Virtualization for efficiency: by Kathrin Winkler, The green grid

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The green grid is a not-for-profit global consortium focused on driving energy efficiency in the computing ecosystem

Developing meaningful and user-centric metrics to help IT and Facilities better manage their computing resources

Developing and promoting standards, measurement methods, best practices and technologies that support these metrics.

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Virtualization for efficiency: by Kathrin Winkler, The green grid

  1. 1. VIRTUALIZATION for EFFICIENCY Kathrin Winkler Director, The Green Grid VP,EMC Corporation
  2. 2. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid About The Green Grid • A not-for-profit global consortium focused on driving energy efficiency in the computing ecosystem • Developing meaningful and user-centric metrics to help IT and Facilities better manage their computing resources • Developing and promoting standards, measurement methods, best practices and technologies that support these metrics 2 2
  3. 3. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid x86 Servers are Driving Power Consumption  Servers = 40% of total data center electricity use  Volume servers = 85% of all server electricity use – Up from 70% in 2000 at 17% CAGR (compound annual growth rate)  Servers drive other IT and site infrastructure consumption  Start by solving the problem “upstream” at the source! Courtesy of VMware 3
  4. 4. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Processor Capacity Trends MHz Capacity Requirements +10% YOY MHz per server 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Y2006 Y2006 Y2006 Y2006 Y2007 Y2007 Y2007 Y2007 Y2008 Y2008 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Total MHz Used Mhz Use 5% Courtesy of VMware 4
  5. 5. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Power Consumption vs Utilization Courtesy of VMware
  6. 6. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Sample with 500 x86 Servers Category Innovation Production Mission Critical Total Server Count 250 175 75 500 Utilization 3% 6% 10% 5% Watts (161 per server) 40250 28175 12075 80500 Consolidation Ratio 15:01 10:01 5:01 ~10:1 Remaining Servers 17 18 15 50 Post Consolidation Utilization 50% 50% 50% ~50% Post Consolidation Watts (230) 3910 4140 3450 11500 Energy Savings - Watts 36340 24035 8625 69000 6
  7. 7. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Determine the Opportunity for Consolidation of Servers Using Virtualization Determine the Opportunity for Consolidation of Servers Using Virtualization 7
  8. 8. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Gathering Intelligence • Collect information on all servers  Agent-less tools are available  Discover, inventory, and collect performance  Group servers and make consolidation recommendations • Characterize workloads  Resource consumption over time  Workload volatility  Potential risk 8
  9. 9. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Minimum Information • Configuration & Utilization  Make, model  Processor speed, core count, etc.  Memory  Network  Local storage  OS and patch level  Software • Risk Items  Ownership  Service level requirements  Security, privacy, regulatory or political issues 9
  10. 10. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid % Processor Time (not normalized) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Single 1.26 GHz (2) 2.8 GHz Utilization Hour Courtesy of VMware 10
  11. 11. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Normalized Processor MHz Load Single 1.26 GHz (2) 2.8 GHz Time Courtesy of VMware11
  12. 12. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Load Characteristics Courtesy of VMware12
  13. 13. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Determine Workloads that Can Coexist • Exclude workloads which must reside on their own servers • Identify workloads with above average or volatile workloads • Group workloads that can co-exist  Same Location  Same Service Level  Same Environment (Innovation, Production, Mission Critical) 13
  14. 14. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Implementation Strategy • Phase 1  Low resource requirements  Low volatility in resource consumption  Low risk • Phase 2  Low utilization & volatility of resources  Medium risk • Phase 3  Everything else that can be virtualized 14
  15. 15. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Consolidation Hurdles • Awareness  Infrastructure knowledge  Virtualization knowledge • Technical  Data center preparation  Application restrictions • Financial  Servers not fully depreciated  Budget freeze • Political  Perceived loss of control 15
  16. 16. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Strategies to Clear the Hurdles • Conduct a Complete Assessment  Include all servers, all locations • Develop Data Center Model  Based upon post consolidation  Include growth estimates • Develop Transition Plan  Full consolidation takes more than a year in most cases  Infrastructure needs will step down with server reduction • Market Internally • Develop Rewards  More independence  Lower cost 16
  17. 17. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Virtualization – Two Steps WP #19 USING VIRTUALIZATION TO IMPROVE DATA CENTER EFFICIENCY Data Center P O W E R C O O L I N G Data Center P O W E R C O O L I N G Data Center Servers P O W E R C O O L I N G Storage Network #27 Impact of Virtualization on Data Center Physical Infrastructure Servers Storage Network Servers Storage Network 17
  18. 18. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Physical Infrastructure Loss Characteristics No Load Electrical Loss in kW (Waste due to inefficiency) Equipment Loading Full Load 50%10% 30% 90%70% NONO--LOADLOAD loss PROPORTIONALPROPORTIONAL loss SQUARESQUARE--LAWLAW loss Powered on without IT Load Losses that occur at higher loads (ex. switching, conduction) 18
