What is not Monitoring? Comprehensive feedback Review 6 Scanning of environment Surveillance 5 Examination of accounts Audit 4 Overseeing implementation Supervision 3 Fault-finding in detail Inspection 2 Routine reporting Report 1 Focus Tool SN
What is not Monitoring? RTI Act ? Citizen / Media Audit 5 Scrutiny from social point Social Audit 4 Quality and durability of assets (IRDP) Development Audit 3 Project experience Performance Audit 2 Conformance to financial rules Financial Audit 1 Focus Tool SN
E-government Monitoring is a specialised , systematic , dynamic , and semi-autonomous management tool to ensure that the E-government Project serves the target group - Citizens and Non-Citizens- in accordance with e-business plan taking into account the interests of various stakeholders and the emerging challenges being faced by E-government
Elements of Definition Emerging Challenges 10 Management Tool 5 Stakeholders 9 Semi-autonomous 4 E-business plan 8 Dynamic 3 Service to Citizens 7 Systematic 2 E-government Project 6 Specialisation 1
An E-government Project is a development project which aims to transform an inward-looking government to a citizen centric government making best use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) through a carefully designed e-business plan
1. Generic Model (Government of Tasmania, Ausralia) Source: Government of Tasmania 2002
2. E-government Technocratic Model (National Informatics Centre, New Delhi) Source: Mishra 2005 A. Project Initiation and Planning B. Software Development C. ICT Infrastructure Creation D. Service Provision E. System Integration and Testing F. Project Commissioning G. Project Completion and Sign Off H. Maintenance I. Retirement
IV Four Generations of Evaluation Source: Guba and Lincoln 1989 Mediator (among conflicting stakeholders) Response (Interaction) & Construction (Methodology ) An Alternative Approach Fourth Generation 4 Judge Reaching Judgements Judgment Third Generation 3 Describer Strengths and Weaknesses Description Second Generation 2 Technical Measuring Instruments Measurement First Generation 1 Role of Evaluator Focus Name Generation SN
What is not Evaluation? Implementation Monitoring 6 Rules and regulations Audit 5 Investment Appraisal 4 Cost and Benefits Assessment 3 Metrics Measurement 2 Breaking into parts Analysis 1 Focus Tool S.N.
VI. Four Senses of Term Evaluation Calculation of the value of an expression (in Mathematics) Sense 4 4 Work done by professional evaluators Sense 3 3 An autonomous discipline: Study and application of procedures for doing objective and systematic evaluation Sense 2 2 Merit, Value or Worth of Something Sense 1 1 Definition Sense S.N.
“… a robust arena of activity directed at collecting , analyzing , and interpreting i nformation on the need for, implementation of, and effectiveness and efficiency of intervention efforts to better the lot of humankind.”
E-government evaluation is a systematic , objective , planned and participatory exercise undertaken during the design , implementation and after completion of a project for determining the worth of e-government to citizens against pre-set objectives and criteria for improving e-government services to citizens.
Fourth generation evaluation (Guba and Lincoln 1989)
Auto or self evaluation (ACCORD 1993)
Individual , group and institutional evaluation
Casual everyday evaluation (Frutchey 1959)
Types of Evaluation 26. Right to information evaluation (being undertaken by Adam Smith International/ Administrative Staff College of India) (2007) 27. Evaluation research 28. Online and offline evaluation 29. E-government evaluation 30. E-government special studies ,etc.
evaluation (Fetterman et al.(eds.)(1996)
23. Utilisation-focused evaluation (Patton 1997)
25. Citizen evaluation
X. Evaluation Timing and Diffusion-Adoption Curves
– survey-type questions, e.g.: ‘do you feel more positive to your government, now that you can contact it by email?’ ‘has your government become more efficient, now that you can perform services online?’
Strategic Planning (valid annual and long-term goals)
Management (program, financial oversight and program improvement efforts)
Results (accuracy, consistency)
Assessmet of U.S.Federal Programs by “PART” (2008) DISTRIBUTION OF PROGRAM RATINGS Source: ExpectMore.gov 1004 18% 31% 29% 3% 19% Number of Programs Assessed Effective Moderately Effective Adequate Ineffective Results Not Demonstrated
Information needs differ in three levels of management hierarchy: 1. Top Management 2. Middle Management 3. Supporting Staff
Undertake information needs analysis of various levels of management hierarchy
Prepare Information Needs Matrix
Information Needs Matrix Supporting Staff Middle Management Top Management Review Information Utilisation Information Citizen Access Information ICT Infrastructure Information Organisatinal Needs Information Citizen Needs Information Information Needs IT Department
IV(d). E-government M&E Cycle M&E Cycle 4. Evaluate it 2. Implement it 3. Monitor it 5. Review it 1. Prepare E-business Plan
Their needs in these capacities have to be identified and met by E-government M&E
V. A Framework for E-government Monitoring and Evaluation
We are now in position to link these components and present
A Framework for E-government Monitoring and Evaluation
The Framework conceptualises the complex reality of e-government and provides a Roadmap for E-government M&E Unit
Here then is the Framework.
A Framework for E-government Monitoring and Evaluation Formal Sources of Information Informal Sources of Information ICT Indicators Forecasting Monitoring & Evaluation Census & Surveys Audit Discussion Group Blog Wiki Social Sites Legislature RTI Act M&E Unit IT Deptt E-business Plan Implementation Sustainability Citizens M&E Unit Information Matrix M&E Cycle (d) (a) (c) (b) Supporting Staff Top Management Middle Management M&E Cycle Citizens We want service Supporting Staff Middle Mgt Top Mgt Review Information Utilisation Information Citizen Access Information ICT Infrastructure Information Organisatinal Needs Information Citizen Needs Information Information Needs IT Department Evaluate Review Prepare E-business Plan Implement Monitor