when self is a prefix but not when self is the root word. PREFIXES self -addressed self -paced BUT: self ish self -confident self -study self less self -evident self -supporting self same Slide 8-29
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶901-902 . Divide only between syllables. Do not divide a one-syllable word. WORD DIVISION planned through straight rhythm Slide 9-1
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶903a . Do not set off a one-letter syllable at the beginning or at the end of a word. WORD DIVISION ideal (NOT: i- deal) media (NOT: medi- a) Slide 9-2
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶904. Do not divide a word unless you can leave at least two letters and a hyphen on the upper line. WORD DIVISION re- new un- der ad- mit in- ert Slide 9-3
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶904 . Do not divide a word unless you can carry a syllable of at least three characters to the next line. (The last may be a punctuation mark.) WORD DIVISION de- ter ad- mit set- up, happi- ly. Slide 9-4
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶905-906 . Do not divide an abbreviation or a contraction. WORD DIVISION UNICEF approx. haven’t shouldn’t Slide 9-5
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶907-908 . Try to divide compound words between elements (not within). WORD DIVISION eye- witness (NOT: eyewit- ness) cross- reference (NOT: cross-ref- erence) Slide 9-6
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶913 . Divide after a one-letter syllable within a word (not before it). WORD DIVISION nega- tive (NOT: neg- ative) congratu- late (NOT: congrat- ulate) Slide 9-7
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶914 . Divide between two vowels when they are pronounced separately (but not when they represent one sound). WORD DIVISION patr i - o tic sit u - a ted BUT: tr ea - sure n eu - tral Slide 9-8
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶916 . Try not to end more than two consecutive lines with a hyphen. WORD DIVISION Slide 9-9
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶917 . Try not to divide at the end of the first line or at the end of the last full line of a paragraph. WORD DIVISION Slide 9-10
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶918 . Do not divide the last word on a page. WORD DIVISION Slide 9-11
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶919 . Do not divide between certain types of word groups. WORD DIVISION page 191 May 13 Ms. Raeburn 11:40 a.m. June 2003 250 miles Slide 9-12
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶920g . In an enumerated list, divide before (not after) an introductory number or letter. WORD DIVISION . . . these points: (1) All cards should . . . NOT: . . . these points: (1) All cards should . . . Slide 9-13
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶920h . Divide after a dash (not before it). WORD DIVISION . . . Early next year— say, in March—let’s . . . NOT: . . . Early next year — say, in March—let’s . . . Slide 9-14
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON REGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030a) Slide 10-1 PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE ask asked asked asking confirm confirmed confirmed confirming need needed needed needing reveal revealed revealed revealing
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON REGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030a) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE maintain maintained maintained maintaining taxi taxied taxied taxiing plan planned planned planning ship shipped shipped shipping Slide 10-2
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON REGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030a) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE occur occurred occurred occurring compel compelled compelled compelling offer offered offered offering travel traveled traveled traveling Slide 10-3
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON REGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030a) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE receive received received receiving agree agreed agreed agreeing die died died dying tie tied tied tying Slide 10-4
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON REGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030a) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE carry carried carried carrying hurry hurried hurried hurrying obey obeyed obeyed obeying annoy annoyed annoyed annoying Slide 10-5
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE am, is, are was, were been being become became become becoming begin began begun beginning break broke broken breaking Slide 10-6
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE bring brought brought bringing buy bought bought buying catch caught caught catching choose chose chosen choosing Slide 10-7
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE come came come coming do drew drawn drawing draw did done doing drink drank drunk drinking Slide 10-8
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE drive drove driven driving eat ate eaten eating fall fell fallen falling feel felt felt feeling Slide 10-9
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE find found found finding fly flew flown flying forget forgot forgotten forgetting forgive forgave forgiven forgiving Slide 10-10
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE get got got OR gotten getting give gave given giving go went gone going grow grew grown growing Slide 10-11
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE hear heard heard hearing hold held held holding keep kept kept keeping know knew known knowing Slide 10-12
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE lay (place) laid laid laying lie (recline) lay lain lying lie (fib) lied lied lying lead led led leading Slide 10-13
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE lend lent lent lending lose lost lost losing make made made making mean meant meant meaning Slide 10-14
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE pay paid paid paying ring rang rung ringing rise rose risen rising run ran run running Slide 10-15
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE say said said saying see saw seen seeing sell sold sold selling send sent sent sending Slide 10-16
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE set set set setting shake shook shaken shaking shrink shrank shrunk shrinking sing sang sung singing Slide 10-17
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE sit sat sat sitting speak spoke spoken speaking swim swam swum swimming swing swung swung swinging Slide 10-18
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE take took taken taking teach taught taught teaching tell told told telling think thought thought thinking Slide 10-19
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ( ¶1030b) PAST PRESENT PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE throw threw thrown throwing understand understood understood understanding wear wore worn wearing write wrote written writing Slide 10-20