  19. 19. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Data Center Power Efficiency Metrics: PUE and DCiE 19 PUE = Power Usage Effectiveness = Total Facility Power IT Equipment Power 1 PUE IT Equipment Power Total Facility Power = Data Center Infrastructure Efficiency DCiE = =
  20. 20. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Efficiency Curve (not considering redundancy) 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % IT Load PUE Reducing IT Load Right-Size Power-Cooling Equip 20
  21. 21. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Which Density Strategy?  New or existing data center?  How many high density servers?  How much bulk power and cooling?  Can IT devices be moved around? High-density racks with virtualized servers Low-density racks with no virtualized servers Low-density racks with a mix of virtualized and non-virtualized servers Spread the load Consolidate the load Spectrum of post-virtualization densities Supplemental Cooling 21
  22. 22. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Spread the Load Strategy • Easy… • No new power and cooling equipment required • But… • Takes up valuable floor space - lots of white space • No power/cooling efficiency benefit • New configuration could compromise existing cooling strategy/architecture • Host servers inherit same availability as less critical servers 22
  23. 23. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid When to Spread the Load • Post-consolidation average kW/rack < 3 kW • Placement of IT equipment is flexible • IT equipment power and cooling redundancy requirements could limit mobility of IT equipment • Additional power drops available only in certain locations • Cooling redundancy may be based on physical location • Open U-space is available in existing racks 23
  24. 24. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Supplemental Cooling Strategy • Low Capital Expense • But… • Effective only for the lower range of high density • Temporary solution for cooling of hot spots • Supplemental Cooling Examples • Installation of fans to boost the cool air supply from the CRAC to an enclosure • Variable speed drives (VFD) on CRAC units • Better hot isle containment such as special racks • Installation of row-based air conditioners to address localized hot spots • A rear-door heat exchanger shortens the air path to back of rack from CRAC 24
  25. 25. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid When to Deploy Supplemental Cooling • Post-consolidation average kW/rack is 3 kW – 5 kW • No flexibility over the placement of IT equipment • There is limited capital budget • Options:  Specialty (grate-type) floor tiles or fans  Portable spot air conditioning units  Special racks or rack mounted cooling devices  Row-based air conditioners between racks 25
  26. 26. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Consolidate to High and Low Density Areas Strategy • Takes more planning… • Needs advance planning • Perhaps retrofit only high density area • But has big advantages… • Predictable high-density cooling • Enables higher-efficiency cooling • Better utilization of floor space • Enables targeted availability/redundancy Local cooling for hi- powered, dense equipment 26
  27. 27. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid When to Designate High & Low Density Areas • Post-consolidation average kW/rack >5 kW • Subsection of data center is available for pod(s) • Desire to improve overall data center efficiency (PUE) • Use high density area to focus on cooling efficiency :  Improve hot air containment  Reduce air path length, e.g., top of rack cooling, row cooling, or rear door heat exchanger 27
  28. 28. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Characteristics of Dynamic Loads Hot spot Hot spot 1 2 3 Row CRACs sense elevated temperature and increase fan speed to remove extra heat from hot aisle When temperature decreases, row CRACs decrease fan speed to conserve energy Row CRACs added Room CRACs removed CRACCRAC CRAC CRAC CRAC CRAC Caution: • Loads constantly shift as data center experiences higher/lower activity • IT movement (e.g., vMotion) is typically unaware of cooling limits in any physical space Row based cooling, CRAC VFD are methods to adjust to variable IT loads 28
  29. 29. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Other Considerations When Moving to High Density • Typically complicates cable management  Leftover cables when moving from low to high density  Additional cables because of additional IT equipment • Requires higher rates of air flow to support heat load • Increased weight of racks due to additional IT in rack • Impact on power infrastructure (breakers, panels, etc.) 29
  30. 30. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Summary • Surveying “Things To Consider” before /during / after IT Virtualization • The virtualization savings entitlement can be multiplied if power and cooling infrastructure is modified or upgraded • Spreading the load, supplemental cooling, and designation of high density and low density areas can help further enhance data center efficiency performance • No one size fits all 30
  31. 31. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid For More Information • www.thegreengrid.org for whitepapers, training, and content • For membership, please contact us: +1 503-619-0653 or admin@lists.thegreengrid.org 31 Thank you to our members for your continued dedication and involvement in ICT energy efficiency efforts!
  32. 32. Copyright © 2010, The Green Grid Thank you! For more information please go to www.thegreengrid.org

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