Research and Information
System in Developing Countries

Course on International Economic
 Issues and Development Policy
 ...
E-governance: The Indian Experience


       A Presentation by

                Dr D.C.MISRA
           E-government Consu...
E-government: The Indian Experience
         Sixty Years of E-governance in India (1947-2007):

         Are there lessons...
What is proposed to be covered?
 I Introduction:
   (a) Computer: From Man to Machine
   (b) Internet
   (c) World Wide We...
What is proposed to be covered?
III Three Phases of E-government in India 1947-2007
(i) 1947-1984 Informatics-based E-gove...
What is proposed to be covered?
V Phase II: 1984-1995 Personal Computer (PC)-based
  E-government
(a) New Computer Policy ...
What is proposed to be covered?
VI Phase III: 1995-2007 World Wide Web (WWW)-based E-
   government
(a) Internet made avai...
Overview
Figure 1                                                     II 1880-1980
                         I. Introductio...
E-governance: The Indian Experience




     I. INTRODUCTION




            E-governance: The Indian Experience
         ...
(a) Computer: From Man to
             Machine
In Victorian period (1837-1901), even the World War II (1939-45) era,
Compu...
Computer: From Man to Machine
As recently as 1967, a state-of-the-art IBM costing $167,500
could hold a mere thirteen page...
(b) Internet
 Fast and reliable means of communication connecting distant
  places have always been important to governme...
Internet
 The Internet, the global interconnected network of computer
  networks, was invented as the Advanced Research P...
Internet 2 and IPN
 Internet2, an improved version of Internet,
  was launched in Chicago on October 1, 1996.
 It is a c...
(c) World Wide Web
 The World Wide Web, essentially the hyper-linked content
  over the Internet, invented by Tim Berners...
(d) E-government, Government and
                  Society
 E-government is changing the way in which citizens and their ...
(e) E-government as Cumulative Exercise


 An achievement is usually a culmination of
  past efforts. The proposition can...
(f) Who owns E-government?
 As e-government gains increasing prominence, many
  disciplines have started claiming exclusi...
Who owns E-government?
              Every body
 A journalist barges in saying, look you cannot have any e-
  government ...
II A Hundred Year Background (1880-1980) for
            E-government in India
 Subramanian (2005/2006) views development...
A Hundred Year Background (1880-1980) for
             E-government in India
Figure 2 Contribution of Three Main Streams o...
Some of India’s Earlier
                Computers (1950-59)
Table 1 Some of India’s Earlier Computers (1950-59)

S.N.    Y...
III. Three Phases of E-government in India 1947-2007

     Table 2 Three Phases of E-government in India 1947-2007

Phase ...
IV. Phase I
           1947-1984



INFORMATICS-BASED E-GOVERNMENT




           E-governance: The Indian Experience
    ...
Phase I: Informatics-based
     Government (1947-84)
1. Use of computer in Indian planning
   (1954)
2. Setting up of the ...
Phase I: Informatics-based
       Government (1947-84)
             (a) What is informatics?
 The term has been in use in...
Informatics-based Government
          (1947-84)
             What is informatics?

                        1. Computer


...
What is bioinformatics?

Figure 4 A Bridge between IT and Domain

              Bioinformatics




   IT                  ...
1. Computer in Indian Planning
             (1954)
                 (b) Computer and Indian Planning

 Prof P.C. Mahalano...
(c) Data for Planning and
           Decision-Making
1. Population Census since 1891 every 10
   years
2. Indian National ...
2. Department of Electronics
            (DOE)(1970)
 Overseas Communications Service (OCS) (1947)
 Electronics Committe...
3. National Informatics Centre
                (NIC)
 National Informatics Centre (NIC) was
  conceived in 1975 as a plan...
V. Phase II

          1984-95


Personal Computer (PC)-based
       E-government




        E-governance: The Indian Exp...
Personal Computer (PC)-based
              E-government
(a) New Computer Policy (1984)
(b) Policy on Computer Software Exp...
Personal Computer (PC)-based
                 E-government


