Misra,D.C.(2009) Change Management For E Government 24.10.2009

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This presentation deals with change management (CM) for e-government. It highlights various models of CM and lays emphasis on CM plan for e-government which should be part of an over-all e-business plan for e-government.

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Misra,D.C.(2009) Change Management For E Government 24.10.2009

  1. 1. Change Management for E-government by Dr D.C.MISRA
  2. 2. <ul><li>A Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Dr D.C.MISRA </li></ul><ul><li>eGov Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>New Delhi, India </li></ul><ul><li>Tel: 91-11-22452431 </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: dc_misra [at] hotmail.com </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  3. 3. Importance of Change <ul><li>“ … ..that it is not the strongest of the species that survive, </li></ul><ul><li>nor the most intelligent, </li></ul><ul><li>but that are most responsive to change…..” </li></ul><ul><li>--------- Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>(No evidence that Darwin said or wrote it!) </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  4. 4. What is proposed to be covered? <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Change in Government </li></ul><ul><li>Change due to E-government </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  5. 5. I. Definition <ul><li>What is Change ? </li></ul><ul><li>A new and unfamiliar state. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Change Management ? </li></ul><ul><li>A systematic approach to dealing with change. </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management has several dimensions : </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  6. 6. II. Dimensions of Change <ul><li>State : Present and New State </li></ul><ul><li>Transition : From Present to New State </li></ul><ul><li>Planning : For change </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation : For change </li></ul><ul><li>Technology : Change for new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Training : For change </li></ul><ul><li>Cost : Cost-Benefit Analysis of change </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and Evaluation : Of change </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption : By organisation and individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management : Managing change </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  7. 7. III. Types of Change <ul><li>Planned and Emergent (Unplanned) Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic (Replacement of one programme by another) and Continuous (ongoing/incremental) Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental (improving existing situation-first order), Transitional (new state-second order) and Transformational (radical, second order) (Ackerman) </li></ul><ul><li>Change due to E-government </li></ul><ul><li>Change for E-government </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  8. 8. IV. Models of Change <ul><li>7 S Model </li></ul><ul><li>PESTELI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Five Whys </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Field Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>CEC Model </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Reengineering </li></ul><ul><li>Beckhard and Harris Model </li></ul><ul><li>ADKAR Model </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management Iceberg </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  9. 9. 1. 7S Model <ul><li>Waterman, Peters and Phillips (1980) developed it working for McKinsey </li></ul><ul><li>Peters and Waterman surveyed 62 successful US companies in the late 1970s using the 7S Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Their book In Search of Excellence (1982) became a management bestseller in 1980s </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  10. 10. 7S Model <ul><li>Strategy (Plan of Action) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure (Organisational Chart) </li></ul><ul><li>Systems (Procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff (Personnel) </li></ul><ul><li>Style (Management Style) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared values (Guiding values) </li></ul><ul><li>Skills (Capabilities) </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  11. 11. 2. PESTEL Model <ul><li>It is a checklist for understanding change: </li></ul><ul><li>P: Political factors </li></ul><ul><li>E: Economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>S: Social factors </li></ul><ul><li>T: Technological factors </li></ul><ul><li>E: Ecological factors </li></ul><ul><li>L: Legislative factors </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  12. 12. 3. Five Whys <ul><li>Senge et al. (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple tool for analysis of a Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Why? ( My Internet connection broke down ) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? ( There were repairs in nearby room) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? (His Internet connection broke down) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? (There was no proper maintenance) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? (There was no supervision) </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: Repairs must be supervised. </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  13. 13. 4. Theory of Constraints <ul><li>Goldratt and Cox, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Goldratt and Cox (1992): The Goal , Goldratt (1994): It’s not luck , Goldratt (1997): Critical Chain , Goldratt and Cox (2004): The Goal : A Process of Ongoing Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>View a process as a whole. (All phases) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify constraints that impede the flow </li></ul><ul><li>Ease the identified constraints to improve the flow </li></ul><ul><li>The flow at the slowest phase will be the speed of flow of the entire process. </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  14. 14. 5. Forced Field Analysis <ul><li>Force field analysis (Lewin, 1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Tells us whether organisational change will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on concept of “force,” or people’s perception of change </li></ul><ul><li>Driving forces </li></ul><ul><li>Restraining forces </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  15. 