1
Special Education
Process & IEP
Overview
Advocates for Justice and Education, Inc.
The Parent Training and Information C...
Learning Objectives
 Explain the governance of schools in D.C.
 Understand the purpose of IDEA
 Describe the steps in t...
School System Structure &
Governance
 In the District of Columbia the public school
system consists of:
 District of Col...
School System Structure and
Governance (cont.)
 The Office of the State Superintendent of Education
(OSSE) serves as D.C....
The Special Education Process
5
IDEA
 The Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA) is the law that provides many
benefits and protections to ev...
STEP 1: Child Find
 The public school agency (DCPS, DC Public Charters, OSSE) is required to
identify, locate and evaluat...
Child Find Agencies
 Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE)
 Identifies children 0 through 3 years of ag...
Example #1
 Johnny is a 5th grader at Davis
Elementary School.
 You noticed that Johnny never
participates when it’s tim...
STEP 2: Formal Request and Consent to
Evaluate
 A Parent or Legal Guardian must give his or her written consent before a
...
Example #2
 Susie is a 9th grader at Ballou
Senior High School.
 She is having difficulty keeping
up with her work in yo...
STEP 3: Initial Evaluations
 Following the formal request
and consent for evaluation
the multidisciplinary team
(MDT) mus...
MDT/IEP Members
 the child’s parents or legal
guardian
 at least one regular education
teacher of the child
 at least o...
Types of Evaluations
 Psychoeducational
 general intelligence and academic performance
 Clinical Psychological
 social...
STEP 4: Eligibility for Special
Education
 To be eligible for special education and
related services, a child must be bet...
Disability Classifications
 Autism
 Deaf-Blindness
 Deafness
 Developmental Delay
 Emotional Disturbance
(ED)
 Heari...
 The MDT must determine eligibility and disability
classification.
 In determining eligibility, the MDT must draw upon
i...
Eligibility
 If a child is found ineligible, the team should
consider additional options of supports and
accommodations f...
STEP 5: Individualized Education
Program
 If it is determined that a child has a disability
and needs special education a...
What is an IEP?
The IEP is a written document that outlines
objectives, measurable goals, specialized
instruction and rela...
In developing the IEP, the team
should consider:
 the child’s strengths
 concerns of the parent
for enhancing the
educat...
22
A Place to Start: Looking at the Present
Level of Academic Achievement/Present
Levels of Performance
 Examining evalua...
23
What do you do with this data?
 By law, this information must be written into the IEP
 The team can determine the stu...
24
Next Step:
Writing Measurable Annual Goals
 These are goals that
can be reasonably
accomplished within a
year
 Broken...
25
Simply stated….
The annual goals are WHAT we expect the
student to learn or be able to do and
HOW we will know when the...
26
Measurable Annual Goals
 Goals should include academic and functional
areas if needed
 Goals may be academic, address...
Four key questions to determine if
a goal is measurable
 1)What would one do to see if the child has
accomplished this go...
 3)When we measure this goal, are we able to say how
much progress has been made?
 -This requires some degree or level o...
Example: Can you tell the
difference?
Mary will count to 10 without error
versus
Mary will improve her counting skills
Whi...
Remember…
30
 Goals can change in a year if accomplished
sooner or progress is not happening at a rate
expected by the te...
Next Step: Related Services
 The IEP must list the related services to be
provided to the child or on behalf of the child...
Transition Services
 Beginning when the child is age 16 (or
younger, if appropriate), the IEP must state
what transition ...
33
Extended School Year Services
 Discuss this area with the team to determine if
services should be continued beyond the...
Role of Parents
Parents must have input into the development of
the IEP and have a right to bring an advocate
or anyone el...
STEP 6: Placement
 Once the IEP Team determines the special education
and related services the child needs, the IEP Team
...
Example #3
 Sally has been diagnosed with ADHD by
her physician and the parent has shared
this information with you.
 Sh...
LRE means:
 to the maximum extent appropriate, children
with disabilities are educated with children
who are nondisabled ...
