Nutrition Programs for the Heat Stressed Herd- Jose Santos
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Nutrition Programs for the Heat Stressed Herd- Jose Santos

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Dr. Jose Santos presented this information for DAIReXNET on March 19th, 2012.

Dr. Jose Santos presented this information for DAIReXNET on March 19th, 2012.

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  • In addition to reductions in bicarb concentration in saliva, the ruminal contractions decrease as shown in these 3 studies. Florida study – DM intakes not reported.Missouri study – equal intakes b/c uneaten feed stuffed back into rumenMaryland study - alfalfa hay ad lib, grain at 1 lb/d; similar eating rates of 16 – 19 minutes/hourFewer contractions and remastication rates suggest less production of saliva when cows are hot.
  • Some products guarantee high numbers of live yeast cells and aresold as live yeast while other products are sold as yeast cultures containing both yeast cellsand the media on which they are grown.

Nutrition Programs for the Heat Stressed Herd- Jose Santos Nutrition Programs for the Heat Stressed Herd- Jose Santos Presentation Transcript

  • NUTRITION PROGRAMS FOR LACTATING DAIRY COWS UNDER HEAT STRESS J.E.P. Santos and C.R. Staples Department of Animal Sciences University of Florida
  • Heat-Stressed Dairy Cow• Spends less time lying down (9 to 10 h vs. 11 to 13 h)• Spends less time ruminating• Increases CO2 losses due to hyperventilation• Increases rumen retention time: greater fermentability of feeds• Has a deficit of HCO3-, Na, and K• Has reduced blood flow to the portal-drained viscera (PDV)• Has reduced nutrient uptake by the PDV• Has reduced blood flow to the mammary gland• Has increased energy requirements for maintenance (dissipate heat) LESS PRODUCTIVE
  • Consequences for Dairy Cattle – Reduced dry matter intake – Reduced yields of milk and milk components – Decreased fat and protein content in milk – Reduced growth rates – Decreased reproductive performance – Increased incidence of health disorders, particularly retained placenta, metritis, and lameness
  • The Better-Producing Cows Suffer the Most from Heat Stress n = 230 40.0 39.8 n = 170 39.6Body Temp, C 39.1 39.2 38.9 38.9 38.8 38.4 37 28 37 28 38.0 Milk Production, kg FCM Production, kg Missouri Israel
  • Controlled heat stress in AZ:- Temperature increased from 80 to104 ºF-Pair-fed cows under thermoneutralconditions keep nutrient intake similar- Duration of 9 days-Body temperature increased from 101to 104.5 ºF- Respiration rate increased from 40 to70 breaths/min
  • Heat stress intake by ~ 30% Heat stress yield ~45% Underfeeding yield by ~19%feed intake only accounted for 50% of the reduction in milk yield Rhoads et al. (2009) J. Dairy Sci. 92:1986-1997
  • Nutritional Management During Heat Stress• DMI• Feeding frequency and feed delivery• Fiber feeding• Energy sources• Protein feeding• Mineral manipulation
  • Water, the forgotten nutrient……
  • Cows Drink More Water When Experiencing Ruminal Acidosis• Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) was induced by replacing 25% of the TMR with a 50:50 mix of barley:wheat pellets fed twice daily.• Cows could choose to drink water containing – No sodium bicarbonate or – 2.5 g of sodium bicarbonate per liter of water Cottee et al., 2004, JDS 87:2248
  • Ruminal pH and Water Intake During the 3 Hours of Lowest Ruminal pH Control SARAMean ruminal pH 6.02 5.45*NaHCO3- water intake, % oftotal water intake 39 36Water intake, L 14.4 18.9* Cottee et al., 2004, JDS 87:2248
  • Drinking Water Reduces Ruminal Acidity (Cottee et al., 2004) 6.4 0.15 Before 6.19 After 6.2 0.24 6.04 Drinking BoutRuminal pH 6.0 5.91 5.8 5.67 5.6 5.4 Control SARA Cottee et al., 2004, JDS 87:2248
