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Memory secrets1
 

Memory secrets1

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What is the memory secrets?

What is the memory secrets?

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  • Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger.
  • Animated vertical list merging with pictures(Intermediate)To reproduce the SmartArt effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt. In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click List. In the List pane, double-click Vertical Picture List (fifth row, first option from the left) to insert the graphic into the slide. To create a fourth shape in the graphic, select the third shape from the top, and then under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the CreateGraphic group, click the arrow next to AddShape, and then click AddShapeBefore. Repeat this process to create a fifth shape.Select the graphic. Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, click Size, and then do the following:In the Height box, enter 6.38”.In the Width box, enter 7.91”.Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, in the Arrange group, click Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center. Select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, click each of the second-level bullets and then press DELETE until there are only three first-level bullets remaining (one for each shape). Enter text for each shape into the first-level bullets.On the slide, select the graphic. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select 14 from the Font Size list.Under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the SmartArtStyles group, click More, and then under Best Match for Document click Moderate Effect (fourth option from the left). On the Design tab (the regular Design tab, not that under the SmartArt Tools contextual tab), in the Themes group, click Colors, and then click Civic. (Note: If this action is taken in a PowerPoint presentation containing more than one slide, the theme colors will be applied to all of the slides.) Under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the SmartArtStyles group, click Change Colors, and then under Colorful click Colorful Range – Accent Colors 3 to 4 (third option from the left). Click each of the five picture placeholders in the graphic, and then in the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and click Insert.Press and hold CTRL, and then select all five of the pictures on the slide. Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and then under Rectangles click RoundDiagonalCornerRectangle (ninth option from the left).Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click Shape Effects, point to Glow, and then do the following:Under Glow Variations, select 5 pt glow, Accent color 1, (first row, first option from the left).Point to More Glow Colors, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Press and hold CTRL, and then select all of the larger rounded rectangles. Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and then under Rectangles click RoundDiagonalCornerRectangle (ninth option from the left). To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animations group, click Animation Pane.On the slide, select the graphic. On the Animations tab, in the Animation group, click the More arrow at the Effects Gallery, and under Entrance, click Fade.In the Timing group, in the Duration list, enter 01.00.In the Advanced Animations group, click Add Animation, and under Motion Paths, click Lines, then do the following:In the Animation group, click Effect Options and then click Right.In the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Also in the Timing group, in the Duration list, select 01.00. On the slide, right-click the right motion path and then click ReversePathDirection.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the two animation effects in the Animation Pane. In the Animation group, click Effect Options and under Sequence, select One by One.Also in the Animation Pane, click the double arrows under each effect to expand the list of effects. Select the first animation effect (fade effect for the first rectangle). On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Also in the Animation Pane, select the 11th animation effect (motion path for the first picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT to constrain the path to a straight horizontal line, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow). Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 11th effect until it is second in the list of effects. Drag the 12th effect (motion path for the first large rectangle) until it is fourth in the list of effects. Also in the Animation Pane, select the 13th animation effect (motion path for the second picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the green arrow for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 13th animation effect until it is sixth in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 14th animation effect (motion path for the second large rectangle) until it is eighth in the list of effects. In the Animation Pane, select the 15th animation effect (motion path for the third picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 15th animation effect until it is 10th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 16th animation effect (motion path for the third large rectangle) until it is 12th in the list of effects. Select the 17th animation effect (motion path for the fourth picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 17th animation effect until it is 14th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 18th animation effect (motion path for the fourth large rectangle) until it is 16th in the list of effects.Select the 19th animation effect (motion path for the fifth picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path.Also in the Animation Pane, drag the 19th animation effect until it is 18th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Top Left Corner (fifth option from the left) in the drop-down list.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider, then customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left).
  • Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger.