15. Forced Field Analysis <ul><li>Lewin’s Three Fundamental Assertions : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Increasing the driving forces results in an increase in the resisting forces; the current equilibrium does not change but is maintained under increased tension . </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reducing resisting forces is preferable because it allows movement towards the desired state, without increasing tension. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Group norms are an important force in resisting and shaping organisational change. </li></ul>Source: Iles and Sutherland 2001 © Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  16. 16. 6. The CEC Model <ul><li>Peter Senge, founder of the Centre for Organizational Learning, MIT's Sloan School of Management </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of Learning Organisation (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between C ommitment , Enrolment and </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment-Apathy Continuum </li></ul><ul><li>No need to for everyone to be “fully committed” </li></ul><ul><li>to change </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse who needs to change and to what extent and </li></ul><ul><li>draw straegy for change accordingly </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  17. 17. The CEC Model <ul><li>Commitment, Enrolment and Compliance </li></ul>Commitment Enrolment Genuine Compliance Formal Compliance Grudging Compliance Non-compliance Apathy Figure: Commitment-Apathy Continuum Source: Based on Iles and Sutherland 2001 © Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  18. 18. 7. Business Process Reengineering <ul><li>Hammer and Champy (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>BPR: ... the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in BPR : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Prepare the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fundamentally rethink the way that work gets done </li></ul><ul><li>3. Restructure the organisation around the new business process. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Implement new information and measurement systems to reinforce change. </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  19. 19. 8. Beckhard and Harris Change Model <ul><li>Beckhard and Harris Change Model (1987) is a formula </li></ul><ul><li>It is attributed to David Gleicher </li></ul><ul><li>It supercedes Taylor’s scientific management (Taylorism) based on “command-and-control” aproach which assumed: </li></ul><ul><li>Workers work, Managers think </li></ul><ul><li>Taylorism, reflective of industrial age, has been replaced by “human relations movement” recognising worker involvement </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  20. 20. Beckhard and Harris Change Model <ul><li>Beckhard and Harris formula states that </li></ul><ul><li>D x V x F > R </li></ul><ul><li>where D= Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>V= Vision </li></ul><ul><li>F= First Steps </li></ul><ul><li>R= Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Note that no factor on left hand side should be zero, otherwise change will also be zero. </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  21. 21. 9. The ADKAR Model <ul><li>Awareness of the need to change </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to participate and support the  change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of how to change (and what the change looks like) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to implement the change on a day-to-day basis </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement to keep the change in place </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  22. 22. 10. Change Management Iceberg <ul><li>This model of Wilfried Krüger deals with barriers to change </li></ul><ul><li>It is strong visualisation of change in organisations </li></ul><ul><li>The tip of the iceberg is seen by change managers while the rest is ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Change managers thus consider Cost, Quality and Time (Issue Management) </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  23. 23. Change Management Iceberg <ul><li>Below the surface there are two more dimensions of Change and Management: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Management of Perceptions and </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Power and Politics Management </li></ul><ul><li>Below the surface are Promoters , Opponents , Hidden Opponents and Potential Promoters </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  24. 24. V. Change in Government <ul><li>Sources of Change in Government </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral Process , for example, General Elections every five years </li></ul><ul><li>Such change in Government means basic </li></ul><ul><li>“ 3P Changes,” namely, in Policies, Programmes and Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Process , for example, by passing an act of Parliament </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  25. 25. Change in Government <ul><li>Such change may create new entities like Department of IT, Computer Board and CIO </li></ul><ul><li>Media , for example, by urging change in specific public policies and programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Society , for example, by inducing changes in public policies and programmes due to increased expectations, availability of new technology, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Service , for example, by suggesting changes in public policies and programmes while contributing to their development or implementing them </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  26. 26. VI. Change due to E-government <ul><li>Fear of new Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Disrtuptive nature, break with past </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Knowledge and Skills in Computer hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Diffficulties in joining Gov with IT to make </li></ul><ul><li>E-gov, or Gov+IT=E-gov </li></ul><ul><li>Radically new methods of working and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of Training/Coaching/Ready Help </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  27. 27. VII Conclusion <ul><li>Change is very difficult to achieve in E-government </li></ul><ul><li>A carefully drawn up change management plan prepared in consultation with all stakeholders alone can help </li></ul><ul><li>The change management plan should be part of a larger e-business plan for e-government </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009
  28. 28. Change Management for E-government <ul><li>With this I conclude my presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your attention. </li></ul><ul><li>And Have a Nice Day! </li></ul>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 October 24, 2009

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