(d) Public personnel hostile to computerisation fearing
   la...
VI Phase III
     1995-2007




Web-based E-government




     E-governance: The Indian Experience
        (1947-2007) © ...
Web-based E-government

Internet made available to public in India on August
14, 1995
Ministries/Departments started going...
Web-based E-government
          Three Important Milestones
• 1. Setting up of National Task Force on
  Information Techno...
1. National Task Force on Information Technology (IT)
        and Software Development (SD) (1998)

  Set up: May 22, 1998...
2. Ministry of Information
Technology (MIT) created (1999)
Ministry of Information Technology (MIT) created (1999)
Passeng...
3. National E-governance Plan (NEGP)
             (2003-2007)
 National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) approved on N...
National E-governance Plan (NEGP)
            (2003-2007)
The National E-governance Plan (NEGP) is a well
conceived, well ...
National E-governance Plan (NEGP)
            (2003-2007)
  Figure 5 Four Pillars of NEGP (2003-2007)



                 ...
National E-governance Plan (NEGP)
            (2003-2007)
E-Readiness assessment for the Centre
and States launched April ...
National E-governance Plan (NEGP)
            (2003-2007)
“.in” Domain including co.in, .net.in, .firm.in,
.ind.in, and .o...
National E-governance Plan (NEGP)
            (2003-2007)
National Summit on E-forms for E-governance held
on June 12-13, ...
VII Software Success and
               E-governance
Indian success in software industry has raised worldwide interest.
In...
A Comparison of Performance of E-governance
  and Software Industry in India, 1997-2007

     Table 3 A Comparison of Perf...
VIII Developments in Telecom
                 Sector
Table 4 Select Milestones in Telecom Sector in India 1992-2006

SN   ...
IX Lessons for other Developing
           Countries
Are there any lessons from the
Indian Experience in E-governance
for ...
Lessons for other Developing
             Countries
 Lesson 1: Databases are at the heart of
  governance. Strengthen the...
Lessons for other Developing
             Countries
Lesson 2: There is no substitute to self-
 reliance and indigenous ca...
Lessons for other Developing
             Countries
 Lesson 3: Invest in human resource development
  (HRD)
   Recollect ...
Lessons for other Developing
            Countries
Lesson 4: Prepare National
 E-government Plan
 Recollect the Indian Ex...
Lessons for other Developing
            Countries
Lesson 5: Consider both the Demand
 and Supply Sides of E-governance.
...
Lessons for other Developing
             Countries
     Table 5 Lessons from Indian E-governance Experience

Lesson 1 Dat...
X. A Summing Up
I    Introduction
II   A Hundred Year Background (1880-1980) for E-government in
     India
III Three Phas...
A Summing Up
VI Phase III: 1995-2007 Web-based E-government
1. Setting up of National Task Force on Information Technology...
Further Reading
• Misra, D.C. (2006): Ten Emerging E-government Challenges Today:
  The Future May be Sober and Not Hype, ...
Thank you for your attention




                  End of Presentation



     End of Presentation
       --Dr D.C.Misra, ...
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Misra,D.C.(2007) Evolution Of E Governance In India (1947 2007) RIS New Delhi March 8

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Misra,D.C.(2007) Evolution Of E Governance In India (1947 2007) RIS New Delhi March 8