  • Feeding Frequency and Feed Delivery• Increasing feed frequency increases DMI – Fresh feed available – Stimulatory effect of feed delivery – Push up feed does not seem to have the same effect• Feed consumption during heat stress: – Greater after milkings – Greater during the cooler periods of the day ( early in the morning and during the night)
  • Frequency of Feed Delivery and Eating Behavior 100 Milking Milking 80 ── Delivery 1 x daily% of cows eating 60 ── Delivery 2 x daily 40 20 ── Delivery 2 x daily 0 04:00 07:00 10:00 13:00 16:00 19:00 22:00 100 01:00 04:00 ── Delivery 4 x daily Hour Milking Milking % of cows eating 80 60 40 20 0 04:00 07:00 10:00 13:00 16:00 19:00 22:00 01:00 04:00 DeVries et al (2005) J. Dairy Sci. 88: 3553-3562 Hour
  • Dietary Fiber• Cows under heat stress might require a more nutrient dense diet to compensate for the lower DM intake• Greater heat production associated with fiber feeding• Metabolic pathway to synthesize acetate produces CH4 (Loss of energy)• Efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization increases with low forage diets (Tyrrel et al., 1979)• At the same ME diet, high forage diets increases portal blood flow and O2 utilization by the PDV (Reynolds et al., 1991)
  • Fiber Level and Heat Stress (West et al, 1999) DMI, % BW DMI 5.00 24 4.75 23 22 4.50 21 4.25 % BWkg/d 20 4.00 19 3.75 18 3.50 17 16 3.25 15 3.00 30.2 33.8 37.7 42 30.2 33.8 37.7 42 Cool Hot Cool Hot
  • Fiber Level and Heat Stress (West et al, 1999) 3.5% FCM Milk 34 34 32 32 30 30 kg/d 28kg/d 28 26 26 24 24 22 22 20 20 30.2 33.8 37.7 42 30.2 33.8 37.7 42 Cool Hot Cool Hot
  • Effect of Heat Stress on Ruminal pH of Holstein Cows (JAS 30:1023) 6.8 6.5 Diet by Environment Interaction, P < 0.01 6.5 6.1 6.1 6.2Ruminal pH 5.9 5.5 C C 5.6 O H O O O O H 5.3 O L T L 5 T High Forage Diet High Concentrate Diet
  • Effect of Heat Stress on Ruminal Activity Environ. Rectal RuminalReference Temp, F Temp, F ContractionsFlorida Shade 38.7a 2.4/minaJDS 64:844 No shade 39.6b 1.7/minbMissouri 18 C 38.4a 2.2/minJAS 29:734 38 C 40.9b 1.7/min Remastication ratesMaryland 20 C 39.2a 90/minaJAS 17:326 35 C 40.3b 80/minb
  • Cows Under Heat Stress Are at Greater Risk for Rumen Acidosis
  • Month of Diagnosis of 1st Lameness Case August to November May to July December to April
  • Dietary Fat• Fat contains 2.5 to 3 x more calories than CHO• Fat is a source of non-fermentable energy• Fatty acids: DE content = ME content (no gas or urinary losses)• Fat may alleviate heat production during periods of thermal stress
  • Effect of Fat and Heat Stress on Performance of Dairy Cows Treatment Cool Hot P< Control HF Control HF Fat FxEDMI, kg/d 20.2 19.9 14.2 14.9 NS NSFCM, kg/d 32.3 35.0 26.1 27.9 0.05 NSMilk Fat, % 3.16 3.42 3.15 3.51 0.05 NS Protein, % 2.82 2.84 2.62 2.56 NS NSAdapted from Knapp and Grummer (1991)
  • Effect of Supplemental Fat on NEL Intake and Milk Yield During Moderate and Hot Weather 46 35 45 34 44 33 43 32 kg/dMcal/d 42 31 41 30 40 39 29 38 28 Moderate Heat Stress Moderate Heat Stress Control PFA Control PFA Huber et al. (1994) J. Dairy Sci.
  • Dietary Protein• Diets with a high CP content usually are detrimental to cows under heat stress• Protein degradability and quality affects performance of heat- stressed dairy cows• Balance diets for metabolizable protein and limiting essential amino acids that allows to reduce the total dietary CP – Corn/corn silage and alfalfa based diets – methionine and lysine – Grass silage/barley-oat based diets - histidine
  • Effect of Decreasing RDP on Milk Yield % RDP as a % Milk yield Location of CP increase Arizona 65% 60% 3.3 kg/d JDS 72:2554 Arizona 61% 47% 6.0 kg/d JDS 74:243 Greece 69% 61% 2.4 kg/d WRAP 30:21 Arizona 58% 58% 3.1 kg/d JDS 76:819 lysine
