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Misra,D.C.(2009)  Defining Egovernment MDI, Gurgaon 13.2.2009
 

Misra,D.C.(2009) Defining Egovernment MDI, Gurgaon 13.2.2009

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A Citizen-centric Criteria-based definition of E-government

A Citizen-centric Criteria-based definition of E-government

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  • Defining E-government by Dr D.C.Misra School of Public Policy and Governance, Management Development Institute, Gurgaon

Misra,D.C.(2009)  Defining Egovernment MDI, Gurgaon 13.2.2009 Misra,D.C.(2009) Defining Egovernment MDI, Gurgaon 13.2.2009 Presentation Transcript

  • Defining E-government by Dr D.C.Misra
  • Friday, February 13, 2009 5-30 p.m.
    • Management Development Programme for Atomic Energy Comission
    • School of Public Policy and Governance
    • Management Development Institute
    • P.B.60, Mehrauli Road, Sukhrali,
    • Gurgaon 122 001
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Defining E-government: A Citizen-centric Criteria-based Approach
    • by
    • Dr D.C.Misra
    • E-government Consultant
    • C-183 Madhuvan, Madhuvan Marg, New Delhi-110092
    • Email : [email_address]
    • Web : http://in.geocities.com/drdcmisra
    • Think Tank : http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/cyber_quiz
    • Tel : 0-11- 2245 2431
    • Fax : 0-11- 4244 5183
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • I. Evolution of E-government in India
    • Three Phases of E-government in India
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 SN Time Period Type of E-government Need for E-government Dominant Technology 1 1947-1984 Informatics-based Economic Planning Mainframe/Mini Computers 2 1984-1995 Personal Computer (PC)-based Office Auomation Personal Computers (PCs)/Wokstations 3 1995- World Wide Web-based Government Online Internet/World Wide Web
  • II. Drivers of E-government-1
    • External:
    • 1. Citizens (for Government Accountability and Better Service Delivery)
    • 2. Vendors (for Doing More Business)
    • 3. World League Tables (for Comparative Status of E-government)
    • 4. State (for Joining the E-government Band Wagon)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Drivers of E-government-2
    • Internal
    • 1. State (for Improving Internal Processes and External Service Delivery)
    • 2. Policy Makers (for Getting Publicity and Showing Concern for Citizens)
    • 3. Demand for Change (for Changing the Existing Unproductive Government Systems)
    • 4. eChampions (espousing the cause of
    • E-Ggovernment) (Ministers/Civil Servants)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • III. Conceptual Foundations of E-government
    • 1. Rise of the Virtual State and the E-citizen
    • 2. Government Online
    • 3. Distinction between:
    • (a) Governance and Government
    • (b) E-governance and E-government
    • (c) E-commerce and E-government
    • (d) Re-inventing Government and E-government
    • (e) New Public Management (NPM) and E-government
    • (f) Good Governance ad E-government
    • (g) Administrative Reforms and E-government
    • (h) E-democracy and E-government
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Conceptual Foundations of E-government (Contd.)
    • Relationship between E-government and Target: No Satisfactory Term
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 SN Target Counterpart 1 Subject Ruler 2 Public Democracy 3 Citizen State 4 Subscriber Supplier 5 Client Master 6 Customer Seller
  • Conceptual Foundations of E-government (Contd.)
    • What is correct way of writing E-government ?
    • (a) eGovernment
    • (b) E-Government
    • (c) e-government √
    • (d) E-government √
    • (e) Egovernment
    • (f) egovernment
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • IV. Government Online: Three Phases
    • 1. Presence Online (Information)
    • 2. Presence Online (Information)
    • + Transaction (Payment of Dues like taxes)
    • 3. Presence Online
    • + Transaction (Payment of Dues like taxes)
    • + Interaction ( e-citizen, e-voting,
    • e-democracy)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • V. Administrative Reforms (AR): Three Phases
    • 1. Traditional Regulatory Bureaucracy
    • (Authoritative and Rigid) (Pre-1980s)
    • 2. New Public Management (1980s)
    • (Re-inventing Government, Application of Corporate Practices and Result-Orientation)
    • 3. Interactive and Responsive Administration
    • (Online Information, Online Transactions and Online Citizen-State Interaction) (1990s)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • VI. Defining E-government: A Level-of-Perspectives Approach
    • 1. Level-I: Computerisation
    • 2. Level-II: Government Online
    • 3. Level-III: Administrative Reforms (AR)
    • + Government Online
    • 4. Level-IV: Administrative Reforms (AR)
    • + Government Online
    • + eCitizen
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Defining E-government (Contd.)