  1. 1. Research and Information System in Developing Countries Course on International Economic Issues and Development Policy (February 19- March 16, 2007)
  2. 2. E-governance: The Indian Experience A Presentation by Dr D.C.MISRA E-government Consultant New Delhi Thursday, March 8, 2008, 12 p.m. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 2
  3. 3. E-government: The Indian Experience Sixty Years of E-governance in India (1947-2007): Are there lessons for other developing countries? by Dr D.C.Misra, I.A.S.(Retd.) Independent E-government Consultant, New Delhi, Formerly Chief Knowledge Officer, Government of Mauritius, Port Louis under Commonwealth Secretariat, London and Chairman, Task Force for IT Policy for Government of NCT of Delhi • Address: C-183 Madhuvan, Madhuvan Marg, New Delhi-110092 • Tel: 91-11-22452431 Fax: 91-11-42445183 Cell: 0-9010891700 • Web: http://in.geocities.com/drdcmisra/mypage.html • Blog: http://egov-india.blogspot.com/ http://knowledgecommission.blogspot.com/ • Email: dcmisra@hotmail.com E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 3
  4. 4. What is proposed to be covered? I Introduction: (a) Computer: From Man to Machine (b) Internet (c) World Wide Web (d) E-government, Government and Society (e) E-government as Cumulative Experience (f) Who owns E-government? II A Hundred Year Background (1880-1980) for E-government in India (a) Some of India’s Earlier Computers (1950-59) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 4
  5. 5. What is proposed to be covered? III Three Phases of E-government in India 1947-2007 (i) 1947-1984 Informatics-based E-government (ii) 1984-1995 Personal Computer (PC)-based E-government (iii) 1995-2007 World Wide Web (WWW)-based E-government IV Phase I: 1947-1984 Informatics-based E-government 1. Use of computer in Indian planning (1954) (a) What is informatics? (b) Computer and Indian Planning (c) Data for Planning and Decision-Making- Population Census (1891), National Sample Surveys (1950), Annual Survey of Industries (1953), Agricultural Census (1971-72) and Input Surveys, Statutory and Non-Statutory Provisions 2. Setting up of the Department of Electronics (DOE) (1970), and 3. Setting up of the National Informatics Centre (NIC) (1977) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 5
  6. 6. What is proposed to be covered? V Phase II: 1984-1995 Personal Computer (PC)-based E-government (a) New Computer Policy (1984) (b) Policy on Computer Software Export, Software Development, and Training (1986) (c) NICNET (1987) and DISNIC (1987) (d) Hostility to Computerisation. (e) Parliamentary Committee on Automation puts brake on automation (f) A sea-change in people’s attitudes to computerisation now (Late 1990s) (g) Now every body wants computers and e- government! (Early 21st Century) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 6
  7. 7. What is proposed to be covered? VI Phase III: 1995-2007 World Wide Web (WWW)-based E- government (a) Internet made available to public in India on August 14, 1995 (b) Setting up of National Task Force on Information Technology (IT) and Software Development (SD) (1998) (c) Creation of Ministry of Information Technology (1999) (d) Launching of National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003) (e) 2,221 “.gov.in” domains stood registered in early 2007 (f) A comparison of software success and e-governance (g) National Knowledge Commission (NKC) and Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 7
  8. 8. Overview Figure 1 II 1880-1980 I. Introduction III 3 Phases of Egov IV Informatics- based Egov VI Web-based Egov V PC-based Egov IX Lessons VII Software and Egov VIII Telecom Sector X. Sum Up E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 8
  9. 9. E-governance: The Indian Experience I. INTRODUCTION E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 9
  10. 10. (a) Computer: From Man to Machine In Victorian period (1837-1901), even the World War II (1939-45) era, Computer was an occupation and computer a human being (a person employed to make calculations)! The first attempt to organize information processing on a large scale using human computers was for the production of mathematical tables, such as logarithmic and trigonometric tables (Campbell-Kelly and Aspray 1996). Then came mechanical machines like typewriters and calculators Followed by a number of electronic computers, mainframe computers, minicomputers, and supercomputers. It has also been suggested that computers could be like humans in every respect (Jeffrey 1999). E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 10
  11. 11. Computer: From Man to Machine As recently as 1967, a state-of-the-art IBM costing $167,500 could hold a mere thirteen pages of text (Cairncross 1997). The release of personal computer (PC) (with MS-DOS operating system) by IBM in 1981 brought the computer within the reach of individuals. Ever alive to the needs of computing, India joined the select club of U.S., Japan, Israel and China when it launched Param Padma series of supercomputers on January 1, 2003, indigenously developed by its Pune-based Centre for Advanced Computing (C-DAC). C-DAC incidentally is also developing important regional language e-governance applications. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 11
