Dairy Reproduction:
Identifying Problems and Solutions for Your Herd
Nutrition Transition
Management
Abortive
Diseases
Env...
Goals, Key Performance
Indicators, and Benchmarking
• Goals are target levels of performance toward
which managers are str...
Key Performance Indicators - Cows
• Weekly hard count of new pregnant cows ‒ this
should be between 8 and 10 percent of th...
Key Performance Indicators
• Butterfat percent for the first 30 DIM – greater
than 5.0 in Holsteins correlates with cows
m...
Benchmarks:
Size, region, level of production
drms.org
DairyMetrics
Reproductive Performance
Pregnancy Rate
Conception
Rate
Submission
Rate
Voluntary
Waiting
Period
Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
21 day Pregnancy Rate by Date
21day Pregnancy Rate by DIM
Preg Rate Report Options – PCDART and DairyComp
Conception
Rates
Cow Labor Nutrition Environment Semen
Major Areas Affecting Reproductive Performance
Areas Pertaining to the Cow
Conception
Rates
Cow
Transition
Incidence of
Metabolic
Diseases
Incidence of
Metritis
Body
Con...
Transition Program
• Body Condition Score
• Dry Cow (Far-off and close-up)
• Fresh Cows 3.25 – 3.75
• Comfort Level
• Stoc...
Transition Cow Index™
• Bunk space – both pre-fresh and fresh cow
pens (30 inches per animal)
• Minimize pen moves (10 day...
Labor
A.I.
Techniques
Semen
Handling
Semen
Placement
Synchronization
compliance
Heat
Detection
Visual Observation
Standing...
Systems for Breeding
Visual Observation
Walk and Chalk
Timed A.I.
Activity System
Natural Service
A.I. Technique
• Area of Semen Handling
• Thaw Temperature and Time
• 95°F for minimum of 45 seconds
• Equipment Cleanline...
Conception Rate by
Conception Rate by
Conception Rate by Tech
Conception Rate: A.I. tech by code
Conception Rate: Interval Analysis
Conception Rate: times bred
Conception Rate: times bred by code
Timed A.I. Program
• Review protocol and timing of hormone injections
• Review hormone storage and equipment (19
gauge - 1...
Estimated results for different first service TAI
programs in lactating dairy cows
Source: Victor Cabrera and Julio Giorda...
Environment
Facilities Time
Budget
Cow
Comfort
Areas Pertaining to Environment
Conception Rate by Month
Typical Time Budget
www.msu.edu/~mdr/vol15no3/cowtime.html Kathy Lee
Activity
Time devoted daily to
activity
Eating
3 to 5...
Stocking Density
What is ideal stocking density???
Cow Comfort
• Stocking Rate
– headlocks/bunk space/stalls
• Stall Size/Cow Size
• Lunge Space
• Bedding
• Footing
• Foot C...
Cow Comfort Index
Stall Standing Index
Semen
Sex Semen
versus
Conventional
Sire
Conception
Rate
Areas Pertaining to Semen
Holstein Active Proven Sires:
Sire Conception Rate
Stud +0.0 or > +1.0 or > +2.0 or > +3.0 or >
Select Sires 58 42 23 6
Ge...
Conception Rate Heifers: times bred by stud
Areas Pertaining to Nutrition
Nutrition
Transition Rumen Health
Acidosis Ketosis
Ration
Particle length
Mixing &
Delivery
...
Common Symptoms of Acidosis
• Low milk fat test; < 3.0
• Sore hooves; laminitis
• Cycling feed intake
• Diarrhea
• Liver a...
Common Symptoms of Ketosis
• Ketosis usually occurs within a few days to a few
weeks after calving.
• Characterized by low...
Guidelines for Particle Size
Manure Evaluation
• When used in context with the
other things we evaluate, it
can give you an idea of how
well the rumen ...
Mycotoxins
• It appears that at least six kinds of mycotoxins
can affect dairy herds fertility:
aflatoxin, zearalenone, de...
Major Areas Affecting
Reproductive Performance
Nutrition Transition
Management
Abortive
Diseases
Environment
Cow
Semen
Peo...
