Misra, D.C.(2009) Knowledge Management For E Government IIPA New Delhi 10.7.09

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This is a comprehensive presentation on introduction of knowledge management in e-government in developing countries

This is a comprehensive presentation on introduction of knowledge management in e-government in developing countries

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  • 1. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi Training Programme on Advanced – Cyber laws, Information Security and Software Quality Assurance for Scientists and Technologists Sponsored by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India
  • 2. Knowledge Management for E-government
    • Guest Lecture
    • by
    • Dr D.C.MISRA, I.A.S. (Retd.)
    • Independent E-governance Researcher and Consultant
    • Friday, July 10, 2009 11-30 to 1-00 p.m.
  • 3. I Brief History of KM
    • KM is 5 to 15 years old and a contribution of
    • private sector .
    • Pioneers include:
    • - Peter Drucker in 1970s (Knowledge
    • Worker)
    • - Karl-Erik Syeiby in 1980s (KMAP –
    • Knowledge Management Activity Planning)
    • - Nonaka and Takeuchi in 1990s
    • (Tacit Knowledge)
  • 4. Brief History of KM
    • It has started making entry to public sector only recently.
    • In UK, for example, e-Envoy introduced the Knowledge Network in 2000 followed by Knowledge Enhanced Government (KEG)
    • A development agency like the World Bank set up a Knowledge Management Secretariat and has come out with a Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KM)
  • 5. II Rise of Knowledge Worker and Knowledge Economy
    • Knowledge Worker has emerged as a key resource for accelerated economic development.
    • India has taken the initiative of setting up a National Knowledge Commission for leveraging knowledge for economic development
    • Emergence of Finland as a leading knowledge economy , which was earlier facing economic crisis, is a success story of leveraging knowledge for economic development.
    • ICT and E-government play an important part in leveraging knowledge for economic development .
  • 6. III. What is Knowledge Management (KM)?
    • Definitions
    • What is Knowledge Management (KM )?
    • Management of Knowledge for attaining organisational objectives.
    • What is Knowledge Management (KM) for Government (KM4G )?
    • Management of Knowledge for Government policies, programme and service delivery.
    • What is Knowledge Management for E-government (KM4Eg)?
    • Management of knowledge for and by E-government.
    • KM is a management tool of E-government and, therefore, is of vital concern to information security.
  • 7. IV. Importance of Knowledge Management (KM) for E-government (KM4Eg)
    • Government has been principal user of knowledge worldwide since times immemorial.
    • Primary function of Government is decision-making and E-government provides unique support to decision-making (Figure 1)
    • Government has largest repositories of information and databases and E-Government helps in their efficient management .
    • Government always had access to the best available technology to manage its affairs and E-government provides some of the latest and best available technology.
    • There has been information explosion in recent years and E-government provides an important tool to cope up with it. Office documents lead in storage on paper (Table1)
  • 8. Decision-Making Process in Government supported by E-government
    • Figure 1 The decision-making process in Government supported by E-Government
    INPUT KNOWLEDGE OUTPUT Policies, Programmes, . Implementation Decision-Making Process Supported by E-government/Information Security
  • 9. Worldwide Original Content Stored in Paper
    • Table 1 Worldwide production of printed original content:
    • Storage content: Paper
    Source: How much information 2003 1,633.8 Total 0.9 Newsletters 6 Journals 52 Mass market periodicals 1,397.5 Office Documents 138.4 Newspapers 39 Books Terabytes Type of Content
  • 10. Importance of Knowledge Management (KM) for E-Government (KM4Eg)
    • Print, film, magnetic, and optical storage media produced about 5 exabytes of new information in 2002.
    • 5 Exabytes = 37,000 new libraries the size of the Library of Congress book collections.
    • 92% of the new information was stored on magnetic media, mostly in hard disks .
    • Film represents 7% of the total, paper 0.01%, and optical media 0.002%.
    • How much new information per person? The world population is 6.3 billion. Thus almost 800 MB of recorded information is produced per person each year= About 30 feet of books to store equivalent of 800 MB of information on paper.
  • 11. V. Exploding Five Myths in KM
    • Myth 1 : KM is a fad .
    • Wrong. It is here to stay whether we call it by this name or
    • any other name.
    • Myth 2 : KM is not for Government .
    • Wrong. Government being knowledge-based, it is very
    • much for Government.
    • Myth 3 : KM is not for Civil Servants
    • Wrong. Being Knowledge Workers , Civil Servants are very
    • much concerned with KM .