  12. 12. (b) Internet  Fast and reliable means of communication connecting distant places have always been important to governments worldwide.  The once ubiquitous and now-forgotten telegraph, a nineteenth century technology wonder, and called Victorian Internet recently (Standage 1999)  It was the mainstay of governance in India in its own time, quite significantly in sending daily sitreps (situation reports)  The cost of a three-minute telephone call from New York to London fell from $350 in 1930 to about 40 cents in 1999, and it is now approaching zero for voice-over-Internet telephony (Ghemawat 2007). E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 12
  13. 13. Internet  The Internet, the global interconnected network of computer networks, was invented as the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in the U.S. in 1969.  It ceased to exist in 1990, when its remaining functions were handed over to the U.S. National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet), established in 1986.  India was connected to NSFNET in 1990.  NSFNet itself was dissolved on April 30, 1995 when the Internet was handed over to commercial networks.  Internet was made available to public in India on August 14, 1995  The Net promised to be to the twenty-first century what the telephone had been to the twentieth (Hafner and Lyon 1996) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 13
  14. 14. Internet 2 and IPN  Internet2, an improved version of Internet, was launched in Chicago on October 1, 1996.  It is a consortium of more than 200 U.S. universities, 70 corporations, 45 government agencies, laboratories and other institutions of higher learning as well as over 50 international partner organizations.  Additionally, an Inter-Planetary Network (IPN) is under design. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 14
  15. 15. (c) World Wide Web  The World Wide Web, essentially the hyper-linked content over the Internet, invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990.  The WWW is indeed perhaps the only spin-off with significant social impact to have come out of 50 years of particle physics! (Hughes 2003)  The arrival of the Web in 1990 was to the Internet like the arrival of the internal combustion engine to the country lane (Gillies, and Cailliau 2000)  Berners-Lee is currently engaged in guiding the development of Semantic Web, often called the next generation web. Once successful, semantic web will revolutionise e-government  We have Web-based e-government to-day. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 15
  16. 16. (d) E-government, Government and Society  E-government is changing the way in which citizens and their organizations relate to government and the government relates to them.  Technological determinism is defined as “belief that changes in technology cause social changes in society” (Rogers 1997)  Its critics claim that technology is embedded in a social system.  E-government is radically changing the internal processes of government.  Office automation was the ruling standard in e-government before the emergence of Web-based e-government.  Viewing e-government in an historical perspective reveals both the aspects of governance:  Improvement of internal processes and  Improved public service delivery. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 16
  17. 17. (e) E-government as Cumulative Exercise  An achievement is usually a culmination of past efforts. The proposition can be illustrated by two examples.  Example 1: India’s Community Development (CD) Programme (1952) and National Extension Service (NES) (1953)  Example 2: Computerisation of India’s Land Records Programme (1988-89) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 17
  18. 18. (f) Who owns E-government?  As e-government gains increasing prominence, many disciplines have started claiming exclusive ownership over it.  A political scientist claims e-government to be his domain as, in the ultimate analysis, e-government is about good governance and not electronics (he is right).  A legal expert claims e-government to be his domain as, he says, you cannot have any e-government unless proper cyber laws are in place (he is right).  A computer scientist says e-government is his as you cannot have e-government without appropriate software (he is right).  An electronics engineer rushes in to stake his claim asserting that you cannot have e-government without appropriate hardware (he is right). E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 18
  19. 19. Who owns E-government? Every body  A journalist barges in saying, look you cannot have any e- government without my explaining it to common man what e- government is all about (he is right).  The e-government manager smiles. Hey, over there, bring e- government to me. It is I who decides what is e-government and how to go about it (and he too is right).  What do these disciplinary squabbles mean?  That e-government is an inter-disciplinary exercise and no discipline, young or old, developed or developing, has any exclusive claim over it. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 19