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Dairy Reproduction: Identifying Problems and Solutions for Your Herd

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Ray Nebel of Select Sires, Inc. presented this information for DAIReXNET on March 17, 2014. A recording of the full presentation can be found at http://www.extension.org/pages/15830/archived-dairy-cattle-webinars#.Uyigy86nbZU,

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Dairy Reproduction: Identifying Problems and Solutions for Your Herd

  1. 1. Dairy Reproduction: Identifying Problems and Solutions for Your Herd Nutrition Transition Management Abortive Diseases Environment Cow Semen Ray Nebel, PhD Select Sires, Inc. Cow Comfort People & Processes
  2. 2. Goals, Key Performance Indicators, and Benchmarking • Goals are target levels of performance toward which managers are striving. • Benchmarks are standards by which performance can be measured or compared, and are not synonymous with goals. • Herds that represent specific categories (herd size, production level or geographic location for example). • A key performance indicator (KPI) is a metric that a dairy may use to gauge performance and whether future performance will be a success or failure.
  3. 3. Key Performance Indicators - Cows • Weekly hard count of new pregnant cows ‒ this should be between 8 and 10 percent of the number of milking cows and is dependent on replacement rate • Palpation pregnancy rate – best method to measure heat detection rate and is dependent of interval from breeding to examination. • Cows ≥60% • Heifers ≥80% • Number of cows leaving the herd within the first 60 days in milk – this measures involuntary culling, death and is an excellent indicator of the success or failure of the transition program • 4 to 5% at 30 DIM and 6 to 8% by 60 DIM
  4. 4. Key Performance Indicators • Butterfat percent for the first 30 DIM – greater than 5.0 in Holsteins correlates with cows metabolizing body fat and is an additional indication of the transition program • Week four milk weights – by reviewing the trend of weekly milk weight averages, a four-week comparison can be made between different divisions of time. This is another measure to evaluate the transition program.
  5. 5. Benchmarks: Size, region, level of production drms.org DairyMetrics
  6. 6. Reproductive Performance Pregnancy Rate Conception Rate Submission Rate Voluntary Waiting Period
  7. 7. Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
  8. 8. Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
  9. 9. Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
  10. 10. Verify the Voluntary Waiting Period
  11. 11. 21 day Pregnancy Rate by Date
  12. 12. 21day Pregnancy Rate by DIM
  13. 13. Preg Rate Report Options – PCDART and DairyComp
  14. 14. Conception Rates Cow Labor Nutrition Environment Semen Major Areas Affecting Reproductive Performance
  15. 15. Areas Pertaining to the Cow Conception Rates Cow Transition Incidence of Metabolic Diseases Incidence of Metritis Body Condition ~3.25 @ Calving <1 BCS lost calving-1st service Locomotion Surface Trim frequency Cyclicity Disease Vaccination Program Mastitis Early Embryonic Loss Labor Nutrition Environment Semen
  16. 16. Transition Program • Body Condition Score • Dry Cow (Far-off and close-up) • Fresh Cows 3.25 – 3.75 • Comfort Level • Stocking Rate – 80% • Heat Abatement • Post-Partum Disease • Metritis - <10% • RP - <5% • Ketosis - <5% • DA - <5%
  17. 17. Transition Cow Index™ • Bunk space – both pre-fresh and fresh cow pens (30 inches per animal) • Minimize pen moves (10 days prior to calving) • Stall size • Sand bedding • Identify cows needing medical attention
  18. 18. Labor A.I. Techniques Semen Handling Semen Placement Synchronization compliance Heat Detection Visual Observation Standing & 2ndary Signs Reading Chalk/Paint Motivation Time Budget Adequate time or labor Areas Pertaining to Labor
  19. 19. Systems for Breeding Visual Observation Walk and Chalk Timed A.I. Activity System Natural Service