  • Animated vertical list merging with pictures(Intermediate)To reproduce the SmartArt effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt. In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click List. In the List pane, double-click Vertical Picture List (fifth row, first option from the left) to insert the graphic into the slide. To create a fourth shape in the graphic, select the third shape from the top, and then under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the CreateGraphic group, click the arrow next to AddShape, and then click AddShapeBefore. Repeat this process to create a fifth shape.Select the graphic. Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, click Size, and then do the following:In the Height box, enter 6.38”.In the Width box, enter 7.91”.Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, in the Arrange group, click Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center. Select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, click each of the second-level bullets and then press DELETE until there are only three first-level bullets remaining (one for each shape). Enter text for each shape into the first-level bullets.On the slide, select the graphic. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select 14 from the Font Size list.Under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the SmartArtStyles group, click More, and then under Best Match for Document click Moderate Effect (fourth option from the left). On the Design tab (the regular Design tab, not that under the SmartArt Tools contextual tab), in the Themes group, click Colors, and then click Civic. (Note: If this action is taken in a PowerPoint presentation containing more than one slide, the theme colors will be applied to all of the slides.) Under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the SmartArtStyles group, click Change Colors, and then under Colorful click Colorful Range – Accent Colors 3 to 4 (third option from the left). Click each of the five picture placeholders in the graphic, and then in the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and click Insert.Press and hold CTRL, and then select all five of the pictures on the slide. Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and then under Rectangles click RoundDiagonalCornerRectangle (ninth option from the left).Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click Shape Effects, point to Glow, and then do the following:Under Glow Variations, select 5 pt glow, Accent color 1, (first row, first option from the left).Point to More Glow Colors, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Press and hold CTRL, and then select all of the larger rounded rectangles. Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and then under Rectangles click RoundDiagonalCornerRectangle (ninth option from the left). To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animations group, click Animation Pane.On the slide, select the graphic. On the Animations tab, in the Animation group, click the More arrow at the Effects Gallery, and under Entrance, click Fade.In the Timing group, in the Duration list, enter 01.00.In the Advanced Animations group, click Add Animation, and under Motion Paths, click Lines, then do the following:In the Animation group, click Effect Options and then click Right.In the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Also in the Timing group, in the Duration list, select 01.00. On the slide, right-click the right motion path and then click ReversePathDirection.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the two animation effects in the Animation Pane. In the Animation group, click Effect Options and under Sequence, select One by One.Also in the Animation Pane, click the double arrows under each effect to expand the list of effects. Select the first animation effect (fade effect for the first rectangle). On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Also in the Animation Pane, select the 11th animation effect (motion path for the first picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT to constrain the path to a straight horizontal line, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow). Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 11th effect until it is second in the list of effects. Drag the 12th effect (motion path for the first large rectangle) until it is fourth in the list of effects. Also in the Animation Pane, select the 13th animation effect (motion path for the second picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the green arrow for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 13th animation effect until it is sixth in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 14th animation effect (motion path for the second large rectangle) until it is eighth in the list of effects. In the Animation Pane, select the 15th animation effect (motion path for the third picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 15th animation effect until it is 10th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 16th animation effect (motion path for the third large rectangle) until it is 12th in the list of effects. Select the 17th animation effect (motion path for the fourth picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 17th animation effect until it is 14th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 18th animation effect (motion path for the fourth large rectangle) until it is 16th in the list of effects.Select the 19th animation effect (motion path for the fifth picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path.Also in the Animation Pane, drag the 19th animation effect until it is 18th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Top Left Corner (fifth option from the left) in the drop-down list.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider, then customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left).
  • GIVE DEFINITION
  • E.g. looking up a phone number and dialing it
  • Example two activities sometimes come into conflict such as driving a car and talking. Rather than hitting a cyclist who is wobbling (shake) all over the road, it is preferable to stop talking and concentrate on driving.