Placement cont.
 If the public school agency cannot provide a child
with the services required by the child’s IEP, the IE...
STEP 7: Annual Review
 A child’s IEP and placement must be reviewed at
least once a year.
 The purpose of the annual rev...
Example #4
 Johnny has an IEP. He has a
classification of emotional
disturbance.
 You don’t know what his
disability is....
STEP 8: Triennial Review
 A child must be fully reevaluated every three (3) years, unless
the parent and the public schoo...
Parent’s Permission
 No services
can be
provided to a
student without
parental
consent
42
43
Wrap Up
 IEP development requires
teamwork
 Goals must be measurable
 Goals can be changed
 Progress must be report...
Resources
 “Writing Measurable
IEP Goals and
Objectives,” by
Barbara D. Bateman
and Cynthia M. Herr
(2003)
 www.ed.gov
...
BREAK!!!!!!!!!!
45
46
Managing Difficult Behaviors
and Developing Positive
Behavior Intervention Plans
Advocates for Justice and Education, I...
There is logic behind the behaviors
of children. The challenge is to
understand its context.
47
Problem Behaviors are Context Related
They arise in response to environmental events
Classroom Environment
Noise
Disruptio...
Problem Behaviors Serve a Function
What a child does is not necessarily related to
the function of the behavior.
To get so...
Whose Problem Is It?
The problem is not just with the child, but in the
relationships between the child and the
environmen...
What are positive behavior interventions
and supports (PBIS)?
PBIS is:
 A research-based approach to eliminate problem be...
KEEP IT POSITIVE
Repeated punishment does not help children
develop appropriate behavior skills
PBIS is a better solution
...
Be sure the expectation is positive!
 “once you have finished
reading, you may move on to
art”
 “you cannot move onto ar...
GOAL: Changing Behavior
Teach or
Re-teach the
behavior
Provide
Meaningful
Incentives
Provide
Meaningful
Consequences 54
TEACH EXPECTED BEHAVIOR
 Begin with simple, broad rules.
 Be safe, be responsible, be respectful.
 Describe what each o...
Do what you do best: Be a Teacher!
 Discuss and model the expected behaviors
to use:
 In the classroom
 In the location...
Provide Meaningful Incentives
 Teaching is not enough to change
behavior.
 Children need to be recognized and
rewarded w...
Example #5
 Bobby has some behavioral problems (frequent tantrums,
doesn’t listen, may run off)
 We are going on a field...
Enforce Logical Consequences for Negative Behaviors
Logical Consequences should:
 Be stated clearly in advance
 Be under...
In Summary
 Changing behavior through PBIS takes the effort of a
“village.”
 Research and best practices consistently su...
FBA and IDEA
 Under IDEA, children must be evaluated
in “all areas related to the suspected
disability”
 If a child has ...
Behavior Intervention Plan
 The child’s team develops a plan that usually
includes:
 Skills training to increase appropr...
Examples of behavioral intervention strategies
 Stop, Relax, and Think
 Teaches children how to think about the problem ...
More examples…
 Planned Ignoring
 Useful in stopping behaviors that are
annoying.
 Should never be used for unsafe
beha...
More examples…
 Preventive Cueing (signal interference)
 Frown
 Shake their head
 Make eye contact
 Point to a seat f...
More examples...
 Proximity Control
 Teacher moves closer to the child in a
gentle way
 If the teacher does not get the...
More examples…
 Humor
 Directed either at the teacher or the
situation—never at the child—can defuse
tensions as well as...
More examples…
 Nonverbal Warnings
 Give a child the opportunity to regain control
without being singled out for a verba...
More examples…
 Discipline Privately
 Many children see it as a challenge
when teachers attempt to discipline
them in fr...
Teach Children to self Manage Behavior
Homework and school work
Time management- Define and teach routines the child will ...
School Discipline
 Sometimes school discipline
policies are not successful in
correcting problem behaviors
 The child do...