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1001 . A verb must agree with its subject in number and person. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT I am as pleased with the outcome as you are . She is not as competent as she thinks . We do a lot more work than he does . He has more experience than they have . Slide 10-21
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1002a . If the subject consists of two or more words connected by and, the subject requires a plural verb. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT My brother and I are likely to get better test scores than my mother and father expect . Slide 10-22
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1002c . If the subject consists of two or more words connected by and , the subject requires a plural verb. However, if the two subjects connected by and are preceded by each, every, or many a, the subjects require a singular verb. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT A copier and a fax machine are what I need. Every copier and fax machine is on sale. Slide 10-23
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1003 . If the subject consists of two or more words connected by or, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, or not only . . . but also, use a singular verb if the two subjects are each singular. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Either Fran or Bob has the Kellerman file. Slide 10-24
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1004 . If the subject consists of two or more words connected by or, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, or not only . . . but also, use a plural verb if the two subjects are each plural. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Neither the Kellys nor the Bonos want our tickets. Slide 10-25
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1005 . If the subject consists of two or more words connected by or, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, or not only . . . but also, make the verb agree with the nearer subject if one subject is singular and the other is plural. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Neither the office manager nor the assistants like the new policy. Neither the assistants nor the office manager likes the new policy. Slide 10-26
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1005 . If the subject consists of two or more words connected by or, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, or not only . . . but also, make the verb agree with the nearer subject if one subject is singular and the other is plural. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Neither the assistants nor I am happy about the new policy. Neither I nor the assistants are happy about the new policy. Slide 10-27
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1006 . When establishing agreement between subject and verb, ignore intervening phrases and clauses. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT The bill for these spreadsheet programs seems high. The prices shown in our catalog do not include sales taxes. Slide 10-28
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶1006-1007 . When establishing agreement between subject and verb, ignore intervening phrases and clauses. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT This study , along with earlier reports, proves that our high prices , rather than poor service, are responsible for our falling sales. Slide 10-29
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶1006-1008 . When establishing agreement between subject and verb, ignore intervening phrases and clauses. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Mrs. Swenson , together with her husband and her daughter, is going to Arizona. One of the reasons for falling sales is our high prices. Slide 10-30
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1009a . Use a singular verb when the subject includes such words as each, every, either, or neither. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Every employee has been informed of the new policy. Each is now responsible for adhering to that policy. Slide 10-31
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1010 . Use a singular verb when the subject consists of such words as anyone, everybody, something, or no one. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Everyone is required to attend the seminar. Nothing surprises me anymore. Slide 10-32
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1012 . Use a plural verb when the subject includes such words as both, few, many, others, or several. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Both books are out of print, but several other titles on the same subject are still available. Slide 10-33
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1013 . Words like all, none, any, some, more, or most may be singular or plural as subjects, depending on what they refer to. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT All of the work has been completed . None of the cartons were damaged . Slide 10-34
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1018a . When the subject is a noun with a foreign plural ending, be sure to use a plural verb. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT The criteria that we use are out of date. BUT: The criterion that we use is out of date. Slide 10-35
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1018a . When the subject is a noun with a foreign plural ending, be sure to use a plural verb. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT The analyses of the research data do not agree . BUT: The analysis of the data is incomplete. Slide 10-36
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1019a . When the subject is a collective noun (like jury or committee ), use a singular verb if the group is acting as a unit. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT The jury has agreed on a verdict. Slide 10-37
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1019b . When the subject is a collective noun (like jury or committee ), use a plural verb if the members of the group are acting separately. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT The jury have not yet agreed on a verdict. BETTER: The members of the jury have not yet agreed on a verdict. Slide 10-38
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1023 . When the subject is the number, use a singular verb. When the subject is a number, use a plural verb. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT The number of accidents at the corner is alarming. A large number of accidents have occurred there. Slide 10-39
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1025a . When the subject includes a phrase like one-half of, a percentage of, or the rest of, use a singular verb if a singular noun follows of or is implied. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Two-thirds of the job has been completed ; the remaining third is scheduled for completion by this Friday. Slide 10-40