    • Myth 4 : KM is not for Information Security.
    • Wrong. KM being an integral part of E-government, Information
    • Security is vitally concerned with it.
    • Myth 5 : KM is theoretical discipline .
    • Wrong. It is a practical management tool .
  • 12. VI Perspectives for KM
    • Process perspective
    • User perspective
    • Technical perspective
    • Organizational perspective
    • Legal perspective
    • Knowledge perspective
    • Cultural, societal and political perspective.
    • (Source: M. A. Wimmer, “Integrated service modelling for online one-stop government”, EM - Electronic Markets , Special issue on e-Government, 12 (3), 2002, pp. 1-8)
  • 13. VII Issues in KM
    • Information is not up to date.
    • Required information is not available.
    • Too much information is collected.
    • Very little information is used in actual decision-making.
    • Information security is of vital concern.
  • 14. VIII Knowledge Pyramid
    • Four Components of Knowledge
    • Management
    • (a). Data-
    • Facts and Figures
    • (b). Information-
    • Data + Interpretation
    • (c) Knowledge-
    • Data + Interpretation + Use
    • (d) Wisdom
    • Data + Interpretation + Use + Application
  • 15. Figure 2 Knowledge Pyramid
    • Knowledge Pyramid
    Wisdom Knowledge Information Data
  • 16. IX. Data
    • 1. Data
    • Raw and Processed Data
    • Data Entry
    • Locked Data
    • Accessibility to Data
    • Quality of Data
    • (i) Up to date
    • (ii) Accurate
    • (iii) Reliable
  • 17. Data
    • Sharing of Data
    • (a) G2G
    • (b) G2C
    • 2. Collection, Entry, Analysis, Storage and
    • Retrieval of Data
    • - E-record and its Management
    • - Security of Data
    • - Outsourcing Data Entry
  • 18. Data
    • . Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
    • - Trends and Patterns
    • 4. Data Warehouse
    • 5. Data Storage
    • - RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive
    • Disks)
    • - Architecture: Six layers: RAID 0 to 5
  • 19. Data
    • Networked Attached Storage (NAS) and Storage Area Network (SAN)
    • 6. Data and Database
    • Database
    • - Logical Collection of Data
    • - Entities (Persons, Objects, Events, Places)
    • - Create, Store, Update, retrieve Data
    • - Set of Tables
  • 20. Data
    • Records and Fields
    • 7. Database Management System (DBMS)
    • - Software System
    • - Creating, Storing, Updating and
    • Retrieving Data
    • 8. Relational Database Management System
    • (RDMS)
    • - Integrity
  • 21. Data
    • Concurrency
    • - Key Fields
    • 9. Meta Data
    • - Data about Data
    • 10. Schema
    • - Data Elements and their Relationship in
    • a Domain, Constraints
  • 22. Data
    • 11. Centralised/Distributed Databases
    • 12. Modular/Monolithic Design
    • 13. ID Database/Unique ID Authority in
    • Cabinet rank
    • 14. Single Sign On (SSO)
    • 15. Smart Cards
  • 23. X. Information
    • Information Systems in
    • - Government (offline)
    • - E-government (online)
    • 2. Information Flows in
    • - Government
    • - E-government
    • 3. Management Information System (MIS ) in
    • - Government
    • - E-government
  • 24. Information
    • Co-existence of
    • - Traditional MIS
    • - Modern MIS (eMIS)
    • 5 Problems of their Co-Existence and Solution
    • 6. Transitional Strategies from Traditional to
    • Modern MIS
    • 7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Traditional and Modern MIS
  • 25. Information
    • 8. Practical concern to Infornmation
    • Security: Information Explosion in
    • Government Online
    • 9. Number of government pages have
    • assumed serious volume and pose a
    • daunting challenge to information
    • resource management. Have a
    • look at Table 2.
  • 26. Table 2 Page count of selected E-government sites available through Google (June 2005)
    • Source: Wagner et al. Electronic Government 3 (1) 36-55
    7,200,000 .gov.au Australia 4 9,280,000 .gov.uk UK 3 12,100,000 .gc.ca Canada 2 368,000,000 .gov USA 1 Number of web pages Government domain Country S.N.
  • 27. Table 2 Page count of selected E-government sites available through Google (June 2005) 388,000 .gov.si Slovenia 10 728,000 .gov.th Thailand 9 887,000 . gov.hk Hong Kong 8 816,000 gov.za South Africa 7 1,290,000 .gov.nz New Zealand 6 2,630,000 .gov.cn China 5
  • 28. ACT on Information
    • 10 ACT on Information,
    • A= Accessible
    • Is information accessible to all concerned in the
    • organisation?