Zero-Tolerance Policies
 Defined as consistently enforced
suspension and expulsion policies in
response to weapons, drugs...
 However, research indicates
that, as implemented, zero
tolerance policies are
ineffective in the long run
and are relate...
Take away…
 Children with disabilities SHOULD be
included in after-school activities
 If you know a student has an IEP, ...
For More Information
Visit: www.pbis.org
Website: www.aje-dc.org
Call or Visit AJE!
 The Campbell Building, 1012 Pennsylv...
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Serving Special Education Students in Washington, DC

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Advocates for Justice and Education presented at a DC Alliance of Youth Advocates Brown Bag Lunch on the legal processes and resources for IEP students in DC.

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Serving Special Education Students in Washington, DC

  1. 1. 1 Special Education Process & IEP Overview Advocates for Justice and Education, Inc. The Parent Training and Information Center for the District of Columbia
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  Explain the governance of schools in D.C.  Understand the purpose of IDEA  Describe the steps in the Special Education Process  List components of the Individualized Education Program (IEP)  Write effective and measurable IEP goals  Articulate strategies for communicating with schools 2
  3. 3. School System Structure & Governance  In the District of Columbia the public school system consists of:  District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) – The local traditional public school system. and  District of Columbia Public Charter Schools (DCPCS) – Independent non-profits that receive public funds to provide public education. 3
  4. 4. School System Structure and Governance (cont.)  The Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) serves as D.C.’s state education agency.  OSSE is responsible for:  managing, distributing, and monitoring the use of federal funds across DCPS and public charter schools.  Setting policy standards for learning, state-wide assessments, teacher licensure requirements, etc. 4
  5. 5. The Special Education Process 5
  6. 6. IDEA  The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the law that provides many benefits and protections to every eligible child who has a disability, and to his or her parents.  The major purpose of IDEA is to make a free, appropriate public education (FAPE) available to every child who has a disability (Bateman & Herr, 2003) 6
  7. 7. STEP 1: Child Find  The public school agency (DCPS, DC Public Charters, OSSE) is required to identify, locate and evaluate all children who are disabled and in need of special education and related services.  The public school agency is also required to identify, locate and evaluate children who are suspected of being disabled and in need of special education.  A referral for evaluation of a child who may have a disability may be made by: (1) The parent(s) or legal guardian(s); (2) A child (self-referral) who is between the ages of 18 and 22 years; (3) A professional staff employee of the public school agency; or (4) A staff member of the public school agency who has direct knowledge of the child. 7
  8. 8. Child Find Agencies  Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE)  Identifies children 0 through 3 years of age  Early Stages: District of Columbia Public Schools Initiative  Identifies children ages 3 through 5  DCPS  Identifies enrolled students ages 3-22. Also identifies parentally placed students in private schools.  DC Public Charter Schools  Identifies enrolled students ages 3-22 8
  9. 9. Example #1  Johnny is a 5th grader at Davis Elementary School.  You noticed that Johnny never participates when it’s time to read aloud at your afterschool program.  When it’s reading time, Johnny leaves the room to roam the hallways.  When asked if he has homework from school in reading, Johnny always says no.  Johnny’s mother has explained to you that he is in jeopardy of failing in his English class.  How can Child Find help Johnny? What advice would you give to Johnny’s mom? 9