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1025b . When the subject includes a phrase like one-half of, a percentage of, or the rest of, use a plural verb if a plural noun follows of or is implied. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT A large percentage of the voters support your plan. Slide 10-41
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1027 . When the verb comes before the subject, make sure that they agree. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT What procedures am I expected to follow? Enclosed is a copy of the e-mail sent by Mr. Polk. Slide 10-42
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1028a . When a sentence begins with there is, here are, or a similar phrase, the real subject follows the verb. Use a singular verb if the subject is singular. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT There is a vast difference between the two plans. Here is the first draft of my manuscript. Slide 10-43
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1028a . When a sentence begins with there is, here are, or a similar phrase, the real subject follows the verb. Use a plural verb if the subject is plural. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT There are over 50 applicants for this job. Here are the budget analyses you asked for. What are the criteria we should use? Slide 10-44
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1029 . When a sentence contains a linking verb (such as become or some form of to be ), make sure that the verb agrees with the subject. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Bicycles are the only product we make. The only product we make is bicycles. The key issue is higher wages. Higher wages are the key issue. Slide 10-45
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1054a . Use one of the following forms when a personal pronoun is the subject of a verb. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: I you he, she, it Plural: we you they Marcia and I can do it. (NOT: Marcia and me.) Slide 10-46
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1054a . Use one of the following forms when a personal pronoun is the subject of a verb. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: I you he, she, it Plural: we you they Ted and she did a fine job. (NOT: Ted and her.) Slide 10-47
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1054a . Use one of the following forms when a personal pronoun is the subject of a verb. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: I you he, she, it Plural: we you they The Levys and we met yesterday. (NOT: The Levys and us.) Slide 10-48
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1055a . Use one of the following forms when the personal pronoun is the object of a verb. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: me you him, her, it Plural: us you them They invited my wife and me . (NOT: my wife and I.) Slide 10-49
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1055a . Use one of the following forms when the personal pronoun is the indirect object. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: me you him, her, it Plural: us you them They gave Jim and me free tickets. (NOT: Jim and I.) Slide 10-50
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1055b . Use one of the following forms when the personal pronoun is the object of the preposition. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: me you him, her, it Plural: us you them They gave free tickets to Jim and me . (NOT: Jim and I.) Slide 10-51
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1055c . Use one of the following forms when the personal pronoun is the subject of an infinitive. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: me you him, her, it Plural: us you them She asked Sue and me to help her. (NOT: Sue and I.) Slide 10-52
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1055c . Use one of the following forms when the personal pronoun is the object of an infinitive. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: me you him, her, it Plural: us you them Sam plans to invite the Kellys and me . (NOT: the Kellys and I.) Slide 10-53
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056b . Use one of the following possessive forms when the pronoun immediately precedes the noun it modifies. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: my your his, her, its Plural: our your their my computer his daughter our children Slide 10-54
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056b . Use one of the following possessive forms when the pronoun immediately precedes the noun it modifies. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: my your his, her, its Plural: our your their your report her son their parents Slide 10-55
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056c . Use one of the following possessive forms when the pronoun stands apart from the noun it refers to. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: mine yours his, her, its Plural: ours yours theirs This computer is mine . Is this his or hers ? Slide 10-56
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056c . Use one of the following possessive forms when the pronoun stands apart from the noun it refers to. PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: mine yours his, hers, its Plural: ours yours theirs That car is ours . Is this car yours or theirs ? Slide 10-57
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056e . Do not confuse certain posses- sive forms with certain contractions that sound like personal pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVES CONTRACTIONS its it’s (it is OR it has) The firm is wasting It’s (It is) time to come its time. to a decision. Slide 10-58
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056e . Do not confuse certain posses- sive forms with certain contractions that sound like personal pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVES CONTRACTIONS your you’re (you are) Your approach You’re (You are) makes sense. approaching the problem wisely. Slide 10-59
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056e . Do not confuse certain posses- sive forms with certain contractions that sound like personal pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVES CONTRACTIONS their they’re (they are) OR: there’re (there are) What do you think They’re (They are) of their plan? planning to close. Slide 10-60
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1056e . Do not confuse certain posses- sive forms with certain contractions that sound like personal pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVES CONTRACTIONS theirs there’s (there is OR there has) Theirs is the car There’s (There has) been I like best. a change in Ben. Slide 10-61
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1049a . A pronoun must agree with its antecedent (the word for which the pronoun stands) in number, gender, and person. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT I have my reasons, just as you have yours . The company needs to review its discount policy. Slide 10-62