  20. 20. II A Hundred Year Background (1880-1980) for E-government in India  Subramanian (2005/2006) views development of e-governance in India from a historical perspective of 100 years from 1880 to 1980.  It includes the concept of nationhood, technological self-reliance and information technology (IT)-supported systems for policy formulation and development.  From his analysis three main streams emerge whose convergence contributed to the development of e-governance in this 100-year (1880-1980) period (Figure 1).  The current surge in the software development and e-governance in India, notes Subramanian, is not just a “spurt” phenomena but a gradual evolution guided and engineered by the government, with the help of scientists, technologists, academics and entrepreneurs over the century spanning 1880 and 1980 [ibid.]. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 20
  21. 21. A Hundred Year Background (1880-1980) for E-government in India Figure 2 Contribution of Three Main Streams of Educational Institutions, National Laboratories and Indian Planning to E-governance (1880-1980) Educational CSIR, National Institutions- Labs IITs, IIMs, etc. E-governance Data Processing Needs of India Planning E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 21
  22. 22. Some of India’s Earlier Computers (1950-59) Table 1 Some of India’s Earlier Computers (1950-59) S.N. Year Computer Remarks 1 1950 Analog First Analog Computer at the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Computer Kolkata (now Kolkata) 2 1953 Analog Indigenously built installed at Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta Computer (now Kolkata) 3 1956 HEC-2M Hollerith Electronic Computer, a digital computer, from England, installed at Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta (now Kolkata) 4 1958 URAL Russian computer, under United Nations grant, installed at Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta (now Kolkata) 5 1959 TIFRAC Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Automatic Calculator (TIFRAC) operational, used extensively between 1960-64 . E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 22
  23. 23. III. Three Phases of E-government in India 1947-2007 Table 2 Three Phases of E-government in India 1947-2007 Phase Time Type of E- Need for E- Dominant Technology Period government government I 1947-1984 Informatics- Economic Mainframe/Mini based Planning Computers II 1984-1995 Personal Office Personal Computers Computer Automation (PCs)/Workstations (PC)-based III 1995-2007 World Wide Government Internet/ Web-based Online World Wide Web E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 23
  24. 24. IV. Phase I 1947-1984 INFORMATICS-BASED E-GOVERNMENT E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 24
  25. 25. Phase I: Informatics-based Government (1947-84) 1. Use of computer in Indian planning (1954) 2. Setting up of the Department of Electronics (DOE) (1970), and 3. Setting up of the National Informatics Centre (NIC) (1977) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 25
  26. 26. Phase I: Informatics-based Government (1947-84) (a) What is informatics?  The term has been in use in Europe since the 1960s  Recently it entered the general vocabulary in the U.S.  Informatics is use of computer for processing information using statistical methods  Recent developments in computing have given rise to new fields like bioinformatics, geoinformatics, etc.  These are based on application of information technology (IT) to specific domains like biology, geography, etc. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 26
  27. 27. Informatics-based Government (1947-84) What is informatics? 1. Computer 2.Information 3. Statistical Methods Figure 3 E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 27
  28. 28. What is bioinformatics? Figure 4 A Bridge between IT and Domain Bioinformatics IT Biology E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 28
  29. 29. 1. Computer in Indian Planning (1954) (b) Computer and Indian Planning  Prof P.C. Mahalanobis, Director, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) appointed as Honorary Statistical Adviser to the Cabinet (1949)  Preparation of the draft India’s Second Five-Year Plan (1957- 62) to Prof Mahalanobis, Director, ISI (1954)  This was dawn of centralised planing in India  The roots of e-government in India thus go back to statistics, mathematical statistics and econometrics in 1950s when a computer was needed and used for economic planning. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 29
  30. 30. (c) Data for Planning and Decision-Making 1. Population Census since 1891 every 10 years 2. Indian National Sample Survey since 1950- 51 3. Annual Survey of Industry (ASI) since 1953 4. Agricultural Census and Input Surveys (since 1971-72, every five years 5. Statutory and Non-Statutory Provisions for collection of statistics E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 30