  • Animated vertical list merging with pictures(Intermediate)To reproduce the SmartArt effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt. In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click List. In the List pane, double-click Vertical Picture List (fifth row, first option from the left) to insert the graphic into the slide. To create a fourth shape in the graphic, select the third shape from the top, and then under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the CreateGraphic group, click the arrow next to AddShape, and then click AddShapeBefore. Repeat this process to create a fifth shape.Select the graphic. Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, click Size, and then do the following:In the Height box, enter 6.38”.In the Width box, enter 7.91”.Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, in the Arrange group, click Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center. Select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, click each of the second-level bullets and then press DELETE until there are only three first-level bullets remaining (one for each shape). Enter text for each shape into the first-level bullets.On the slide, select the graphic. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select 14 from the Font Size list.Under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the SmartArtStyles group, click More, and then under Best Match for Document click Moderate Effect (fourth option from the left). On the Design tab (the regular Design tab, not that under the SmartArt Tools contextual tab), in the Themes group, click Colors, and then click Civic. (Note: If this action is taken in a PowerPoint presentation containing more than one slide, the theme colors will be applied to all of the slides.) Under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the SmartArtStyles group, click Change Colors, and then under Colorful click Colorful Range – Accent Colors 3 to 4 (third option from the left). Click each of the five picture placeholders in the graphic, and then in the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and click Insert.Press and hold CTRL, and then select all five of the pictures on the slide. Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and then under Rectangles click RoundDiagonalCornerRectangle (ninth option from the left).Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click Shape Effects, point to Glow, and then do the following:Under Glow Variations, select 5 pt glow, Accent color 1, (first row, first option from the left).Point to More Glow Colors, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Press and hold CTRL, and then select all of the larger rounded rectangles. Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and then under Rectangles click RoundDiagonalCornerRectangle (ninth option from the left). To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animations group, click Animation Pane.On the slide, select the graphic. On the Animations tab, in the Animation group, click the More arrow at the Effects Gallery, and under Entrance, click Fade.In the Timing group, in the Duration list, enter 01.00.In the Advanced Animations group, click Add Animation, and under Motion Paths, click Lines, then do the following:In the Animation group, click Effect Options and then click Right.In the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Also in the Timing group, in the Duration list, select 01.00. On the slide, right-click the right motion path and then click ReversePathDirection.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the two animation effects in the Animation Pane. In the Animation group, click Effect Options and under Sequence, select One by One.Also in the Animation Pane, click the double arrows under each effect to expand the list of effects. Select the first animation effect (fade effect for the first rectangle). On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Also in the Animation Pane, select the 11th animation effect (motion path for the first picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT to constrain the path to a straight horizontal line, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow). Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 11th effect until it is second in the list of effects. Drag the 12th effect (motion path for the first large rectangle) until it is fourth in the list of effects. Also in the Animation Pane, select the 13th animation effect (motion path for the second picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the green arrow for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 13th animation effect until it is sixth in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 14th animation effect (motion path for the second large rectangle) until it is eighth in the list of effects. In the Animation Pane, select the 15th animation effect (motion path for the third picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 15th animation effect until it is 10th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 16th animation effect (motion path for the third large rectangle) until it is 12th in the list of effects. Select the 17th animation effect (motion path for the fourth picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path. Also in the Animation Pane, do the following:Drag the 17th animation effect until it is 14th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.Drag the 18th animation effect (motion path for the fourth large rectangle) until it is 16th in the list of effects.Select the 19th animation effect (motion path for the fifth picture). On the slide, point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point to the left of the endpoint (red arrow), into the same position as the starting point for the first picture motion path.Also in the Animation Pane, drag the 19th animation effect until it is 18th in the list of effects. On the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Top Left Corner (fifth option from the left) in the drop-down list.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider, then customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left).
  • OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.
  • OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.
  • OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.
  • OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.
  • Information is passed from sensory memory into short-term memory by attention, thereby filtering the stimuli to only those which are of interest at a given time. Information is passed from the sensory memory into short-term memory via the process of attention (the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things), which effectively filters the stimuli to only those which are of interest at any given time.the shortest-term element of memory.
  • The stimuli detected by our senses are eitherignored, in which case they disappear immediately, orperceived, in which case they enter our sensory memory. This does not require any conscious attention and, indeed, is usually considered to be totally outside of conscious control. The brain is designed to only process information that will be useful at a later date, and to allow the rest to pass by unnoted. As information is perceived, it is therefore stored in sensory memory automatically and unbidden. Unlike other types of memory, the sensory memory cannot be prolonged via rehearsal.
  • Iconic M : a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photograph like quality lasting only about a second. echoic memory for auditory stimuli. Echoic m If you are not paying attention to someone, you can still recall the last few words said in the past three or four seconds.Reduces attention, still can recall the last few words said in the past 3-4 sec.
  • Iconic M : a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photograph like quality lasting only about a second.
  • For example, the ability to look at something and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation is an example of sensory memory.
  • Flash v quickly
  • For example, the ability to look at something and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation is an example of sensory memory.
