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this a small thing about HIV
hop u get some information from it

Zain Al Abdeen

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  1. 1. HIVBy : Zain al abdeen
  2. 2. Outline• Definitions• Presence of HIV/AIDS Worldwide• Diagnosis• Infection• Transmission• Treatment• Nutrition – Treatment
  3. 3. Definitions• HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus – a retrovirus that targets the CD4 T helper immune cells• AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome – the final stage of HIV infection
  4. 4. Presence of HIV/AIDS Worldwide
  5. 5. Diagnosis of advanced HIV to AIDS• Three Criteria: 1. A CD4+ cell count of less than 200 cells per microliter 2. A CD4+ cell count that comprises of less than 14% lymphocytes present 3. And/or an AIDS defining illness – bacterial infections, wasting syndrome
  6. 6. Diagnosis• Screening Tests licensed by the FDA – Test serum or plasma with high sensitivity to HIV type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies • Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA) – Confirmatory test • ELISA, Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA), Western blot, modified Western blot, and line immunoassay (LIA) – Combination ELISA testing • Both antigen and antibodies • Earlier diagnosis
  7. 7. Infection
  8. 8. Infection• New HIV Infections by Age Group
  9. 9. Transmission
  10. 10. Transmission• Through Bodily Fluids :1- Blood products2- Vaginal fluids3- Semen4- Breast Milk
  11. 11. Transmission• Sharing Needles – Without sterilization – 8%• Mother-to-Baby Before Birth During Birth After the birth Vertical transmission before birth or through breastfeeding = <1%
  12. 12. Transmission• Through Sex # Intercourse # Oral sex # Anal sex # Digital Sex • Male-to-male = 54% • Heterosexual = 34%
  13. 13. Stages of HIV• Stage 1• Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection• no symptoms at all• Infected person can infect other people
  14. 14. Stages of HIV• Stage 2• Lasts for an average of ten years• This stage is free from symptoms• There may be swollen glands• The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels• HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
  15. 15. Stages of HIV• Stage 3• The symptoms are mild• The immune system drop• emergence of infections and cancers
  16. 16. Stages of HIV• Stage 4• The immune system weakens• The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
  17. 17. Treatment• Antiretroviral Therapies (ART)• Highly active retroviral therapy (HAART)• Aimed at interrupting viral life cycle and decreasing viral load
  18. 18. Nutrition – Treatment• Goals: – Preserve body cell mass – Provide adequate amounts of all nutrients for proper function – Minimize the symptoms
  19. 19. Nutrition – Treatment• Energy Needs :• Energy – based on need to maintain weight – Harris-Benedict Formula + extra kcal as needed – 20-30% increased energy for recovery from infections• Protein – increased for infection – 1.2 – 1.8 g/kg/day• Females: at least 100 grams of protein per day• Males: at least 125 grams of protein per day
  20. 20. Nutrition – Treatment• Reduce Fat :• Fat can be hard for your body to digest when you have HIV diseases , it can cause diarrhea, nausea, gas and bloating
  21. 21. Nutrition – Treatment• High Nutrient Foods Yogurt Tuna Beans Leafy Brown Rice Cheese Chicken Lentils Greens Whole Eggs Fish Corn Squash Grains Cottage Yams Cheese Tofu, All Oatmeal All Fruit Peanut Tempeh, Vegetables Wheat Germ Broccoli Butter Soy Nuts Nuts
  22. 22. Nutrition – Treatment• Micronutrient Needs• Dietary Reference Intakes – Vitamin A – 700-900 μg/day • Immune function – Vitamin E – 15 mg/day • Immune function – antioxidant protection – Vitamin B12 – 2.4 mcg/day • Cognitive function – Selenium – 55 μg/day • Immune function – antioxidant protection – Zinc – 8-11mg/day • Immune function, slowed disease progression
  23. 23. Nutrition – Treatment• Symptom Management – Nausea and Vomiting • Replace fluids and electrolytes • Bland, odorless foods • Beverages between meals • Smaller, more frequent meals • Reduce fatty foods with early satiety
  24. 24. Nutrition – Treatment• Symptom Management – Diarrhea • Replace fluids and electrolytes – juice, sports drinks, gelatin • Bland foods low in fiber • Avoid fatty and gassy foods • Avoid lactose if problematic
  25. 25. Nutrition – Treatment• Symptom Management – Anorexia • Eat favorite foods often in relaxed settings • Add flavors and an array of colors • Keep snacks handy • Appetite stimulants
  26. 26. Nutrition – Treatment• Symptom Management – Oral ,chewing & swallowing problems • Moist, soft, and finely diced foods • Avoid spicy or acid-containing foods • Room temperature or cooler foods • Topical medicines
  27. 27. Nutrition – Treatment• Common Deficiencies :• Vitamin A, zinc, iron- detrimental to the immune function• antioxidants- Vit A, Vit. C, and B vitamins can also compromise immune function b/c of their roles as cofactors in many enzyme functions including those involved in nucleic acid synthesis
  28. 28. Social strategies• Social strategies do not require any drug or object to be effective , but rather require persons to change their behavior in order to gain protection from HIV• Some social strategies which people consider include the following :• sex education• Safe injection sites• Sexual abstinence
  29. 29. No comment
  30. 30. REFERENCES• Grinspoon S, Mulligan K. For the Department of Health and Human Services working group on the prevention and treatment of wasting and weight loss. HIV related weight loss and wasting. In Supplement: Integrating nutrition management into HIV medical management.Guest Editor, Celia Hayes. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2003,• ME Brecher, et al. Is It HIV TTP or HIV-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy? J of Clin Apheresis. 2008• Fawzi, W., Msamanga, G., Spiegelman, D., Hunter, D. (2005). Studies of Vitamins and Minerals and HIV Transmission and Disease Progression. The Journal of Nutrition, 135, 938-944.• Fields-Gardner, Cade, & Fergusson, Pamela. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Nutrition Intervention in the care of Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Journal of The American Dietetic Association, 104(9), 1425- 1441.• Au J.T., K. Kayitenkore, E. Shutes, E. Karita, P.J. Peters, A. Tichacek, S.A. Allen. 2006. Accessto adequate nutrition is a major potential obstacle to antiretroviral adherence among HIVinfected individuals in Rwanda. AIDS 20 (16): 2116-2118.
  31. 31. Any Questions ?