  31. 31. 2. Department of Electronics (DOE)(1970)  Overseas Communications Service (OCS) (1947)  Electronics Committee Report (1966)  Working Group Report on Computers (1968) called for a national effort to attain self-sufficiency within 10 years in small and medium computers  National Conference on Electronics (1968)  Department of Electronics (DOE) set up  CMC Ltd, as a public sector undertaking, set up (1975)  National Informatics Centre (NIC) set up (1977) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 31
  32. 32. 3. National Informatics Centre (NIC)  National Informatics Centre (NIC) was conceived in 1975 as a plan project and set up with the assistance of UNDP (1977).  Created in the newly created Department of Electronics (DOE).  Initially created to cater to the needs of the central government  NIC extended its informatics support services to state governments (1985-86). E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 32
  33. 33. V. Phase II 1984-95 Personal Computer (PC)-based E-government E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 33
  34. 34. Personal Computer (PC)-based E-government (a) New Computer Policy (1984) (b) Policy on Computer Software Export, Software Development, and Training (1986) (c) NICNET (1987) and DISNIC (1987)  NICNET now has gateway nodes at about 55 Central  Government Departments, 35 State/UT Secretariats, and 550 District Collectorates for IT services.  Electronic Mail from Mumbai (1991) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 34
  35. 35. Personal Computer (PC)-based E-government (d) Public personnel hostile to computerisation fearing large-scale retrenchment and loss of jobs. (e) A Parliamentary Committee on Automation suggests brake on automation (f) A sea-change in people’s attitudes to computerisation now (late 1990s) (g) Now every body wants computers and e- government! (Early 21st Century) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 35
  36. 36. VI Phase III 1995-2007 Web-based E-government E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 36
  37. 37. Web-based E-government Internet made available to public in India on August 14, 1995 Ministries/Departments started going online, First offering information (in itself a big achievement) Subsequently limited services to citizens. On January 1, 2005, registration of .gov.in domain was launched. As many as 2,221 “.gov.in” domains stood registered on February 19, 2007. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 37
  38. 38. Web-based E-government Three Important Milestones • 1. Setting up of National Task Force on Information Technology (IT) and Software Development (SD) (1998) • 2. Creation of Ministry of Information Technology (1999) and • 3. Launching of National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003). E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 38
  39. 39. 1. National Task Force on Information Technology (IT) and Software Development (SD) (1998) Set up: May 22, 1998, Submits report to Prime Minister on July 4, 1998. Mandated to formulate the draft of a National Informatics Policy. Three basic background reports (June 9, 1998, August 8, 1998 and March 18,1999), Three Action Plans (Part I-Software, Part II-Hardware, and Part III- Long Term National IT Policy) and a IT Hardware Report. The Action Plan Part I, with more than 1,500 man-hours of input, made 108 recommendations. The States quickly followed suit by framing their own information technology (IT) policies. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 39
  40. 40. 2. Ministry of Information Technology (MIT) created (1999) Ministry of Information Technology (MIT) created (1999) Passenger Railway System (PRS) in Indian Railways becomes operational (1999) Information Technology (IT) Act comes into force, October 17, 2000 giving legal backing to e-commerce Department of Information Technology (DIT) created (2001) Media Lab Asia (MLA) launched (2001) CMC Ltd., a public sector undertaking incorporated in 1975, in the wake of IBM quitting India, privatised on October 16, 2001 National Institute for Smart Government (NISG) incorporated in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh on May 28,2002 E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 40
  41. 41. 3. National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) approved on November 6,2003. It has 25 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs): (a) Central Government: 1. Income Tax, 2. Passport Visa & Immigration Project, 3. DCA21, 4. Insurance, 5. National Citizen Database, 6. Central Excise, 7. Pensions, 8. Banking State Government (tentative, to be finalized in consultation with the States): 1. Land Records, 2. Road Transport, 3. Property Registration, 4. Agriculture, 5. Treasuries, 6. Municipalities, 7. Gram Panchayats, 8. Commercial Taxes 9. Police (UTs initially) 10. Employment Exchange* Integrated Services: 1. EDI (E-Commerce ), 2. E-Biz 3. Common Service Centres 4. India Portal 5. EG Gateway 6. E-Courts* 7. E-Procurement* (*Addition proposed) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 41