  10. 10. STEP 2: Formal Request and Consent to Evaluate  A Parent or Legal Guardian must give his or her written consent before a child can be evaluated.  Once the parent submits the written request and consent for evaluation, the public school agency has 120 days from that date to evaluate the child. 10
  11. 11. Example #2  Susie is a 9th grader at Ballou Senior High School.  She is having difficulty keeping up with her work in your program.  She has difficulties writing paragraphs and reading aloud.  You believe she may have a learning disability.  What should you do?  What can you do for her in the classroom? 11
  12. 12. STEP 3: Initial Evaluations  Following the formal request and consent for evaluation the multidisciplinary team (MDT) must meet to review existing data and information on the child and identify what evaluations are needed.  Including all areas related to the suspected disability. 12
  13. 13. MDT/IEP Members  the child’s parents or legal guardian  at least one regular education teacher of the child  at least one special education teacher of the child  a representative of the public school agency (can be the special education coordinator, etc.)  professionals who can interpret the evaluations to be conducted on the child (for example, a psychologist, a speech pathologist, etc.)  and the child if appropriate 13 Susie Parent/ Guardian Special Ed. Teacher Special Ed. Coordinator Psychologist Social Worker Speech Pathologist Occupational Therapist Gen. Ed. Teacher
  14. 14. Types of Evaluations  Psychoeducational  general intelligence and academic performance  Clinical Psychological  social and emotional status  Occupational/Physical Therapy  motor abilities  Medical  physical, vision, hearing, psychiatric, neurological  Speech/Language  communication  Vocational 14
  15. 15. STEP 4: Eligibility for Special Education  To be eligible for special education and related services, a child must be between ages three (3) and twenty-two (22) and have a disability that adversely affects his or her ability to learn or make progress in school. 15
  16. 16. Disability Classifications  Autism  Deaf-Blindness  Deafness  Developmental Delay  Emotional Disturbance (ED)  Hearing Impairment (HI)  Multiple Disabilities  Orthopedic Impairment (OI)  Visual Impairment (VI)  Traumatic Brain Injury  Other Health Impairment (OHI), such as ADHD  Learning Disability (LD)  Speech or Language Impairment (SI)  Intellectual Disability (ID)16
  17. 17.  The MDT must determine eligibility and disability classification.  In determining eligibility, the MDT must draw upon information from a variety of sources, including aptitude and achievement tests, parent input, teacher recommendations, physical condition, social or cultural background, and adaptive behavior.  Parents have a right to challenge eligibility, classifications of disability, and/or evaluations. 17
  18. 18. Eligibility  If a child is found ineligible, the team should consider additional options of supports and accommodations for the child.  Refer to 504 Team to complete eligibility for Section 504  504 Accommodation Plan  Refer to the Student Support Team (SST)  Student Support Team Plan 18
  19. 19. STEP 5: Individualized Education Program  If it is determined that a child has a disability and needs special education and related services, an Individual Education Program (IEP) must be developed for the child.  An IEP must be developed within 30-days of determining that a child is eligible for special education and related services. 19
  20. 20. What is an IEP? The IEP is a written document that outlines objectives, measurable goals, specialized instruction and related services for a child’s unique needs. 20
  21. 21. In developing the IEP, the team should consider:  the child’s strengths  concerns of the parent for enhancing the education of the child  results of the initial or most recent evaluation  and as appropriate, the results of the child’s performance on any District-wide assessment programs. 21
  22. 22. 22 A Place to Start: Looking at the Present Level of Academic Achievement/Present Levels of Performance  Examining evaluation data  Classroom tests  Assessments administered for eligibility purposes  Observations by teachers, paraprofessionals, administrators and parents  OBJECTIVE DATA is necessary!
