Focus on Driving: How Cognitive Constraints Shape
the Adaptation of Strategy when Dialing while Driving


Duncan Brumby, U...
DIALING




           !quot;#$%&#$'()*



average dial time 4.67 seconds
how to dial and drive?
QUESTIONS




•   is it safer to dial quickly or slowly?
•   how do people adapt their strategy to drive safely?
OVERVIEW


•   framework for understanding multitasking

•   well-controlled study that investigates the effect
    of rel...
STRATEGIC CHOICE



•   there are potentially many interleaving strategies
•   choice of strategy affects performance and
...
SIMPLE MODEL
OF TASK SWITCHING

    Task A
    Switch Cost
    Task B

                                    Time (s)


•   ...
PERMUTATIONS

Task A
Switch Cost
Task B
               Time (s)



Task A
Switch Cost
Task B
               Time (s)
DRIVER DISTRACTION
FRAMEWORK
STRATEGIC CHOICE



•   there are potentially many interleaving strategies
•   choice of strategy affects performance and
...
DECISION RULES




•   planned: switch at subtasks boundaries (Salvucci, 2005)
•   reactive: switch when the car veers
PREVIOUS WORK



•   Horrey et al. (2004): behavior and performance
    dependent on relative task priority
•   resource a...
STUDY


•   how do people adapt their strategy for interleaving
    dialing and driving to different objectives?
•   objec...
DIALING TASK



             !quot;#$%&#$'()*


dial as quickly as possible
very few errors (4/160)
average dial time 4.67...
stay close to lane center
drive for 10-seconds, controlling only steering
less stable at faster driving speed, t(7)=5.40, ...
!quot;#$%&#$'()*
!quot;#$%&'(%quot;)%
 #+!quot;,-./
*#+(,#$%-(.quot;#&/0%quot;)
      0+*#,1
LATERAL DEVIATION AT
KEYPRESSES
LATERAL DEVIATION AT
KEYPRESSES
INTER-KEYPRESS INTERVALS
CHANGE IN LATERAL ERROR IN
BETWEEN KEYPRESSES
COGNITIVE CONSTRAINTS LIMIT
STRATEGY ADAPTATION




•   the only improvement in lane keeping came during
    prolonged del...
CONCLUSIONS



•   interleaving intricately shaped by the structure of
    the secondary task
•   drivers steer at chunk b...
OUTSTANDING QUESTION



•   data show what strategies were adopted
•   cannot infer how alternative strategies would fair
...
MODELING FRAMEWORK
STEERING CONTROL


•   model parameters estimated from steering data
•   data segmented into steering episodes
•   periods...
DATA
DRIFTING




•   discrete steering updates alter vehicle heading
•   in between steering updates the vehicle drifts
FOCUS-ON-DIALING: DATA
•   drivers did not interleave while dialing




    Drift rate at slow speed   Drift rate at fast ...
FOCUS-ON-DIALING: MODEL
•   no-interleaving strategy used to fit drift rate at
    different driving speeds




    Drift r...
QUESTION




•   with drift rate across conditions fit ...
•   how do various interleaving strategies perform?
STRATEGIES TO EVALUATE

 S2                    S5
  xxx -- xxxxxxx        xxx -- xxx -- xx -- xx

 S3                    S...
STRATEGY PERFORMANCE
STRATEGY PERFORMANCE
STRATEGY PERFORMANCE
INTERLEAVING AT CHUNKS
BOUNDARIES IS EFFICIENT
KEY INSIGHT:
WHEN QUICK IS SLOW

                     S1 No-interleaving
                     S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
KEY INSIGHT:
WHEN QUICK IS SLOW

                     S1 No-interleaving
                     S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
KEY INSIGHT:
WHEN QUICK IS SLOW

                     S1 No-interleaving
                     S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
KEY INSIGHT:
WHEN QUICK IS SLOW

                     S1 No-interleaving
                     S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
KEY INSIGHT:
WHEN QUICK IS SLOW

                     S1 No-interleaving
                     S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
KEY INSIGHT:
WHEN QUICK IS SLOW

                     S1 No-interleaving
                     S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
CONCLUSIONS


•   drivers’ adapt their strategy to changing objective
•   task interleaving strategy shaped by structure o...
FUTURE WORK



 !quot;#,$,%&#,$,'()*
FUTURE WORK



 !quot;#,$,%&#,$,'()*

              0quot;&#),$,%*!'(quot;
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


We thank our sponsors
•   NSF
•   EPSRC
•   UCL Department of Psychology
UK DIALING
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Focus on Driving: How Cognitive Constraints Shape the Adaptation of Strategy when Dialing while Driving

1,082

Published on

Investigates how people adapt their multitasking strategies to varying performance objectives. Augments our understanding of how cognitive constraints limit dual-task strategy adaptations in complex dynamic environments.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,082
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Focus on Driving: How Cognitive Constraints Shape the Adaptation of Strategy when Dialing while Driving