  20. 20. A.I. Technique • Area of Semen Handling • Thaw Temperature and Time • 95°F for minimum of 45 seconds • Equipment Cleanliness • Semen Handling (Thaw to Cows) • Maintain 95°F semen temperature • Semen Placement • ¼ inch past the cervix in uterine body
  21. 21. Conception Rate by
  22. 22. Conception Rate by
  23. 23. Conception Rate by Tech
  24. 24. Conception Rate: A.I. tech by code
  25. 25. Conception Rate: Interval Analysis
  26. 26. Conception Rate: times bred
  27. 27. Conception Rate: times bred by code
  28. 28. Timed A.I. Program • Review protocol and timing of hormone injections • Review hormone storage and equipment (19 gauge - 1½” needle) • When or IF needle is changed • Review compliance
  29. 29. Estimated results for different first service TAI programs in lactating dairy cows Source: Victor Cabrera and Julio Giordano. 2013. UW-Dairy Repro$ Plus: A Reproductive Economic Analysis Tool Synchronization Program VWP (days) Mean (Range) Presynch-Ovsynch-14 70-85 37 (32-42) Presynch-Ovsynch-10, 11 or 12 70-85 43 (37-47) Double-Ovsynch 70-85 47 (40-50) G-6-G 70-85 45 (37-47) Ovsynch 60-75 33 (30-37) Cosynch-72 60-75 26 (25-33) Presynch-Ovsynch-14 w/CIDR® 70-85 40 (35-45) Presynch-Ovsynch- 10, 11 or 12 w/CIDR 70-85 47 (40-50) Double-Ovsynch w/CIDR 70-85 50 (43-53) Ovsynch w/CIDR 60-75 36 (33-40) Conception Rate (%)
  30. 30. Environment Facilities Time Budget Cow Comfort Areas Pertaining to Environment
  31. 31. Conception Rate by Month
  32. 32. Typical Time Budget www.msu.edu/~mdr/vol15no3/cowtime.html Kathy Lee Activity Time devoted daily to activity Eating 3 to 5 hours (9 to 14 meals per day) Lying down (resting) 12 to 14 hours Standing walking in alley 2 to 3 hours Drinking 30 minutes
  33. 33. Stocking Density What is ideal stocking density???
  34. 34. Cow Comfort • Stocking Rate – headlocks/bunk space/stalls • Stall Size/Cow Size • Lunge Space • Bedding • Footing • Foot Care (trimming and foot baths) • Heat Abatement – Stalls & Holding Pen • Mastitis • % Resting • Cud Chewing
  35. 35. Cow Comfort Index
  36. 36. Stall Standing Index
  37. 37. Semen Sex Semen versus Conventional Sire Conception Rate Areas Pertaining to Semen
  38. 38. Holstein Active Proven Sires: Sire Conception Rate Stud +0.0 or > +1.0 or > +2.0 or > +3.0 or > Select Sires 58 42 23 6 Genex 26 20 15 3 Accelerated 28 21 14 6 Semex 26 17 7 1 Alta NA NA NA NA ABS NA NA NA NA Source: December 2013 NAAB Active Proven Sire List
  39. 39. Conception Rate Heifers: times bred by stud
  40. 40. Areas Pertaining to Nutrition Nutrition Transition Rumen Health Acidosis Ketosis Ration Particle length Mixing & Delivery Manure Evaluation Water Mycotoxins DON alfatoxin
  41. 41. Common Symptoms of Acidosis • Low milk fat test; < 3.0 • Sore hooves; laminitis • Cycling feed intake • Diarrhea • Liver abscesses • Low rumen pH (< 5.8) in 30 to 50% of animals tested • Limited cud chewing
  42. 42. Common Symptoms of Ketosis • Ketosis usually occurs within a few days to a few weeks after calving. • Characterized by low blood glucose, excess ketone bodies in blood and urine, lack of appetite, either lethargy or excitability, weight loss, depressed milk production. • Any factor resulting in a reduction of dry matter intake (DMI) increases the risk for ketosis. • Elevated BCS at calving (BCS ≥ 4.0)
  43. 43. Guidelines for Particle Size
  44. 44. Manure Evaluation • When used in context with the other things we evaluate, it can give you an idea of how well the rumen is functioning and where and how well feeds are being digested. • There is a sound, biological basis for why manure looks the way it does. • Color – Consistency - Content
  45. 45. Mycotoxins • It appears that at least six kinds of mycotoxins can affect dairy herds fertility: aflatoxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, ergotamin e, ocratoxin and toxin T2. • Controlling mycotoxins presence is therefore extremely important and may be a relevant cause of infertility in lactating dairy cows.
  46. 46. Major Areas Affecting Reproductive Performance Nutrition Transition Management Abortive Diseases Environment Cow Semen People & Processes Cow Comfort
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