  23. 23. 23 What do you do with this data?  By law, this information must be written into the IEP  The team can determine the student’s current academic needs  The team can also determine the student’s functional needs  How are the student’s needs different from expected levels of academic and functional needs?  Team then determines what amount of growth can be expected within one year’s time that will significantly close this gap
  24. 24. 24 Next Step: Writing Measurable Annual Goals  These are goals that can be reasonably accomplished within a year  Broken down into short-term objectives or benchmarks
  25. 25. 25 Simply stated…. The annual goals are WHAT we expect the student to learn or be able to do and HOW we will know when they have learned it or can do it
  26. 26. 26 Measurable Annual Goals  Goals should include academic and functional areas if needed  Goals may be academic, address behavioral or social needs  Relate to physical needs
  27. 27. Four key questions to determine if a goal is measurable  1)What would one do to see if the child has accomplished this goal?  -To measure is to do something.  2)If several people evaluated the student’s performance, would they come to the same conclusion about accomplishment of this goal?  -If the answer is “no” then not objectively measurable! 30 27
  28. 28.  3)When we measure this goal, are we able to say how much progress has been made?  -This requires some degree or level of quantification  -Inserting percentages is not enough (Johnny will read 80% better)  4)Can this goal be measured without additional information?  -A measurable goal can be measured as it is written without reference to additional, external information 28
  29. 29. Example: Can you tell the difference? Mary will count to 10 without error versus Mary will improve her counting skills Which can be assessed without additional information needed? 29
  30. 30. Remember… 30  Goals can change in a year if accomplished sooner or progress is not happening at a rate expected by the team
  31. 31. Next Step: Related Services  The IEP must list the related services to be provided to the child or on behalf of the child.  This includes supplementary aids and services that the child needs.  It also includes modifications (changes) to the program or supports for school personnel- such as training or professional development- that will be provided to assist the child. 31
  32. 32. Transition Services  Beginning when the child is age 16 (or younger, if appropriate), the IEP must state what transition services are needed to help the child prepare for leaving school. 32
  33. 33. 33 Extended School Year Services  Discuss this area with the team to determine if services should be continued beyond the normal school year  If team agrees then the IEP should reflect a continuum of services  Services must meet state standards and not be limited based on students disability  If you have IEP meetings in the fall, you will need to discuss ESY later in the year. Don’t forget!
  34. 34. Role of Parents Parents must have input into the development of the IEP and have a right to bring an advocate or anyone else to the IEP meeting. If there is a disagreement about the IEP, the team should complete as much of the IEP as possible to ensure the child gets some services while the dispute gets resolved. 34
  35. 35. STEP 6: Placement  Once the IEP Team determines the special education and related services the child needs, the IEP Team must determine the educational placement of the child.  The child’s placement must be as close as possible to the child’s home.  The child must be placed in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). 35
  36. 36. Example #3  Sally has been diagnosed with ADHD by her physician and the parent has shared this information with you.  She is constantly running around your classroom and rarely if ever sits still for more than 5 mins.  Based solely on that information, the head teacher wants to put that student out of your program.  Sally has a 504 for accommodations, although no accommodations have been made in your program.  What should you do? 36
  37. 37. LRE means:  to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are educated with children who are nondisabled and are removed from the regular education class only if the nature or severity of the child’s disability is such that education in the regular classes, with the use of supplementary aids and services, cannot be achieved. 37
  38. 38. Placement cont.  If the public school agency cannot provide a child with the services required by the child’s IEP, the IEP team can consider having the child placed into a private placement at public expense.  Parents have the right to challenge any proposed placement and the child has the right to stay in his or her last current placement while the dispute gets resolved. 38
  39. 39. STEP 7: Annual Review  A child’s IEP and placement must be reviewed at least once a year.  The purpose of the annual review is to determine the child’s progress, to modify or develop a new IEP, and to revisit the student’s disability classification and placement level.  Note - Parents may request a review at any time during the year. 39
  40. 40. Example #4  Johnny has an IEP. He has a classification of emotional disturbance.  You don’t know what his disability is. All you know is that he has trouble following directions from people who he perceives to be in an authoritative position.  Do you need more information? What are some next steps? What accommodations can be made for him in your program? 40
  41. 41. STEP 8: Triennial Review  A child must be fully reevaluated every three (3) years, unless the parent and the public school agency agree that a reevaluation is not necessary  The purpose of the triennial review is to reconfirm the child’s disability, instruction and related service needs  Note – Parents may request reevaluations at any time during the three year period if there are concerns; however, a reevaluation may not occur more than once a year unless the parent and the public school agency agree otherwise. 41
  42. 42. Parent’s Permission  No services can be provided to a student without parental consent 42
  43. 43. 43 Wrap Up  IEP development requires teamwork  Goals must be measurable  Goals can be changed  Progress must be reported to the parent  Parents, know your rights  Parents and Professionals, know IDEA requirements for IEPs  As a professional working with students, review the students’ IEP including PLOP.  Provide accommodations and modifications that are identified in the IEP to the student in your afterschool program.  Communicate with parent frequently about the child’s progress.