  1. 1. Focus on Driving: How Cognitive Constraints Shape the Adaptation of Strategy when Dialing while Driving Duncan Brumby, University College London Dario Salvucci, Drexel University Andrew Howes, University of Manchester
  2. 2. DIALING !quot;#$%&#$'()* average dial time 4.67 seconds how to dial and drive?
  3. 3. QUESTIONS • is it safer to dial quickly or slowly? • how do people adapt their strategy to drive safely?
  4. 4. OVERVIEW • framework for understanding multitasking • well-controlled study that investigates the effect of relative task priority on strategy adaptation • use a model to ask what if ...
  5. 5. STRATEGIC CHOICE • there are potentially many interleaving strategies • choice of strategy affects performance and impacts safety
  6. 6. SIMPLE MODEL OF TASK SWITCHING Task A Switch Cost Task B Time (s) • at any given time task A or task B can be “active” • model the information flow between tasks • switching between tasks carries a time cost - i.e., shifting visual attention, recalling previous goal state information, etc
  7. 7. PERMUTATIONS Task A Switch Cost Task B Time (s) Task A Switch Cost Task B Time (s)
  8. 8. DRIVER DISTRACTION FRAMEWORK
  9. 9. STRATEGIC CHOICE • there are potentially many interleaving strategies • choice of strategy affects performance and impacts safety
  10. 10. DECISION RULES • planned: switch at subtasks boundaries (Salvucci, 2005) • reactive: switch when the car veers
  11. 11. PREVIOUS WORK • Horrey et al. (2004): behavior and performance dependent on relative task priority • resource allocation function: safer driving with more time looking at the road than at a phone
  12. 12. STUDY • how do people adapt their strategy for interleaving dialing and driving to different objectives? • objectives can be influenced by many things ... - dial quickly, minimize perceived risks, conform to social expectations, etc
  13. 13. DIALING TASK !quot;#$%&#$'()* dial as quickly as possible very few errors (4/160) average dial time 4.67 seconds 70 ms pause between chunks, t(7)=2.58, p=.04
  14. 14. stay close to lane center drive for 10-seconds, controlling only steering less stable at faster driving speed, t(7)=5.40, p<.01
  15. 15. !quot;#$%&#$'()*
  16. 16. !quot;#$%&'(%quot;)% #+!quot;,-./
  17. 17. *#+(,#$%-(.quot;#&/0%quot;) 0+*#,1
  18. 18. LATERAL DEVIATION AT KEYPRESSES
  19. 19. LATERAL DEVIATION AT KEYPRESSES
  20. 20. INTER-KEYPRESS INTERVALS
  21. 21. CHANGE IN LATERAL ERROR IN BETWEEN KEYPRESSES
  22. 22. COGNITIVE CONSTRAINTS LIMIT STRATEGY ADAPTATION • the only improvement in lane keeping came during prolonged delays in between chunks • even when extreme vehicle drift implies a more reactive strategy could be safer
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS • interleaving intricately shaped by the structure of the secondary task • drivers steer at chunk boundaries
  24. 24. OUTSTANDING QUESTION • data show what strategies were adopted • cannot infer how alternative strategies would fair • is there a more efficient strategy?
  25. 25. MODELING FRAMEWORK
  26. 26. STEERING CONTROL • model parameters estimated from steering data • data segmented into steering episodes • periods where the steering wheel was not adjusted • focus on relationship between lateral deviation at the start of an episode and vehicle heading
  27. 27. DATA
  28. 28. DRIFTING • discrete steering updates alter vehicle heading • in between steering updates the vehicle drifts
  29. 29. FOCUS-ON-DIALING: DATA • drivers did not interleave while dialing Drift rate at slow speed Drift rate at fast speed
  30. 30. FOCUS-ON-DIALING: MODEL • no-interleaving strategy used to fit drift rate at different driving speeds Drift rate at slow speed Drift rate at fast speed
  31. 31. QUESTION • with drift rate across conditions fit ... • how do various interleaving strategies perform?
  32. 32. STRATEGIES TO EVALUATE S2 S5 xxx -- xxxxxxx xxx -- xxx -- xx -- xx S3 S6 xxxxxx -- xxxx xx -- xx -- xx -- xx -- xx S4 S7 xxx -- xxx -- xxxx x -- x -- x -- x -- x -- x ...
  33. 33. STRATEGY PERFORMANCE
  34. 34. STRATEGY PERFORMANCE
  35. 35. STRATEGY PERFORMANCE
  36. 36. INTERLEAVING AT CHUNKS BOUNDARIES IS EFFICIENT
  37. 37. KEY INSIGHT: WHEN QUICK IS SLOW S1 No-interleaving S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
  38. 38. KEY INSIGHT: WHEN QUICK IS SLOW S1 No-interleaving S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
  39. 39. KEY INSIGHT: WHEN QUICK IS SLOW S1 No-interleaving S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
  40. 40. KEY INSIGHT: WHEN QUICK IS SLOW S1 No-interleaving S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
  41. 41. KEY INSIGHT: WHEN QUICK IS SLOW S1 No-interleaving S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
  42. 42. KEY INSIGHT: WHEN QUICK IS SLOW S1 No-interleaving S4 xxx - xxx - xxxx
  43. 43. CONCLUSIONS • drivers’ adapt their strategy to changing objective • task interleaving strategy shaped by structure of secondary dialing task • it is safer to take the time to interleave even for short tasks
  44. 44. FUTURE WORK !quot;#,$,%&#,$,'()*
  45. 45. FUTURE WORK !quot;#,$,%&#,$,'()* 0quot;&#),$,%*!'(quot;
  46. 46. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank our sponsors • NSF • EPSRC • UCL Department of Psychology
  47. 47. UK DIALING

×