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Basic Vaccinology: Why Vaccines Work or Don't Work
 

Basic Vaccinology: Why Vaccines Work or Don't Work

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Dr. Dan Grooms presented this information for DAIReXNET on January 13th, 2014. For more information, please see our archived webinars page at ...

Dr. Dan Grooms presented this information for DAIReXNET on January 13th, 2014. For more information, please see our archived webinars page at www.extension.org/pages/15830/archived-dairy-cattle-webinars.

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    Basic Vaccinology: Why Vaccines Work or Don't Work Basic Vaccinology: Why Vaccines Work or Don't Work Presentation Transcript

    • Basic Vaccinology: Why Vaccines Work or Don't Work Dr. Dan Grooms, Michigan State University . 1
    • Objectives Lets think beyond just giving “shots”       What are Vaccines Types of Vaccines Vaccine Failure Vaccine Handling Vaccine Risks Process of Developing a Vaccine Protocol 2
    • What Are Vaccines  Substances that are designed to stimulate an immune response that reduces the risk of a detrimental condition  Substances = antigens  Immune Response = complex response to antigens  Risk Reduction = no vaccines are 100% effective  Detrimental Condition = disease, pathology, death, etc 3
    • Vaccines Types Attenuated Killed Bactrin Autogenous Virulent Toxoids Recombinant Anti-toxin 4
    • Attenuated Vaccines     Also called “modified-live” or “live” vaccines Live replicating organism with reduced virulence Virus or Bacteria Have been manipulated to reduce or eliminate their ability to cause disease  In order to work, they must replicate!! 5
    • Attenuated Vaccines  Advantages  Closely simulate natural infection  Stimulate humoral and cell mediated immunity • Important for intracellular organisms such as viruses  Adjuvants not as necessary  Generally cheaper (Valley Vet On-Line 12-09-13) • Pyramid 5 (MLV) 10 ds = $11.99 • Triangle (killed) 10 ds = $15.65 6
    • Attenuated Vaccines  Disadvantages  Potential to cause pathology • Replicating organism can cause mild signs - Brucellosis • Intact virulence - BVDV, IBR • Potential for reversion to virulence – low, low risk  Contamination • Jencine(4-way live vaccine) contaminated with non-cytopathic BVDV  Stability 7
    • Killed vaccine  Dead organism  Bactrin = Killed bacterial suspension  Key is maintaining antigenic integrity  Usually require adjuvants to adequately stimulate immune system 8
    • Adjuvants  Aid in stimulating immune response to antigen and stabilizing vaccines  Do not confer immunity  Mechanisms  Depot – prolonged exposure • Oil adjuvants  Irritants – amplify response around target antigens • Aluminum hydroxide • Toxins • Adjuvants are not innocuous 9
    • Killed Vaccines  Advantages  Generally safer • No disease due to virulent organism • No contamination  Greater stability  Disadvantages  Hypersensitivity reactions (adjuvants, toxins or large antigen loads)  Endotoxins  More costly • Pyramid 5 (MLV) 10 ds = $11.99 • Triangle (killed) 10 ds = $15.65 10
    • Toxoid  Toxins are the major “virulence” factor of some bacteria which cause disease:  Toxoids contain chemically altered toxins  Stimulate neutralizing antibodies to the toxin  Examples  Clostridium • Tetnus toxoid • C. perfringes C & D toxoid  Mannheimia haemolytica • Leukotoxin  E.coli • Endotoxic mastitis 11
    • Autogenous Vaccines  Made against “farm specific” pathogen  Specific rules regulate their production  Can only be used on the farm that organism was derived from  Generally used when effective commercial vaccine is not available  Example • Mycoplamsa bovis • Clostridium perfringes • Staph aureus 12
    • Vaccine Failure 13
    • Vaccine Failure  REMEMEMBER - Vaccines are not 100% effective  They are a tool to use in conjunction with other disease control tools  However, there are things that can reduce efficiency  Incorrect Administration  Correct Administration 14
    • Vaccine Failure  Incorrect Administration  Label directions not followed 15
    • Follow the Directions 16