    • C= Contextualised
    • Is it properly formatted that others can make use
    • of it?
    • T= Timely
    • Is it up to date so that important decisions can be
    • based upon it?
    • (Source: Adopted from Curley and Kivowitz 2001)
  • 29. Information Quality
    • 11. Information Quality
    • Good quality information can be defined as information that meets or exceeds the expectations of all processes or information consumers who use that information.
    • Information Quality :
    • Information conforms to a certain format,
    • All relevant information is complete,
    • Information is consistent (i.e., John Smith isn’t flagged as female),
    • Information is accurate,
    • Information is not duplicated.
    • (Source: Daragh O Brien 2006)
  • 30. Information Quality
    • 12.A 2004 study on attitudes about information quality in the UK public sector conducted by QAS , a software vendor, found that:
    • 99% of those surveyed felt that information was a critical organisational asset.
    • 80% recognised that poor quality information impacted quality of service and improvement of service quality.
    • 50% viewed a lack of best practice procedures and/or a clear strategy for the management of information quality as a key root cause of current problems.
    • The survey also suggested that many public sector bodies could improve their information quality if someone with influence over the whole organisation were to take responsibility for the information strategy.
    • 80% of respondents viewed address data as being important to e-government initiatives.
  • 31. XI Citizen, State and Information: The Right to Information
    • The Indian Experience
    • Right to Information Act 2005 came into force on October 12, 2005
    • Information:
    • “ any material in any form including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force…” and now also includes " file notings. " (emphasis supplied)
  • 32. The Right to Information
    • Right to Information: It includes the right to –
    • inspect works, documents, records.
    • take notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records.
    • take certified samples of material.
    • obtain information in form of printouts, diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts.
  • 33. The Right to Information
    • Public organisations are required to publish ,
    • among other things:
    • i the particulars of its organization, functions and
    • duties,
    • ii the powers and duties of its officers and employees,
    • iii the procedure followed in its decision making process,
    • including channels of supervision and accountability,
    • and
    • iv the names, designations and other particulars of the
    • Public Information Officers (PIOs)
  • 34. The Right to Information
    • Time Limit : 30 days or 48 hours (in case of life and liberty of a person)
    • Central Information Commission constituted: 1 Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and not more than 10 Information Commissioners (IC) who will be appointed by the President of India. 
    • State Information Commissions also constituted.
  • 35. The Right to Information
    • Penalty : Every PIO will be liable for fine of Rs. 250 per day, up to a maximum of Rs. 25,000/- for:
    • not accepting an application;
    • delaying information release without reasonable cause;
    • malafidely denying information;
    • knowingly giving incomplete, incorrect, misleading information;
    • destroying information that has been requested and
    • obstructing furnishing of information in any manner.
  • 36. XII. Knowledge
    • 1 . Information + Use = Knowledge
    • 2. Types of Knowledge
    • (i) (a) Explicit Knowledge
    • (b) Tacit Knowledge
    • (ii) (a) Network Knowledge
    • (iii) (a) Old Knowledge
    • (a) New Knowledge
    • (iv) (a) Inexpressible Knowledge
    • (b) Expressible Knowledge
    • (c) Expressed Knowledge
  • 37. Tacit Knowledge
    • Actual Decision-Making in Government is based on Tacit Knowledge and not on Explicit Knowledge .
    • 2. For example, two civil servants can interpret a rule in two different ways.
    • 3. We cannot tell all we know (Polyani 1966)
  • 38. Knowledge Sources
    • Sources of Knowledge in Government
    • (a) Ministers
    • (b) Civil Servants
    • (c) Documents
    • - Files, Agenda, Record of
    • Proceedings, Minutes, Government
    • Orders (GOs), Notifications
    • (d) Laws, Rules and Regulations
    • (e) Archives
    • (f) Embedded in Physical Systems
    • (g) Citizens
  • 39. Locating Knowledge
    • Knowledge can be kept in (4Ps):
    • Places – recorded in existing document or database
    • Processes – embedded in known work process
    • People – Known to an identified individual
    • Pieces – distributed in parts among several people or processes (as in value chain)
    • (Source: Kurley and Kivowitz 2001)
  • 40. XIII. Dimensions of KM
    • There are three dimensions of Knowledge Management (KM):
    • 1 People (P)
    • - Values and Behaviours
    • 2 Process (P)
    • - Internal structures
    • 3 Technology (T)
    • - Enabler (KM ≠ T)
    • It is a 3-legged stool . If one leg is broken, the
    • stool falls down. See Figure 3.