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1049a . A pronoun must agree with its antecedent (the word for which the pronoun stands) in number, gender, and person. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Amy says that she needs her own computer. We must establish our position before they release their report. Slide 10-63
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1049b . Use a plural pronoun when the antecedent consists of two nouns joined by and. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Wendy and Sue say that they will make their presentations next Monday. Slide 10-64
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1049c . Use a singular pronoun when the antecedent consists of two singular nouns joined by or or nor. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Neither Wendy nor Sue will be ready to make her presentation before next Monday. Slide 10-65
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1049c . Use a plural pronoun when the antecedent consists of two plural nouns joined by or or nor. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Either the Foxes or the Ryans will bring their VCR. Slide 10-66
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶¶1049a, 1051, 1052a, 1053 . When the antecedent of a personal pronoun is a singular noun or pronoun that could be either masculine or feminine, use one of the following forms as appropriate. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT he or she his or her him or her A manager needs to use much tact when dealing with his or her subordinates. Slide 10-67
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT he or she his or her him or her Everyone must submit his or her expense report by noon. Slide 10-68 ¶¶1049a, 1051, 1052a, 1053 . When the antecedent of a personal pronoun is a singular noun or pronoun that could be either masculine or feminine, use one of the following forms as appropriate.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1052 . If the use of he or she (or a similar expression) produces an awk- ward sentence, reword the sentence. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Managers need to use much tact when dealing with their subordinates. A manager needs to use much tact when dealing with subordinates. Slide 10-69
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1052 . If the use of he or she (or a similar expression) produces an awk- ward sentence, reword the sentence. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT All employees must submit their expense reports by noon. Everyone must submit an expense report by noon. Slide 10-70
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1060a . Use one of the following forms to direct the action expressed by the verb back to the subject. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves She bought herself a new VCR. Slide 10-71
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1060a . Use one of the following forms to direct the action expressed by the verb back to the subject. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves They conducted themselves honorably. Slide 10-72
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1060b . Use one of the following forms to emphasize a noun or pronoun already expressed. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves I myself will deal with the problem. Slide 10-73
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1060b . Use one of the following forms to emphasize a noun or pronoun already expressed. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves We planned the party ourselves . Slide 10-74
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1060d . Do not use a compound personal pronoun unless the noun or pronoun to which it refers is in the same sentence. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves These copies are for Hal and me . (NOT: myself) Slide 10-75
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1060d . Do not use a compound personal pronoun unless the noun or pronoun to which it refers is in the same sentence. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS FIRST SECOND THIRD PERSON PERSON PERSON Singular: myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves Kate and I (NOT: myself) can resolve our problem. Slide 10-76
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation.
    • ¶1061a . Who, whom, whoever,
    • and whomever are:
    • Interrogative pronouns , used in asking questions.
    • Relative pronouns , used to introduce a clause referring to a noun in the main clause.
    INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS Slide 10-77
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1061c . Use who or whoever as the subject of a verb. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS Slide 10-78 Who gave you that information? Chris is the one who gave me that information.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1061d . Use whom or whomever as the object of a verb or a preposition. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS Slide 10-79 To whom should I distribute these copies? Send the copies to whomever you wish.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1063 . Use whose as the possessive form of who. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS Slide 10-80 Whose wallet is this? Here’s the phone number of the person whose wallet you found.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1061c . To decide when to use who or whom and whoever or whomever, mentally rearrange the sentence (as shown in parentheses below). INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS Slide 10-81 Who /Whom shall I say is calling? (I shall say he is calling.) Give this note to whoever /whomever asks for it. ( She asks for it.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1061c . To decide when to use who or whom and whoever or whomever, mentally rearrange the sentence (as shown in parentheses below). INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS Slide 10-82 Who/ Whom are you going to vote for? (You are going to vote for him .) Vote for whoever/ whomever you wish. (You wish to vote for her .)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1063 . Do not confuse whose (the possessive form of who ) with who’s (a contraction meaning who is or who has ). INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS Slide 10-83 Whose /Who’s book is this? (This book is his .) Whose/ Who’s the author? ( She’s the author.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. An adjective is an expression that answers questions like what kind , how many , and which one . ADJECTIVES Slide 10-84 What kind: excellent results How many: four laptops Which one: the latest data
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. An adjective may be a single word, phrase, clause, or compound modifier. ADJECTIVES Slide 10-85 Single word: a powerful man Phrase: a man of great power Clause: a man who hungers for power Compound modifier: a power-hungry man