  • Famous experiment conducted by George Sperling (1960s) using kayo scope device that flash information (letters) on screen in 1/20th of second suggest that the upper limit of sensory memory (as distinct from short-term memory) is approximately 12 items, although participants often reported that they seemed to "see" more than they could actually report.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcPx9bi9d0c
  • echoic memory for auditory stimuli. Echoic m If you are not paying attention to someone, you can still recall the last few words said in the past three or four seconds.
  • WHEN YOU ASK SOMEONE AND YOU WANT TO KNOW WER HE IS PAYING ATTENTION TO YOU ASK HIM WHAT WAS THE FIRST THING YOU SAID
  • closely linked to memory than the other senses because the olfactory bulb & olfactory cortex are very close - separated by just 2 or 3 synapses - to the hippocampus and amygdala (which are involved in memory processes). Therefore smells are more quickly & strongly associated with memories and their associated emotions than the other senses. and memories of a smell may persist for longer time even without constant re-consolidation.
  • ARE YOU READY???APPLICATION
  • ONE OF THE METHOD IS CHUNKING
  • WORKING APPLICATIONS
  • OBJECTIVE 13| Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the main brain structure associated with each.Explicit Memoryrefers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.
  • Explicit (Declarative)Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or informationMemories of facts, rules, concepts, and events; includes semantic and episodic memory.“Knowing that”Implicit (non decelerativeUnconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.In relearning,the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.In relearning,the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.In relearning,the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.In relearning,the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.
  • OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the effects of internal states on retrieval.
  • OBJECTIVE 18| Explain why we should value our ability to forget, and distinguish three general ways our memory fails us.
  • While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent.
  • Misinformation and Imagination Effects

Memory secrets1 Memory secrets1 Presentation Transcript

  • Memory
  • F OLDER
  • Workshop ScheduleNo. Date Time Activity Method Venue1 14/4/12 1:00-1:15 Opening and Plenary Debriefing expectations room2 14/4/12 1:15-1:45 What is memory? Interactive lecture Debriefing room3 14/4/12 1:45-3:00 Memory Journey Interactive lecture Debriefing Memory games room4 14/4/12 3:00-3:25 Break4 14/4/12 3:25-4 Cognitive load theory Interactive lecture Debriefing room5 14/4/12 4:00-4:30 Memory Secrets Small group Debriefing discussion room implications6 14/4/12 4:30-5:00 Closing, feedback & Plenary Debriefing room workshop evaluation The Ministry of Health
  • Workshop Structure• Interactive presentations• Large group discussions• Small group discussion
  • Workshop ObjectivesAt the end of this work shop, you will be able to:• Define memory, and appreciate its important role in life• Compare different types of memory in various levels• Describe the stages of memory formation and how each one relates to forgetting• Apply the memory improvement techniques effectively• Integrate your knowledge about memory into your life
  • Our Real GoalFor each of you to• Affirm the value of memory in our life• Commit to becoming a skillful learner• Integrate memory devices into your work
  • Introduction to peers Individual Expectations
  • PRETEST
  • Introduction
  • Why “Today”?
  • Recognize ourFamily
  • Recognize ourFriends
  • Speak ourLanguage
  • Enable usReading
  • Find ourWay home
  • Learn ourCareer
  • EnjoyAn experience
  • Enjoy it
  • trip
  • Enjoy it
  • Again
  • MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY MEMORYMEMORY MEMORY
  • Stranger
  • knowledgebehaviors M emory skills values
  • IntroductionWhat is memory?
  • The Memory Memory is any indication thatlearning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. 28
  • Hippocampus Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory. Left = Verbal Right = Visual and Locations The hippocampus is the like the librarian for the library which is our brain.
  • Modified Model -Baddeley (2002)
  • The Three-Box Model of Memory Memory’s Scratch Pad
  • Short term memory/immediate memory• Temporary, brief storage of information up to 30 sec if no rehearsal• Has a limited capacity• Involved in conscious processing of information• Used to hold information retrieved from LTM for temporary use.• E.g.
  • Atkinson’s and Shiffrin’s (1968) Baddeley and Hitchmulti store model 1974• STM holds limited • The picture of STM amounts of information provided by the for short periods of time Multi-Store Model is with relatively little far too simple. processing. • Working Memory is• It is a unitary system. not a unitary store.• This means it is a single system (or store) without any subsystems.