  • 41. The PPT Model in KM
    • Figure 3 The PPT Model in KM
    The PPT Model in KM People Process Technology
  • 42. XIV. Knowledge Management Cycle
    • KM can be viewed as a cycle consisting
    • of six successive phases :
    • 1 Undertake Knowledge Audit
    • 2 Create Knowledge
    • 3 Capture Knowledge
    • 4 Store Knowledge
    • 5 Use Knowledge
    • 6 Review Knowledge
  • 43. KM Cycle: Phase I
    • Phase I Undertake Knowledge Audit
    • Ask questions like:
    • Who collects what information?
    • Why is it collected?
    • Is it collected in time?
    • Is collected knowledge put to any use?
    • Is there a better way of collecting knowledge?
    • Is required information being collected?
    • Is collected information secure
  • 44. KM Cycle: Phase II
    • Phase II Create Knowledge
    • Take stock of existing knowledge
    • Assess knowledge needs of the organisation
    • Determine who will create what information, when and in what format
    • Use KM Tools for knowledge creation
  • 45. KM Cycle: Phase III
    • Phase III Capture Knowledge
    • Transform tacit knowledge into storable explicit knowledge (Neve 2003)
    • Record one-to-one conversations
    • Record a brainstorming session
    • Record minutes of the meetings and other proceedings
    • Record success profile of individual officers
  • 46. KM Cycle Phase IV
    • Phase IV Store Knowledge
    • Organize knowledge into codifiable and noncodifiable categories (Warren et al. 2006)
    • Use electronic media for knowledge storage
    • Open a knowledge centre in your Ministry/Department
    • Identify and use “best practices” in knowledge storage
  • 47. KM Cycle: Phase V
    • Phase V Use Knowledge
    • Knowledge captured and stored be made accessible to all concerned personnel
    • Distribute and share knowledge
    • Set up knowledge distribution and knowledge sharing mechanisms
    • Provide knowledge inputs to policy makers
    • Monitor knowledge use
  • 48. KM Cycle: Phase VI
    • Phase VI : Review Knowledge
    • Scan the horizon to anticipate knowledge needs of your Ministry/Department
    • Review the existing stock and flow of knowledge
    • Make use of simple but effective knowledge indicators
    • Involve stakeholders in knowledge review
    • Has Knowledge led to better decision making and/or higher productivity ?
    • The Knowledge Management Cycle may be seen in Figure 4.
  • 49. Figure 4 Knowledge Management Cycle
    • The KM Cycle
    The KM Cycle 1 Undertake Knowledge Audit 4 Store Knowledge 5 Use Knowledge 2 Create Knowledge 3 Capture Knowledge 6 Review Knowledge
  • 50. XV. Knowledge Management Toolbox
    • KM Tools and Techniques
    • 1. After Action Reviews (AARs)
    • (Pioneered by U.S. Army; For learning lessons
    • from an activity or project)
    • 2. Communities of Practice (COPs) (Killer app of
    • KM; for sharing of Knowledge)
    • 3. Knowledge Audit
    • A systematic process to identify an organisation’s knowledge needs, resources and flows, as a basis for understanding where and how knowledge can add value. (de Brun 2005). Also comparison of performance against preset standards.
  • 51. Knowledge Management Toolbox
    • 4. Knowledge Plan
    • (Based on knowledge strategy)
    • 5. Exit Interviews
    • (Capturing knowledge of departing
    • employees)
    • 6. Sharing Best Practices
    • (Identifying, capturing in one part of
    • organisation and sharing with all others)
  • 52. Knowledge Management Toolbox
    • 7. Knowledge Centres
    • (Connecting people, information, databases)
    • 8. Knowledge Harvesting
    • (Capturing knowledge of “experts” and
    • making it available to others)
    • 9. Peer Assists
    • (Learning from experience of others before
    • undertaking an activity or project)
  • 53. Knowledge Management Toolbox
    • 10 Social Network Analysis
    • (Understanding relationships between
    • people, groups and organisations as to
    • how they facilitate or impede flow of
    • knowledge)
    • 11 Storytelling (Ancient art of sharing knowledge
    • still widely used)
    • 12 White Pages (Preparing a directory of Experts)
    • (Source: Adopted from De Brün 2005)
  • 54. XVI Knowledge Management and Technology
    • Table 6 Knowledge Management and Technology
    Storage Media Storing 5 Artificial Intelligence Summarising 4 Office Suite Applications Composing 3 Computer Languages (XML, RDF) Categorising 2 Search Engines Searching 1 Technology Functionality S.N.