    • E-government Fundamental Equation:
    • E-government may be defined as
    • E-gov = f (G, ICT, BPR)
    • where E-gov = E-government
    • f = Function
    • G = Governance
    • ICT = Information and Communication
    • Technology
    • BPR = Business Process Re-engineering
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • E-government is Transformation . School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 Government Technology E-government
  • VII. Limitations of E-Government
    • 1. E-government is costly .
    • 2. E-government takes time to design and implement.
    • 3. E-government is risky .
    • 4. E-government is not universally subscribed.
    • 5. E-government requires E-inclusion.
    • 6. E-government requires E-literacy .
    • 7. E-government requires appropriate ICT infrastructure , hardware and software
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • VIII. Benefits of E-government-1
    • (a) To Citizens
    • 1. 24x7x365 days round-the-clock service
    • 2. Economical (No need for physical visit)
    • 3. Fast and Efficient (Electronic)
    • 4. Transparent (No speed money)
    • 5. Equitable (Any one can access it)
    • 6. Convenience (Can be accessed at odd
    • hours)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Benefits of E-government-2
    • (b) To Business:
    • 1. Reduced time in setting up new business .
    • 2. Conduct E-business and E-commerce
    • 3. Better conformity to Government rules and regulations for running business
    • 4. More convenient and transparent way of doing business with Government through E-procurement .
    • 5. Better control over movement of goods through online monitoring of clearances
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Benefits of E-government-3
    • (c) To Government
    • 1. Better policy making and regulatory and development
    • functions as result of better and up-to-date information.
    • 2. Very fast acquisition , storage and retrieval of data leading to better decision-making .
    • 3. Better management of government processes
    • 4. Better dissemination of government rules, regulations and activities
    • 5. Better performance in regulatory functions like taxation
    • 6. Better performance in social sectors like education , health and social security
    • 7. Creates the positive image of Modern and Progressive Government
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • IX. Domains of E-government
    • 1. E-government Fundamental Equation
    • E-gov= f (G, ICT, BPR)
    • 2. Three domains of E-government are:
    • (a) Governance (G)
    • (b) Information and Communication
    • Technology (ICT)
    • (c) Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)
    • 3. Where these three domains intersect is the domain of E-government as shown in following Figure1.
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Figure 1 Domains of E-government School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 E-GOVERNMENT ICT BPR Governance
  • X Dimensions of E-government
    • 1. Governance (Legislature, Judiciary, Executive)
    • 2. Government
    • 3. ICT Policy
    • 4. E-government Policy
    • 5. Citizens and Non-Citizens (Target Groups)
    • 6. Civil Service
    • 7. National Training Policy – Training in and for E-government
    • 8. ICT Infrastructure, Computer Hardware and Software, E-procurement
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Dimensions of E-government (Contd.)
    • 9. Cyber Laws including Conventional Laws affecting
    • E-government
    • 10. Centre for E-governance (CEG)
    • 11. eChampion – Driver of E-government, CIO, Action Plan
    • for the CIO 2006-2016
    • 12. E-citizen and E-democracy
    • 13. E-inclusion, E-literacy, Making 100,000 citizens computer
    • literate every year
    • 14. Community Access Points (CAPs)
    • 15. Community Empowerment Programme (CEP)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • XI ICT Policies and E-government
    • 1. ICT Policy
    • 2. Communication Policy
    • 3. E-government Policy
    • 4. E-government Master Plan
    • 5. E-government Action Plan
    • 6. CIO Action Plan
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • XII Guiding Principles for E-government
    • 1. E-gov ≠ Computerisation
    • 2. E-gov ≠ Electronics but E-gov = Gov
    • 3. Examine Government processes thoroughly before undertaking any e-gov measure
    • 4. Prepare an E-Business Plan
    • 5.Follow KISS principle in design.