  • IntroductionWhat is memory?Memory journey
  • Memory Journey ForgettingEncoding Storage Retrieval
  • Encoding Getting information in
  • Automatic processing and effortful
  • Encoding How We Encode Some information is automatically processed New or unusual information requires attention and effort
  • Space
  • Time
  • Frequency
  • Time Space FrequencyAutomatic processing
  • Encoding How We Encode
  • Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition
  • Rehearsal Nonsense syllables TUV YOF GEK XOZ
  • Rehearsal
  • Rehearsal “Those who learn quickly also forget quickly”
  • Spacing effect
  • Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once
  • More than 300 experiments over the lastcentury consistently reveal the benefits ofspacing learning times (Cepeda et al., 2006).
  • Day later- 10 days Month later – 6 monthsWhen the review? David Myers;2010
  • In a 9-year experiment, Harry Bahrick and three of his familymembers (1993) practiced foreign language word translations fa given number of times, at Intervals ranging from 14 to 56 dayTheir consistent finding: The longer the space between practicsessions, the better their retention up to 5 years later. When the review? David Myers;2010
  • Massed practice (cramming) Spaced study
  • The serial position effectExperimenters have demonstrated the serial position effect by showingpeople a list of items towards, names, dates, even odors) and thenimmediately asking them to recall the items in any order (Reed, 2000)
  • ACTIVITY
  • Serial Position Effect Better recall Poor recall Better recall
  • Encoding Processing Craik and Lockhart (1972)
  • Encoding How We Encode
  • EncodingRemember this: Washing closeThe procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange thingsinto different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficientdepending on how much there Is to do. ... After the procedure iscompleted one arranges the materials Into different groups again.Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually theywill be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to berepeated. However, that is part of life.
  • Semantic processingCompared with learning nonsense material, learning meaningful materialrequired one-tenth the effort.
  • Semantic processing“The time you spend thinking about material you are reading andrelating it to previously stored material is about the most usefulthing you can do In learning any new subject matter” Wayne Wickelgren;1977
  • LearningPrior knowledge
  • We have especially good recall for Informationwe can meaningfully relate to ourselves
  • LearningRelevance
  • Which three of these will you most likelyrecall?Typewriter, label, cigarette. inherent, fire,process Two codes are better than one
  • Encoding Any learning technique that aids memory Mnemonics
  • Mnemonics1.Method of Loci2.Link Method3.Chunking4.Hierarchy
  • 1- Method of Loci Car Parking Paper Desk Glass Mouse Happy Workshop Brain Blue Notes
  • 2.Link MethodList of ItemsNewspaperTooth pastePenUmbrellaLamp Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together
  • 2-Link Method • Dog • Shoe • Farm • Chair • Bird • Pipe • Bath tub • Bike • Archimedes • Frog • Flower • School • Freedom
  • 2-Link Method • Dog Bike • Shoe Fire • Farm Frog • Chair Flower • Bird School • Pipe Freedom • Bath tub Archimedes
  • 2-Link Method • Dog • Shoe • Farm • Chair • Bird • Pipe • Bath tub
  • Encoding Organization
  • Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. 1.Chunking 2.Hierarchy
  • 1.ChunkingOrganizing items into a familiar, manageable unit.
  • 1.ChunkingMemorizeit ?
  • 2-Hierarchy
  • Mind maps
  • Memory JourneyEncoding Storage
  • EncodingStorage Retaining information
  • Review the three stage process of Memory
  • 1- Sensory memory• The ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended.• It represents an essential step for storing information in The short term memory.
  • Sensory memory• Act as buffers for stimuli received through the five senses, which are retained accurately, but very briefly. Attention Information SM STM
  • • The stimuli (information) detected by our senses are either – Ignored Disappear – Perceived Automatically enter our sensory memory• This does not require any conscious attention.• Unlike other types of memory, the SM cannot be prolonged via rehearsal.
  • TypesEncodingStorage Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Heptic < 1 sec. long
  • Iconic
  • Fleeting Impressions Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
  • Example Look
  • G K B LM V X PR W Z C
  • Write dawn as many letter as you have seen
  • • Famous experiment conducted by George Sperling (1960s) using kayo scope device that flash information (letters) on screen in 1/20th of second• suggest that the upper limit of sensory memory is approximately 12 items, although participants often reported that they seemed to "see" more than they could actually report.