  42. 42. National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) The National E-governance Plan (NEGP) is a well conceived, well started, strategic plan It attempts to take e-governance to the door steps of the people, where e-governance matters most. Its four pillars are: (i) State-Wide Area Network (SWAN) (ii) State Data Centre (SDC) (iii) Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) and (iv) Common Service Centres (CSCs) (Figure). Its success will be measured by the extent by which it delivers e-governmentThe Indian Experience to the people. E-governance: (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 42
  43. 43. National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) Figure 5 Four Pillars of NEGP (2003-2007) National E-governance Plan Community Service Centres Mission Mode Projects State Data Centre State Wide Area Network E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 43
  44. 44. National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) E-Readiness assessment for the Centre and States launched April 13, 2004 Bangalore One(B1) launched with 14 service centers providing 24 different services to citizens of Bangalore on April 2, 2004 www.bangaloreone.gov.in) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 44
  45. 45. National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) “.in” Domain including co.in, .net.in, .firm.in, .ind.in, and .org.in registration opened on January 1, 2005 The Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005 came into force on June 15, 2005. National Portal of India (http://india.gov.in/) launched on November 10, 2005 National Knowledge Commission (NKC), appointed March 2005, makes its recommendation on e- governance to Prime Minister on January 26, 2006 E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 45
  46. 46. National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003-2007) National Summit on E-forms for E-governance held on June 12-13, 2006 in New Delhi Union Cabinet approves setting up of 100,000 rural Common Services Centers (CSCs) in September 2006 10th National Conference on E-governance held on February 2-3 at Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) Recommendations of Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) on E-governance appointed in 2005, awaited as in March 2007 E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 46
  47. 47. VII Software Success and E-governance Indian success in software industry has raised worldwide interest. India’s software revenues, for example, grew at over 30 percent per annum over the last decade, and the industry went from being practically non-existent in the 1980s to accounting for 3 percent of India’s GDP, a fifth of its exports, and employing about 230,000 Indians by 2003 (Arora and Gambardella 2006). Economists have even started to ask the question whether the success of software industry in 3Is (India, Israel and Ireland) and China, Brazil and South Korea could be a new model for economic development (ibid.). Why has e-governance in India not succeeded to the extent of the success of its software industry? A comparison of the two against half a dozen parameters brings out the sharp contrast between e-governance and software industry in India during the last decade (1997-2007) (Table ). In essence the comparison highlights the static nature of e-governance and the dynamic nature of software industry. A separate approach for performance improvement in e-governance is required starting from its redefinition (Misra 2007b). E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 47
  48. 48. A Comparison of Performance of E-governance and Software Industry in India, 1997-2007 Table 3 A Comparison of Performance of E-governance and Software Industry in India, 1997-2007 SN Parameter E-governance Software Industry 1 Organisation Bureaucracy Firm 2 Motivation Service to Profit Citizens 3 Stimulus Internal External (notably the U.S.) 4 Leadership Political Business 5 Resources Limited Available if business plan is sound 6 Working Entrepreneurial Procedural (risk-taking) (risk-averse) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 48
  49. 49. VIII Developments in Telecom Sector Table 4 Select Milestones in Telecom Sector in India 1992-2006 SN Year Milestone Remarks 1 1992 Telecom services to private operators Opened 2 1994 New Telecom Policy in May Announced 3 1995 Private company Airtel Launched 4 1999 New Telecom Policy Announced 5 2004 Broadband Policy Announced 6 2006 Next Generation Network (NGN) Study Released Paper in July E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 49
  50. 50. IX Lessons for other Developing Countries Are there any lessons from the Indian Experience in E-governance for other developing countries? __ Yes, there are. --- Five can be mentioned here. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 50