    • -Dairy DisasterThe case of not reading the label 17
    • Dairy Disaster  150 lactating cow dairy  Acute out break of pneumonia in lactating herd  Necropsy  Severe Acute Emphysematous Bronchopneumonia • Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus • Mannheimia Pasteurella  45 vows died  Entire herd treated with Ampicillin  Lost milk for ~1 week 18
    • 19
    • Dairy Disaster  Investigation  Recent purchase of new clean-up bull  Herd had been using a modified live viral vaccine that DID NOT contain BRSV.  Admitted, they had not read the label and purchased from catalog because it was less expensive.  Primary BRSV outbreak with secondary Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia = disaster!! 20
    • Vaccine Failure  Incorrect Administration  Label directions not followed  Correct Administration  Poor Vaccine handling 21
    • Vaccine Handling • Vaccines are biological in nature, therefore very sensitive to the environment. • Damaging the vaccine components reduces the chance of stimulating effective immune response • Improper vaccine handling = Vaccine Failure 22
    • Vaccine Handling • Store refrigerated – 40o F (4 Co) – Not a bad idea to have internal thermometer to monitor fridge temp! • DO NOT FREEZE • Transport in cooler • Stored in cooler in working area 23
    • Vaccine Handling • Protect from UV light • Keep in dark covered container 24
    • Question?  After mixing a Modified Live Virus vaccine how long is it good for? A. 4 hrs B. 4 days C. 4 weeks D. 4 months 25
    • Vaccine Handling • Mix only enough vaccine for 30 minutes of work – Live vaccines are “dead” within 4 hours after mixing 26
    • Vaccine Handling • Protect vaccine from contamination – Do not enter bottles with dirty needles – Capped needle for vaccine removal – Transfer needles for mixing 27
    • Vaccine Handling • What about syringes and needles? • Protect from heat • Never use disinfectants on syringes – Use hot water ONLY – Then let air dry • Do not disinfect needle between animals 28
    • Vaccine Failure  Incorrect Administration  Label directions not followed  Correct Administration  Poor Vaccine handling  Wrong vaccine – Clostridial vaccines  Antigenic differences – BVDV  Bad timing – Vaccination to protect fetus ½ way thru pregnancy  Overwhelming exposure – commingled situations  Animal fails to respond • • • • Immunosuppression – Post partum Genetics Nutrition Passive immunity 29
    • Vaccine Risks 30
    • Vaccine Risks  Injection site lesions 7-way clostridial vaccine given at 50 days of age, slaughtered at 18 months of age 31
    • Vaccine Risks  Injection site lesions  Type 1 hypersensitivity = Anaphylaxis = Allergic Reaction 32
    • Vaccine and Anaphylaxis  Signs in Cattle  Immediate to 30 minutes later  Acute Respiratory Distress  Muscle tremors  Salivation  Go down  Treatment  Epinephrine • 1:1000 – ¼ - ½ cc/100# IV – 1 cc/100# IM/SQ 33
    • Vaccine Risks  Injection site lesions  Type 1 hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis)  Endotoxins  Endotoxins common with gram negative bactrins  “Endotoxin stacking” – Additive effect from giving multiple gram negative bactrins  Results • • • • Anaphylaxis Sick calves Abortion Decreased milk production  Limit number of gram negative bactrins given at one time to 2. 34
    • Gram Negative Bactrins • • • • • • • Salmonella E. coli Pasteurella Mannheimia Leptospirosis Moraxella Histophilus • Vibrio • Brucella 35
    • Vaccine Risks     Injection site lesions Type 1 hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis) Endotoxins Residual virulence  Attenuated vaccines • Brucellosis vaccines RB-51 • Shedding 36
    • Vaccine Risks      Injection site lesions Type 1 hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis) Endotoxins Residual virulence Human Health Issues  Brucella abortus  Johne’s Vaccine 37
    • Designing a Vaccine Program What must be considered when deciding what vaccines to use or recommend? 38
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    • Veterinary Client Patient Relationship 40
    • Vaccines 41
    • Questions and Discussion Dan Grooms DVM, PhD groomsd@cvm.msu.edu 42