  • Echoicmemory
  • If you are not paying attention tosomeone, you can still recall the lastfew words said in the past three orfour seconds. Echoic memory
  • How about ? Smell closely linked to memory than the other senses because the olfactory bulb & olfactory cortex are very closeseparated by just 2 or 3 synapses – to the hippocampus& amygdala (which are involved in memory processes).Smells are more quickly & strongly associatedwith memories & their associated emotions than the other senses. Memories of a smell may persist for longertime even without constant re-consolidation.
  • EncodingStorage Sensory STM/Worki Feature LTM Memory ng Memory Encoding Copy Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7±2 Chunks Very Large Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years
  • EncodingStorage Sensory STM/Worki Feature LTM Memory ng Memory Source of From senses SM + LTM Encode STM information + stored LTM No Rehearsal Semantic Maintenance network linkage
  • Working memory The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two George Miller;1956
  • Working memory Ready? MUTGIKTLRSYP You should be able to recall 7±2 letters.
  • Working memory How to increase the capacity ?
  • Working memory Chunking
  • ChunkingF-B-I-N-B-A-C-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI NBA CIA IBM 4 chunks
  • EncodingStorage Short Sensory term/ Long memory Working term memory
  • EncodingStorage Unlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986).
  • Types of long-term memory Explicit (Declarative) Implicit (non decelerative)• Conscious recollection • Unconscious retention of an event or information • The effect of a previous• Memories of facts, rules, experience concepts, and events
  • Synaptic ChangesEncodingStorage Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.
  • Is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid snapshot of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard !!Flashbulb memory
  • Memory JourneyEncoding Storage Retrieval
  • EncodingStorageRetrieval Getting Information Out
  • RecognitionEncoding In recognition, the person must identifyStorage an item amongst other choices. (ARetrieval multiple-choice test requires recognition.) Name the capital of Saudi Arabia a. Rome b. Riyadh c. London d. Paris
  • RecallEncodingStorage In recall, the person must retrieveRetrieval information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) The capital of Saudi Arabia is ______.
  • RelearningEncodingStorage List List Jet JetRetrieval Dagger Dagger Tree Tree 1 day later Kite Kite … … Silk Silk Frog Frog Ring Ring It took 10 trials It took 5 trials to learn this list to learn the list 50% saving
  • Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web ofassociations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory.
  • Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.If a person reads a list of words including theword table, and is later asked to complete a wordstarting with tab, the probability that he or she willanswer table is greater than if not so primed.
  • Context EffectsEncodingStorageRetrieval Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975).
  • Context EffectsEncodingStorageRetrieval
  • LearningSame context
  • Moods and MemoriesEncodingStorageRetrieval We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues.
  • Mood congruent
  • Why our moods persist? Our moodseffect on retrieval memory. When happy, we recall happy When depressed, we recall events and therefore see the sad events, which darkens world as a happy place, our interpretation of current which helps prolong our events good mood
  • Memory Journey ForgettingEncoding Storage Retrieval
  • Poor encodingStorage decayRetrieval failure
  • ForgettingRetrieval failure
  • ForgettingEncoding failure
  • ForgettingStorage decay
  • ForgettingRetrieval failure Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT)
  • Forgetting InterferenceLearning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information.
  • Old learning New learning Proactive interferenceOld learning New learning Retroactive interference
  • Proactive interferenceOld learning New learning
  • Retroactive interferenceOld learning New learning
  • Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories. Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
  • Memory Construction Coherent Misinformation Effect: Incorporatingmisleading information into ones memory of an event
  • Memory Construction Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
  • Memory Construction Misinformation and Imagination Effects
  • Memory Secrets?
  • References andrecommended readings Myers DG. Psychology. Ninth ed. Worth Publishers; 2009. Brain Games & Brain Training - Lumosity [Internet]. [cited 2012 Jun 1]. Available from: http://www.lumosity.com/ Van Merriënboer JJG, Sweller J. Cognitive load theory in health professional education: design principles and strategies. Med Educ. 2010 Jan;44(1):85–93. Kirschner PA. Cognitive Load Theory: Implications of Cognitive Load Theory on the Design of Learning. Learning and Instruction. 2002;12(1):1–10.