  • Mineral Nutrition• Heat stress: metabolic alkalosis due to hyperventilation• Blood pH increases, but total HCO3- drops• Ruminant sweat is high in K• Thermal stress reduces DM intake, milk yield and milk fat content• Altering the concentration of some macro minerals in the diet influences: – rumen metabolism – blood buffering – yields of milk and milk fat
  • Relationship Between DCAD and DM Intake in Lactating Dairy Cows (69 diets) Recommended DCAD: +30 to +40 mEq/ 100 g DM Hu and Murphy, 2004 JDS 87:2222
  • Relationship Between DCAD and Milk Yield in Lactating Dairy Cows (69 diets) Recommended DCAD: +30 to +40 mEq/100 g DM Hu and Murphy, 2004 JDS 87:2222
  • Yeasts and Fungal Cultures • Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae either as live yeast or yeast culture) and fungal cultures (Aspergillus oryzae) act as rumen microbial modifiers: – Stimulate fiber digestion – Reduce lactic acid accumulation in the rumen fluid – Typically improve efficiency of feed conversion into milk or 3.5% FCMhttp://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/upload/0/09/Saccharomyces_cerevisiae.jpg
  • Summary of Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed 3 g/day of Aspergillus oryzaeNumber of experiments 16 14 12 10 6 4 8 6 4 8 8 2 0 DM intake Milk yield Rectal temp No change Significant improvement Huber et al. (1994) J. Dairy Sci.
  • Effect of Feeding Yeast Culture (YC)1 on Lactating Dairy Cow Performance in Summer Site Diets DMI, kg/day Milk kg/day Efficiency CA, 2010 Cont 26.0 42.2a 1.62 YC 25.8 43.4b 1.68 GA, 2007 Cont 26.2 39.2a 1.50a YC 25.6 41.0b 1.60b SD, 2004 Cont 23.1 34.9 1.49a YC 22.1 35.3 1.59b IL, 2000 Cont 15.2 25.9 1.70 Jerseys YC 16.5 27.2 1.651Diamond V Mills ‘XP’ or Vi-Cor AMAX-Xtra a, b P ≤ 0.10
  • Effect of feeding increasing amounts of live yeast to cows under heat stress onrumen fluid composition Live yeast1, g/d P 0 0.5 1 LinearRumen pH 5.99 ± 0.11 6.03 ± 0.11 6.30 ± 0.11 0.04Rumen pH < 5.8, % (n/n) 45.0 (9/20) 36.8 (7/19) 10.5 (2/19) 0.02Lactate 4.9 ± 1.8 4.5 ± 1.8 1.3 ± 1.9 0.18Detectable lactate, % 70.0 (14/20) 57.9 (11/19) 57.9 (11/19) 0.58(n/n)Lactate > 1 mM, % (n/n) 35.0 (7/20) 21.1 (4/19) 5.3 (4/19) 0.04VFA, mM 123.4 ± 5.8 124.7 ± 5.9 125.3 ± 6.1 0.821 Levucell SC (Lallemand Animal Nutrition) Marsola et al. (2009) J. Dairy Sci.
  • Recommendations• Feed cows more frequently during periods of heat stress• Cows under heat stress should be fed the highest quality forage available - Minimizes the need for high-starch feeds• In my opinion, NDF should be increased from the traditional 28- 30 to 31-33% – When forage quality is a problem, then replace part of the starch with a highly digestible NDF source• Formulate diets with moderate concentration of CP – Review the metabolizable protein needs of the cows and formulate based on MP and essential amino acids. – Keep rumen-degradable protein at ~ 10% of the diet DM
  • Recommendations• Feed moderate to high (up to 5% of the diet DM) fat diets, but avoid excessive amounts of unsaturated fatty acids• Increase Na and K – Add 1 to 1.2% of the total ration as sodium bicarbonate to increase the total Na up to 0.4 to 0.5% – Increase the K content up to 1.6 to 1.8% with potassium carbonate – DCAD of the ration should be between 300 and 400 mEq/kg of DM• Dietary Mg should be at 0.35 to 0.4% in high K diets• Incorporate a live yeast or yeast culture to the ration – Improve production of fat-corrected milk – Improves feed efficiency – Reduces the risk of rumen acidosis
  • Got questions?This project was supported by Agriculture and Food Research Initiative CompetitiveGrant no. 2010-85122-20623 from the USDA National Institute of Food andAgriculture.