  44. 44. Resources  “Writing Measurable IEP Goals and Objectives,” by Barbara D. Bateman and Cynthia M. Herr (2003)  www.ed.gov  www.ldonline.org  www.wrightslaw.com  “Developing Educationally Meaningful & Legally Sound IEPs,” by Mitchell L. Yell, Ph.D. 44
  45. 45. BREAK!!!!!!!!!! 45
  46. 46. 46 Managing Difficult Behaviors and Developing Positive Behavior Intervention Plans Advocates for Justice and Education, Inc. The Parent Training and Information Center for the District of Columbia
  47. 47. There is logic behind the behaviors of children. The challenge is to understand its context. 47
  48. 48. Problem Behaviors are Context Related They arise in response to environmental events Classroom Environment Noise Disruptions Temperature Child Specific Conditions Medication Effects Peer Issue Allergies Anxiety Fatigue New Person Teacher Interaction Instruction Work too hard/easy Transitions Length of Assignments No Choices 48
  49. 49. Problem Behaviors Serve a Function What a child does is not necessarily related to the function of the behavior. To get something: To escape or avoid something: ▪Attention ▪attending school ▪Approval ▪peers or adults ▪Reward  Power ▪doing work  To have control 49
  50. 50. Whose Problem Is It? The problem is not just with the child, but in the relationships between the child and the environment. Interventions must involve the school and home environment as a whole, not the child alone. 50
  51. 51. What are positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS)? PBIS is:  A research-based approach to eliminate problem behavior based on the assumption that children and youth can develop new behavioral skills when adults:  TEACH the expected behaviors  RECOGNIZE AND REWARD those behaviors when they occur, and  CONSISTENTLY ENFORCE MEANINGFUL CONSEQUENCES when they don’t occur. 51
  52. 52. KEEP IT POSITIVE Repeated punishment does not help children develop appropriate behavior skills PBIS is a better solution A positive intervention plan is NOT the same as a discipline plan! 52
  53. 53. Be sure the expectation is positive!  “once you have finished reading, you may move on to art”  “you cannot move onto art until the reading is finished….” 53
  54. 54. GOAL: Changing Behavior Teach or Re-teach the behavior Provide Meaningful Incentives Provide Meaningful Consequences 54
  55. 55. TEACH EXPECTED BEHAVIOR  Begin with simple, broad rules.  Be safe, be responsible, be respectful.  Describe what each of those means.  Clearly state the expectation.  Provide examples of appropriate behavior.  Provide examples of inappropriate behavior.  Re-teach expectations regularly. 55
  56. 56. Do what you do best: Be a Teacher!  Discuss and model the expected behaviors to use:  In the classroom  In the locations where specific behavior is expected  Re-teach regularly and when necessary.  Keep the expectation positive. 56
  57. 57. Provide Meaningful Incentives  Teaching is not enough to change behavior.  Children need to be recognized and rewarded when they meet expectations.  Positive recognition must occur at least four times as frequently as negative recognition for behavior change to occur. 57
  58. 58. Example #5  Bobby has some behavioral problems (frequent tantrums, doesn’t listen, may run off)  We are going on a field trip to the National Zoo  Need one person to play “Bobby”  One person to play “Teacher”  One person to play the “Assistant Teacher”  One person to play the “Parent”  How do we prepare Bobby for the field trip? Do we make mandatory for the parents to attend the trip or do we say Bobby has to stay at home? What supports can we put in place for Bobby? 58
  59. 59. Enforce Logical Consequences for Negative Behaviors Logical Consequences should:  Be stated clearly in advance  Be understood  Be enforced consistently  Apply to all in a classroom 59
  60. 60. In Summary  Changing behavior through PBIS takes the effort of a “village.”  Research and best practices consistently support family involvement as a key component to school success.  Partnership between families and schools promotes a clear message of shared responsibility involvement. “No matter what the demographics, students are more likely to earn higher grades and test scores, attend school regularly, have better social skills, graduate, and go on to post secondary education when schools and families partner.” (Karen Mapp, Family Involvement Equals Student Success No Matter Background, 2006) 60