    • (KISS= Keep It Simple, Stupid)
    • 6. Attempt simple tasks first and the go for complicated tasks
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Guiding Principles for E-government (Contd.)
    • 7. Involve all stakeholders in E-gov
    • planning
    • 8. Plan and Test a Pilot before full Roll Out
    • 9. Demystify E-gov
    • 10. Monitor E-gov
    • 11. Rate and benchmark all E-gov activities
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Guiding Principles for E-government (Contd.)
    • 12. E-gov = SMART gov, where
    • S = Simple
    • M = Moral
    • A = Accountable
    • R = Responsive
    • T = Transparent
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • XIII E-government Models
    • 1. Broadcasting Model
    • 2. Comparative Analysis Model
    • 3. Mobilisation and Lobbying Model
    • 4. Interactive Service Model
    • 5. E-governance Maturity Model
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • 1. Broadcasting Model
    • It is a communication model
    • Communication model is
    • Sender(S) ------> MESSAGE (M) ---->Receiver (R)
    • Communication Channel (C)
    • It is called S-M-C-R Model
    • It is very effective as it is based on One-to-Many concept
    • E-gov websites, which are accessible by many, are its typical examples.
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • XIV E-Government and E-Participation
    • 1. Gateways
    • 2. Portals including Single Entry Portals
    • 3. Websites
    • 4. Bulletin Boards
    • 5. Discussion Groups
    • 6. Blogs and vBlogs
    • 7. Email
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • XV. E-government Strategy and E-government Plan School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 VISION MISSION Where we are Where we want to go E-gov Strategy How do we go there Figure 2 E-government Strategy
  • E-government Strategy and E-government Plan (Contd.)
    • 1. Operationalise E-government Strategy
    • 2. Prepare E-business Plan
    • 3. Implement E-business Plan:
    • Prescribe:
    • (a) Objectives
    • (b) Goals
    • (c) Targets
    • (d) Milestones
    • 4. Monitor Implementation
    • 5. Review Implementation
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Figure 3 Four-Pillar Model of E-government
    • Model of E-government
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 VISION E-BUSINESS PLAN MISSION IMPLEMENT
  • XVI E-government Architecture and Standards
    • What is E-government Architecture?
    • It is relationship between various components of
    • an aspect of E-government. We have, for example:
    • 1. Process Architecture
    • 2. People Architecture
    • 3. Technology Architecture
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • 1. E-government Business Process Architecture School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 S.N. Activity Result 1 What does the Ministry/Department do? Business: List of Subjects Items within a Subject 2 How does the Ministry/Department conduct its business? Business Processes 3 How are these different business processes related with other? Business Process Architecture
  • 1. E-government Business Process Architecture (Contd.) School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 SN Activity Result 4 Is there a better way of doing business ? (a) Redesign Business Process Architecture (b) Undertake Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)?
  • 17 E-government and Knowledge Management
    • Four Components of Knowledge Management
    • (a). Data -
    • Facts and Figures
    • (b). Information -
    • Data + Interpretation
    • (c) Knowledge
    • Data + Interpretation + Use
    • (d) Wisdom
    • Data + Interpretation + Use + Application
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • (a) Data
    • 1. Data
    • Raw and Processed Data
    • Data Entry
    • Locked Data
    • Accessibility to Data
    • Quality of Data
    • (i) Up to date
    • (ii) Accurate
    • (iii) Reliable
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Data (Contd.)
    • Sharing of Data
    • (a) G2G
    • (b) G2C
    • 2. Collection, Entry, Analysis, Storage and Retrieval of Data
    • - E-record and its Management
    • - Security of Data
    • - Outsourcing Data Entry
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Data (Contd.)
    • 3. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
    • - Trends and Patterns
    • 4. Data Warehouse
    • 5. Data Storage
    • - RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive
    • Disks) Architecture: Six layers
    • - RAID 0
    • (Number of disk drives as one)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Data (Contd.)