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. An adjective can modify a noun or pronoun. ADJECTIVES Slide 10-86 Noun: Wonderful news ! The news is wonderful ! Pronoun: Unlucky me . I seem to be unlucky .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. An adverb is an expression that answers questions like when , where , why , in what manner , and to what extent . ADVERBS Slide 10-87 When: I’ll call you tomorrow . Where: Let’s meet here or in your office . Why: I can’t attend because of illness . In what manner: Don’t speak so fast . To what extent: He talked much too long .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. An adverb may be a single word, phrase, or clause. ADVERBS Slide 10-88 Single word: Speak clearly . Phrase: Speak in a clear voice . Clause: Speak as clearly as you can .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. ADVERBS Slide 10-89 A verb: We closed the deal quickly . An adjective: Carole seemed genuinely pleased . Another adverb: The meeting went surprisingly well .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1065. Use an adverb (not an adjective) to modify an adjective. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-90 a really nice time (NOT: a real nice time)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1066. Use an adverb (not an adjective) to modify a verb that expresses action. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-91 I was hurt badly in the collision. (NOT: hurt bad)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1067. Use an adjective (not an adverb) to modify the subject of a sentence when the modifier follows a verb of the senses (feel look, sound, taste, smell). ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-92 I feel bad . (NOT: badly) She looked happy . (NOT: happily)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1067. Use an adjective (not an adverb) to modify the subject of a sentence when the modifier follows a linking verb (some form of be, seem, appear, and become ). ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-93 Joe seemed friendly . We became suspicious .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071. Adjectives and adverbs have three forms: positive, com- parative, and superlative. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-94 ADJECTIVE Positive: thin Comparative: thinner Superlative: thinnest
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071a, e. Adjectives and adverbs of one syllable (like soon below) form the com-parative by adding er and the superlative by adding est. A few form the comparative and the superlative irregularly (like good below). ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-95 ADVERB ADJECTIVE Positive: soon good Comparative: sooner better Superlative: soonest best
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071b. Adjectives and adverbs of two syllables usually form the comparative and the superlative in one of two ways. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-96 ADJECTIVES ADVERBS happy famous early often happier more famous earlier less often happiest most famous earliest least often
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071c. Adjectives and adverbs of three syllables form the comparative and the superlative as follows. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-97 ADJECTIVES ADVERBS competent carefully less competent more carefully least competent most carefully
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071g. When referring to two persons, places, or things, use the comparative form. When referring to more than two, use the superlative form. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-98 Kate is the taller of my two daughters. Jim is the tallest of my three sons. Jim is taller than John or Chris .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071g. When referring to two persons, places, or things, use the comparative form. When referring to more than two, use the superlative form. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-99 Trudy is the most helpful person on the staff. Trudy is more helpful than anyone else on the staff. (NOT: . . . more helpful than anyone on the staff.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071g. When referring to two persons, places, or things, use the comparative form. When referring to more than two, use the superlative form. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-100 Chicago is the largest city in Illinois. Chicago is larger than any other city in Illinois. (NOT: . . . larger than any city in Illinois.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1071i. When making comparisons, be sure to compare like things. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Slide 10-101 This year’s sales are better than last year’s . (NOT: This year’s sales are better than last year .)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. A preposition is a word that takes an ob- ject (a noun or pronoun) and connects it to some other word in the sentence. Here are some common prepositions, followed in each case by an appropriate object. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-102 above the clouds before noon up the river below the surface after the party down the drain
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. A preposition is a word that takes an ob- ject (a noun or pronoun) and connects it to some other word in the sentence. Here are some common prepositions, followed in each case by an appropriate object. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-103 from all of us for the last time to the airport against my wishes between you and me among the three of us
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. A preposition is a word that takes an ob- ject (a noun or pronoun) and connects it to some other word in the sentence. Here are some common prepositions, followed in each case by an appropriate object. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-104 under the circumstances with every order over the hill without a doubt through the years during the nineties
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. A preposition is a word that takes an ob- ject (a noun or pronoun) and connects it to some other word in the sentence. Here are some common prepositions, followed in each case by an appropriate object. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-105 across the room in the meantime by all means out the door behind the door at your convenience
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. A preposition is a word that takes an ob- ject (a noun or pronoun) and connects it to some other word in the sentence. Here are some common prepositions, followed in each case by an appropriate object. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-106 on one hand until next year of every kind off the wall about 6 p.m. since last week
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1078. Omit unnecessary prepositions. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-107 Where is she [at]? The carton fell off [of] the truck. Let’s focus [in] on the real problem. I couldn’t help [from] laughing. The strike is now over [with].