  61. 61. FBA and IDEA  Under IDEA, children must be evaluated in “all areas related to the suspected disability”  If a child has problem behaviors that are not improving, the child may need an evaluation to examine the behaviors more closely. 61
  62. 62. Behavior Intervention Plan  The child’s team develops a plan that usually includes:  Skills training to increase appropriate behavior  Changes that will be made in classrooms or other environments to reduce or eliminate problem behaviors  Strategies to replace problem behaviors with appropriate behaviors that serve the same function for the child  Supports for the child to use the appropriate behaviors 62
  63. 63. Examples of behavioral intervention strategies  Stop, Relax, and Think  Teaches children how to think about the problem they are having and find a solution. Children learn the steps: 1. Define the problem 2. Decide who “owns” the problem 3. Think of as many solutions as possible to solve the problem 4. Select a solution to try 5. Use the solution 6. Evaluate its success. 63
  64. 64. More examples…  Planned Ignoring  Useful in stopping behaviors that are annoying.  Should never be used for unsafe behaviors  Not suitable for extremely disruptive behavior. 64
  65. 65. More examples…  Preventive Cueing (signal interference)  Frown  Shake their head  Make eye contact  Point to a seat for a wandering child  Snap their fingers 65
  66. 66. More examples...  Proximity Control  Teacher moves closer to the child in a gentle way  If the teacher does not get the child’s attention by using cues, then he or she may move closer to the student or give the lesson while standing near the child’s desk 66
  67. 67. More examples…  Humor  Directed either at the teacher or the situation—never at the child—can defuse tensions as well as redirect children.  Humor must never be used to demean a child or be used in a manner that might encourage others in the class to ridicule the child. 67
  68. 68. More examples…  Nonverbal Warnings  Give a child the opportunity to regain control without being singled out for a verbal reprimand.  For example, a teacher might place a colored warning cue card or a note on a desk as he or she moves through the room, or hold up the number of fingers that corresponds to the rule being challenged. 68
  69. 69. More examples…  Discipline Privately  Many children see it as a challenge when teachers attempt to discipline them in front of their peers.  Children rarely lose these challenges, even when adults use negative consequences 69
  70. 70. Teach Children to self Manage Behavior Homework and school work Time management- Define and teach routines the child will use  Provide a checklist of activities that child can mark off as completed  Begin on time  Have materials ready  Stay with task until completed  ATTITUDE  Be respectful (demonstrate!)  Have materials ready for the work being addressed 70
  71. 71. School Discipline  Sometimes school discipline policies are not successful in correcting problem behaviors  The child does not learn what the school staff intended through the use of punishments such as suspension 71
  72. 72. Zero-Tolerance Policies  Defined as consistently enforced suspension and expulsion policies in response to weapons, drugs and violent acts in the school setting.  Over time, however, zero tolerance has come to refer to school or district-wide policies that mandate predetermined, typically harsh consequences or punishments (such as suspension and expulsion) for a wide degree of rule violation. 72
  73. 73.  However, research indicates that, as implemented, zero tolerance policies are ineffective in the long run and are related to a number of negative consequences:  increased rates of school drop out and  discriminatory application of school discipline practices. 73
  74. 74. Take away…  Children with disabilities SHOULD be included in after-school activities  If you know a student has an IEP, 504, or a BIP you may need to incorporate this information/strategies into your programming in order to support the child  Remember that it takes a village to raise a child 74
  75. 75. For More Information Visit: www.pbis.org Website: www.aje-dc.org Call or Visit AJE!  The Campbell Building, 1012 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE (near Eastern Market)  Office: (202) 678-8060  Hours: M – F; 9am to 5pm (some Extended Library hours-see calendar) The contents of this presentation were developed under a grant from the US Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. 75
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