    • RAID 1
    • - Mirrors one disk to another
    • RAID 2
    • - RAID 0 + RAID 1
    • RAID 3
    • - Striped and Stored with parity checking
    • RAID 4
    • - Data striping with parity checking
    • RAID 5
    • - Data Striping with Striped Parity
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Data (Contd.)
    • Networked Attached Storage (NAS) and Storage Area Network (SAN)
    • 6. Data and Database
    • Database
    • - Logical Collection of Data
    • - Entities (Persons, Objects, Events, Places)
    • - Create, Store, Update, retrieve Data
    • - Set of Tables
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Data (Contd.)
    • - Records and Fields
    • 7. Database Management System (DBMS)
    • - Software System
    • - Creating, Storing, Updating and Retrieving Data
    • 8. Relational Database Management System (RDMS)
    • - Integrity
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Data (Contd.)
    • - Concurrency
    • - Key Fields
    • 9. Meta Data
    • - Data about Data
    • 10. Schema
    • - Data Elements and their Relationship in a Domain, Constraints
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Data (Contd.)
    • 11. Centralised/Distributed Databases
    • 12. Modular/Monolithic Design
    • 13. ID Database
    • 14. Single Sign On (SSO)
    • 15. Smart Cards
    • 16. Cloud Computing
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • (b) Information
    • 1. Information Systems in
    • - Government
    • - E-government
    • 2. Information Flows in
    • - Government
    • - E-government
    • 3. Management Information System (MIS ) in
    • - Government
    • - E-government
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Information (Contd.)
    • 4. Co-existence of
    • - Traditional MIS
    • - Modern MIS (eMIS)
    • 5. Problems of their Co-Existence and Solution
    • 6. Transitonal Strategies from Traditional to Modern MIS
    • 7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Traditional and Modern MIS
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • (c) Knowledge
    • 1. Information + Use = Knowledge
    • 2. Types of Knowledge
    • (a) Tacit Knowledge
    • (b) Explicit Knowledge
    • 3. Sources of Knowledge in Government
    • (a) Ministers
    • (b) Civil Servants
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Knowledge (Contd.)
    • (c) Documents
    • - Files, Agenda, Record of Proceedings, Minutes, Government Orders (GOs) Notifications
    • (d) Laws, Rules and Regulations
    • (e) Archives
    • (f) Embedded in Physical Systems
    • (g) Citizens
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • Knowledge (Contd.)
    • 4. Creation of Knowledge
    • 5. Capture of Knowledge
    • 6. Decision Support System (DSS)
    • (a) Data-centric
    • (b) Model-centric
    • (c) GIS-based
    • 7. Examples: Egypt Cabinet DSS, Manhattan Court DSS, Lake Development DSS, etc.
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • (d) Wisdom
    • 1. Knowledge + Application = Wisdom,
    • or Data + Interpretation + Use + Application
    • 2. Use and Withholding of Knowledge
    • 3. Flexibility in Applying Knowledge
    • 4. Importance of Tactfulness in Government
    • 5. Government Interest in Decision-Making
    • 6. Public Interest in Decision-Making
    • 7. Governance first, E-governance afterwards
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • XVII Overview: Status of E-government in India
    • India: e-readiness Assessment Report 2006 for States/Union Territories (2008)
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009 1 . Leaders :Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryan, Karnataka, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu 5. Below Average Achievers : Assam, Nagaland, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep 2. Aspiring Leaders : Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Goa 3. Expectants : West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand 4. Averaage Achievers : Mizoram, Orissa,, Puducherry, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Uttarakhand 6. Least Achievers : Bihar, Tripura, Manipur, Daman and Diu, Jammu and Kashmir, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Arunachal Pradesh
  • XIX Frontiers of E-government
    • 1. eChampions
    • 2. Evolution of Websites
    • 3. Search Engine
    • 4. Scenario Building
    • 5. Future Studies
    • 6. Artificial Intelligence
    • 7. Wiki Technology
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • XX Conclusion: Beyond E-government
    • TRANSFORMATIONAL
    • GOVERNMENT
    • or
    • T-government
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009
  • End of Presentation
    • Thank
    • You.
    School of Public Policy and Governance, MDI Defining E-government ©Dr D.C.Misra 2009