Risk Reduction Index in West Africa


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The Risk Reduction Index aims to help governments, civil society and other actors understand the underlying risks that render communities more vulnerable to natural hazards, so that they can be addressed from a more integrated perspective.

DARA's second RRI focuses on West Africa where underlying risk drivers continue to increase communities’ vulnerability to natural hazards, decrease their resilience overall, and potentially diminish important development
gains that have been made. The RRI has identified links between underlying risk factors and increased vulnerability, raising awareness around the need for greater risk management initiatives.

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Risk Reduction Index in West Africa

  1. 1. 17 December 2013 Madrid
  2. 2. Risk Reduction Index (RRI) What is the RRI? Action-oriented research programme that aims to: -shed light on how to improve risk management within most vulnerable countries across different regions of the world Risk Reduction Index (RRI) -generate knowledge in the West Africa region that helps governments, civil society and other actors understand the underlying risks that render communities more vulnerable to natural hazards, so that they can be addressed from a more integrated perspective
  3. 3. Risk Reduction Index (RRI) RRI Objectives: • To inform and guide practitioners and policy-makers about underlying risk drivers and how they influence or contribute to the generation of risks within determined geographical areas. • To offer recommendations that will improve risk management at local, national and regional levels. • To generate baseline data for measuring progress (or setbacks) of how underlying risk drivers are addressed over time.
  4. 4. Risk Reduction Index (RRI) Why the RRI?  Need for more integrated actions to effectively reduce the risk to disasters-- best achieved if underlying risk factors are addressed  UNISDR Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR 2009, 2011, 2013) highlighted the crucial importance for governments to address underlying risk factors and to integrate DRR into their development agendas  Provide evidence to strengthen focus on underlying risk factors, in line with Hyogo Framework for Action Priority (HFA) for Action #4 and findings from GAR 2009 & 2011
  5. 5. GAR 2011 Findings – Challenges (Source: GAR 2011, UNISDR)
  6. 6. RTUs A number of RTUs (at least two and up to three) are selected in each country to examine the conditions and capacities for DRR and CCA. Table 1: RTU Selection Criteria RTU Typology Risk Typology Exposure to high intensity, low recurrence Urban Areas (i.e. marginalized areas within large threats with potential for intensive losses (i.e. urban centres, metropolitan areas). earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or hurricanes that could produce severe losses in small areas). Rural Areas (i.e. with subsistence agriculture and/or livestock). Urban Expansion Areas (i.e. service centres, centres for trade, production and tourism). Exposure to low-to-medium intensity, high recurrence hazards with potential for extensive losses (i.e. floods or landslides that regularly produce limited losses in large areas). Exposure to low intensity, low recurrence hazards with potential for extensive losses (i.e. droughts that occasionally produce widespread losses).
  7. 7. Some statistics RRI in numbers: • • • • • • 4 6 700 16 16 6 Risk Drivers Countries Questionnaires Communities (RTUs) Community-level Workshops National Workshops
  8. 8. Phase 2: West Africa Cape Verde Senegal Gambia Guinea Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Guinea Niger Senegal Niger Ghana
  9. 9. Main Findings Risk Driver 1, Environment and natural resources Floods and Droughts are the main environmental hazards in 6 countries Urban Areas: Rural Areas: - Coastal erosion and deforestation - Soil erosion and desertification - Water contamination and water scarcity - Changes in rainfall patterns
  10. 10. Main Findings Risk Driver 2, Socioeconomic conditions Unemployment and poverty are key issues across countries both in urban and rural areas Low literacy levels also common across RTUs Food insecurity in rural areas, vs. in-migration in urban areas also identified as key concerns Urbanisation - in all countries, triggered by food insecurity and lowering agricultural production in rural areas increasing unemployment in capitals/major cities
  11. 11. Main Findings Risk Driver 3, Land use and the built environment In Urban and Urban Expansion areas, the key concerns relate to Housing and Infrastructure • Building/Housing located in risk prone areas • Poor quality of construction materials • Poor drainage/water disposal systems • Inadequate planning, regulations, law enforcement irregular settlements, flood risk, water contamination Limited access to land and overcrowded conditions are also key issues in urban and urban expansion areas
  12. 12. Main Findings Risk Driver 4, Governance Same key issues identified across countries and 3 RTU types:  Limited financial and human capacity  Lack of accountability and corruption
  13. 13. Interconnectedness of Risk Drivers Underlying Risk Drivers contribute to generation of risk Unemployment Poverty Illiteracy Low capacity and limited enforcement of laws + Exposure + Migration and Urbanisation Unsafe urban settlements Floods Land degradation Coastal erosion Water contamination
  14. 14. Main Findings Underlying risk in West Africa: • Findings point to rural vs. urban divide on Risk Drivers 1 and 3, whereas key issues are similar for Risk Drivers 2 and 4. • Findings also demonstrate that urban expansion areas show similar characteristics to capital cities in terms of underlying risk factors. • Finally, it is important to understand how key issues in rural areas are having a direct impact on underlying risk in urban areas—migration and urbanisation.
  15. 15. Challenges Ahead Need to understand risk and build resilience at the local level • Importance of engaging with communities—both raising awareness and promoting bottom-up processes • Importance of engaging with decentralization processes to promote more effective risk management at local levels • Way to build resilience is by assessing risk across all sectors (integrated, multi-sector approach)
  16. 16. Challenges Ahead Need for prospective action - Disaster Risk Management at the national and regional levels • Need to understand and build resilience locally, but coordinate regionally • Opportunities for greater regional coordination in management of coastal zones and fisheries, drought, epidemics, and pests • Need scale up knowledge and increase advocacy and action at the national level
  17. 17. Risk Reduction Index Our thanks to the Governments of Spain and Australia for supporting the RRI for more information, please visit: www.daraint.org