  • 55. Knowledge Management and Technology Source: Based on Riley 2003, Wagner et al. 2003 and Klishewski Jeenicke 2004 Semantic Web Technologies Metadata Standards and Interoperability 10 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software Customer Relationship 9 Content Management Systems Content Management 8 Groupware Workflow 7 Networks Distributing 6
  • 56. XVII. Wisdom
    • 1. Knowledge + Application = Wisdom,
    • or Data + Interpretation + Use + Application
    • 2. Use and Withholding of Knowledge
    • 3. Flexibility in Applying Knowledge
    • 4. Importance of Tactfulness in Government
    • 5. Government Interest in Decision-Making
    • 6. Public Interest in Decision-Making
    • 7. Governance first, E-governance afterwards
  • 57. XVIII. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government
    • 1 Develop a KM srategy
    • - Leverage Knowledge for achieving
    • organisational goals
    • 2 Proceed step-wise, from simple to complicated.
    • - Adopt modular approach.
    • 3 Do not re-invent wheel. Make use of existing knowledge and insights.
    • - Undertake Knowledge Needs Assessment.
  • 58. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government
    • 4. Make use of electronic technology.
    • - But do not forget GIGO,
    • Garbage In, Garbage Out.
    • 5. Make use of People, Process and
    • Technology (PPT) model.
    • - But do not forget:
    • Computers: Fast, Accurate, Dumb
    • People: Slow, Sloppy, Smart
  • 59. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government
    • 6 Prepare a simple and modular Knowledge Sub-Plan incorporating KM strategy.
    • - Do not use any complicated KM tool or mechanism that cannot be successfully implemented.
    • 7 Include KM Sub-Plan in the E-Business Plan of your Ministry/Department.
    • - Do not prepare any stand-alone KM Sub-Plan
  • 60. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government
    • 8 Secure Top management support to KM
    • Sub-Plan.
    • - Remember, no plan can succeed without
    • top level commitment.
    • 9 Demonstrate results.
    • - Remember, the best way to convince any one about practical utility of KM is to show
    • concrete, verifiable results.
  • 61. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government
    • 10 Review the implementation of KM Sub-Plan
    • from time to time.
    • - Review the implementation of the KM
    • Sub-Plan against the following three criteria:
    • Has the implementation of the KM Sub-Plan
    • resulted in:
    • (a) Better decision-making by Government
    • (b) Better service delivery to citizens
    • (c) Better performance by civil service
  • 62. XIX. KM in E-government: The E-Business Plan
    • E-Business Plan is our master document for
    • E-government implementation
    • Change Management (CM) is an integral module of E-Business Plan
    • Knowledge Management (KM) is an integral module of E-Business Plan
    • Knowledge Management (KM) together with Change Management (CM), among others, are two integral and important modules of
    • E-Business Plan as shown in Figure 5.
  • 63. Operationalising KM in E-government
    • Figure 5 Operationalising KM in E-gov
    E-BUSINESS PLAN Knowledge Management Sub-Plan Change Management Sub-Plan
  • 64. XX Conclusion
    • Incorporate all our theories and KM practices in Knowledge Sub-Plan
    • Always keep the Citizens at the centre stage of Knowledge Sub-Plan
    • Make Knowledge Sub-Plan an integral part
    • of E-Business Plan of your Ministry/Department
    • Review implementation of Knowledge Sub-Plan from time to time
  • 65. To sum up: The following has been covered in my presentation to-day. Information X Data IX Knowledge Pyramid VIII Issues in KM4Eg VII Perspectives for KM4Eg VI Exploding 5 Myths in KM4Eg V Importance KM for E-government IV What is KM? III Rise of KW and KE II Brief History of KM I Conclusion XX KM in E-government: The E-Business Plan XIX GPs for KM in E-gov XVIII Wisdom XVII KM and Technology XVI KM Toolbox XV KM Cycle XIV Dimensions of KM XIII Knowledge XII Citizen, State and Information XI
  • 66. Knowledge Management for E-government
    • With this I conclude my presentation.
    • Thank you ,
    • for your patience,
    • and best of luck in all your
    • information security endeavours.
    • © Dr D.C.Misra 2009