  51. 51. Lessons for other Developing Countries  Lesson 1: Databases are at the heart of governance. Strengthen them. Recollect the Indian Experience of: --Population Census (1891), -- National Sample Survey (1950), -- Annual Survey of Industries(1951), -- Agricultural Census (1971-72) and Input Surveys, and now -- Citizen ID database under NEGP (2003-2007) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 51
  52. 52. Lessons for other Developing Countries Lesson 2: There is no substitute to self- reliance and indigenous capability Recollect the Indian Experience of: --A chain of national laboratories in 1950s and 1960s (CSIR) --IBM quitting India in 1977 and Government responding by setting up CMC Ltd. in 1975 --US banned sale of supercomputers to India in 1988. India responds by setting up C-DAC in 1988 which comes out PARAM 10,000 in 1998 and PARAM PADMA in 2003 E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 52
  53. 53. Lessons for other Developing Countries  Lesson 3: Invest in human resource development (HRD) Recollect the Indian Experience of: -- Setting up of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) starting with IIT, Kharagpur in 1951 (7 now, 3 more proposed) -- Setting up of Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) starting with IIM, Calcutta (now Kolkata) and IIM, Ahmedabad in 1961 (6 now, 1 more proposed in Shillong) -- Setting up of Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) starting with IIITM, Gwalior in 1997 (8 now) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 53
  54. 54. Lessons for other Developing Countries Lesson 4: Prepare National E-government Plan Recollect the Indian Experience of: -- National E-governance Plan (2003-2007) -- Mission Mode Projects (MMMs) --State Wide Area Network (SWAN) --State Data Centres E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 54
  55. 55. Lessons for other Developing Countries Lesson 5: Consider both the Demand and Supply Sides of E-governance. Recollect the Indian Experience of: Demand Side: --100,000 community service centres (CSCs), cyber café (earlier public call offices-PCOs), tele centres, broadband policy, etc. Supply Side: --Mission Mode Projects (MMPs), State Wide Area Networks (SWANs), State data Centres (SDCs), etc. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 55
  56. 56. Lessons for other Developing Countries Table 5 Lessons from Indian E-governance Experience Lesson 1 Databases are at the heart of governance. Strengthen them. Lesson 2 There is no substitute to self-reliance and indigenous capability Lesson 3 Invest in human resource development (HRD) Lesson 4 Prepare National E-government Plan Lesson 5 Consider both the Demand and Supply Sides of E- governance. E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 56
  57. 57. X. A Summing Up I Introduction II A Hundred Year Background (1880-1980) for E-government in India III Three Phases of E-government in India 1947-2007 IV Phase I: 1947-1984 Informatics-based E-government 1. Use of computer in Indian planning (1954) 2. Setting up of the Department of Electronics (DOE) (1970), 3. Setting up of the National Informatics Centre (NIC) (1977) V Phase II: 1984-1995 Personal Computer (PC)-based E-government 1. New Computer Policy (1984) 2. Policy on Computer Software Export, Software Development, and Training (1986) 3. NICNET (1987) and DISNIC (1987) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 57
  58. 58. A Summing Up VI Phase III: 1995-2007 Web-based E-government 1. Setting up of National Task Force on Information Technology (IT) and Software Development (SD) (1998) 2. Creation of Ministry of Information Technology (1999) and 3. Launching of National E-governance Plan (NEGP) (2003). VII Lessons for other Developing Countries Lesson 1: Databases are at the heart of governance. Strengthen them. Lesson 2: There is no substitute to self-reliance and indigenous capability Lesson 3: Invest in human resource development (HRD) Lesson 4: Prepare National E-government Plan (NEGP) Lesson 5: Consider both the Demand and Supply Sides of E-governance. VIII A Summing Up IX Further Reading X Thank You E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 58
  59. 59. Further Reading • Misra, D.C. (2006): Ten Emerging E-government Challenges Today: The Future May be Sober and Not Hype, December http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNPAN/UNP AN025339.pdf • Misra, D.C. (2007a): Ten Guiding Principles for Knowledge Management in E-government, January http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNPAN/UNP AN025338.pdf • Misra, D.C. (2007b): Defining E-government: A citizen-centric criteria-based approach, January http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNPAN/UNP AN025373.pdf • Misra, D.C. (2007c): Sixty Years of E-governance in India (1947- 2007): Does it have lessons for other developing countries? (forthcoming) E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 59
  60. 60. Thank you for your attention End of Presentation End of Presentation --Dr D.C.Misra, March 8, 2007, New Delhi E-governance: The Indian Experience (1947-2007) © Dr D.C.Misra 2007 60
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