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1079. Do not omit necessary prepositions. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-108 I just bought a couple of CDs. (NOT: a couple CDs.) We don’t stock that type of filter. (NOT: that type filter.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1079. Do not omit necessary prepositions. PREPOSITIONS Slide 10-109 She appears in movies, in plays, and on TV. (NOT: She appears in movies, plays, and on TV.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1081a. Express parallel ideas in parallel form. SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION Slide 10-110 Wrong: The program was stimulating and a challenge . Right: The program was stimulating and challenging .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1081a. Express parallel ideas in parallel form. SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION Slide 10-111 Wrong: This scanner is easy to operate, efficient , and it is relatively inexpensive . Right: This scanner is easy to operate, efficient , and relatively inexpensive .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1081a. Express parallel ideas in parallel form. SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION Slide 10-112 Poor: This article will discuss: 1. How to deal with corporate politics. 2. Coping with stress. 3. What the manager’s role should be .
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1081a. Express parallel ideas in parallel form. SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION Slide 10-113 Better: This article will discuss: 1. Ways to deal with corporate politics. 2. Techniques of coping with stress. 3. The role of the manager.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1082a. When a sentence begins with a participial phrase that expresses an action, make sure that the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action that is expressed in the opening phrase. Otherwise, the opening phrase will “dangle.” DANGLING CONSTRUCTIONS Slide 10-114 Wrong: Having studied your cost estimates, a few questions have occurred to me. Right: Having studied your cost estimates, I would like to ask you a few questions.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1082b. When a sentence begins with an infinitive phrase that expresses an action, make sure that the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action that is expressed in the opening phrase. Otherwise, the opening phrase will “dangle.” DANGLING CONSTRUCTIONS Slide 10-115 Wrong: To obtain this free booklet, the enclosed coupon should be mailed in. Right: To obtain this free booklet, you should mail in the enclosed coupon.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1082c. When a sentence begins with a prepositional-gerund phrase that expresses an action, make sure that the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action that is expressed in the opening phrase. Other- wise, the opening phrase will “dangle.” DANGLING CONSTRUCTIONS Slide 10-116 Wrong: In analyzing the data, a few errors were found. Right: In analyzing the data, I found a few errors.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. a lot–alot USAGE Slide 11-1 Thanks a lot . (NOT: Thanks alot .)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. a–of USAGE Slide 11-2 It’s been kind of cold. (NOT: It’s been kind a cold.) What sort of car did you buy? (NOT: What sort a car. . . )
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. affect–effect USAGE Slide 11-3 His memo will not affect ( change ) my decision. His memo will have no effect ( impact ) on my decision. How can we effect ( bring about ) a change in his decision?
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. amount–number USAGE Slide 11-4 a large amount of sugar (wood, steel, etc.; things referred to in bulk) a large number of people (orders, etc.; things referred to as separate items)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. awhile–a while USAGE Slide 11-5 wait awhile wait for a while a while back
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. between–among USAGE Slide 11-6 divided between the two of us divided among the three of us
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. farther–further USAGE Slide 11-7 We drove farther ( in actual distance ) than we planned. Let’s discuss your idea further ( to a greater extent ).
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. fewer–less USAGE Slide 11-8 fewer accidents (or any other plural noun) less energy (or any other singular noun)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. of—have USAGE Slide 11-9 I could have helped you. (NOT: I could of helped you.) You should have let me. (NOT: You should of let me.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. sometime–sometimes–some time USAGE Slide 11-10 Let’s get together sometime ( at an unspecified time ) soon. Sometimes ( now and then ) we go to Hawaii for a month. It will take some time ( a period of time ) to finish the job.
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. supposed to USAGE Slide 11-11 What was I supposed to think? (NOT: What was I suppose to think?)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. ¶1101. used to USAGE Slide 11-12 We used to go to Nova Scotia every summer. (NOT: We use to go to Nova Scotia every summer.)
  • Click the mouse button or press the space bar to advance the presentation. Click the question mark to make this information screen appear. Click Home to view the Contents listings. From this point you can navigate to any section of the presentation. Click Left Arrow to move to the previous slide. Click Right Arrow to advance to the next slide. Click Exit or the Esc key to exit the slide show. The Down Arrow indicates that additional information will move into the slide when you press the space bar or click the mouse button. INFORMATION