Spotlight on Metabolism
Energy: Fuel for Work• Energy source– Chemical energy in carbohydrates, fat,protein• Food energy to cellular energy– Stage...
What Is Metabolism?• Catabolism– Reactions that break down compounds intosmall units
What Is Metabolism?• Anabolism– Reactions that build complex moleculesfrom smaller ones
What Is Metabolism?• Cell is the metabolic processing center– Nucleus– Cytoplasm: cytosol + organelles• Mitochondria are t...
What Is Metabolism?• ATP is the body’senergy currency– ATP = adenosinetriphosphate– Form of energy cellsuse• NAD and FAD:t...
ExtractingEnergy
Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy fromcarbohydrate– Glycolysis• Pathway splitsglucose into twopyruvates• ...
Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy from carbohydrate– Citric acid cycle• Releases CO2• Produces GTP (like ...
Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy from fat– Split triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids– Beta-oxida...
Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy fromprotein– Split protein into aminoacids– Split off amino group• Conv...
Breakdownand Releaseof Energy
Biosynthesis and Storage• Making carbohydrate (glucose)– Gluconeogenesis• Uses pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, certain aminoa...
Biosynthesis and Storage• Making ketone bodies (ketogenesis)– Made from acetyl CoA• When inadequate glucose in cells• Maki...
Special States• Feasting– Excess energyintake fromcarbohydrate, fat,protein• Promotesstorage
Special States• Fasting– Inadequateenergy intake• Promotesbreakdown– Prolongedfasting• Protects bodyprotein aslong aspossi...
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TEST Slideshare

  1. 1. Spotlight on Metabolism
  2. 2. Energy: Fuel for Work• Energy source– Chemical energy in carbohydrates, fat,protein• Food energy to cellular energy– Stage 1: digestion, absorption, transport– Stage 2: breakdown of molecules– Stage 3: transfer of energy to a form cellscan use
  3. 3. What Is Metabolism?• Catabolism– Reactions that break down compounds intosmall units
  4. 4. What Is Metabolism?• Anabolism– Reactions that build complex moleculesfrom smaller ones
  5. 5. What Is Metabolism?• Cell is the metabolic processing center– Nucleus– Cytoplasm: cytosol + organelles• Mitochondria are the source of manyenergy pathways
  6. 6. What Is Metabolism?• ATP is the body’senergy currency– ATP = adenosinetriphosphate– Form of energy cellsuse• NAD and FAD:transport shuttles– Accept high-energyelectrons for use inATP production
  7. 7. ExtractingEnergy
  8. 8. Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy fromcarbohydrate– Glycolysis• Pathway splitsglucose into twopyruvates• Transfers electrons toNAD• Produces some ATP– Pyruvate to acetyl CoA• Releases CO2• Transfers electrons toNAD
  9. 9. Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy from carbohydrate– Citric acid cycle• Releases CO2• Produces GTP (like ATP)• Transfers electrons to NAD and FAD– Electron transport chain• Accepts electrons from NAD and FAD• Produces large amounts of ATP• Produces water– End products of glucose breakdown• ATP, H2O, CO2
  10. 10. Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy from fat– Split triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids– Beta-oxidation• Breaks apart fatty acids into acetyl CoA• Transfers electrons to NAD and FAD– Citric acid cycle• Acetyl CoA from beta-oxidation enters cycle– Electron transport chain– End products of fat breakdown• ATP, H2O, CO2
  11. 11. Breakdown and Release of Energy• Extracting energy fromprotein– Split protein into aminoacids– Split off amino group• Converted to urea forexcretion– Carbon skeleton entersbreakdown pathways– End products• ATP, H2O, CO2, urea
  12. 12. Breakdownand Releaseof Energy
  13. 13. Biosynthesis and Storage• Making carbohydrate (glucose)– Gluconeogenesis• Uses pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, certain aminoacids• Storing carbohydrate (glycogen)– Liver, muscle make glycogen from glucose• Making fat (fatty acids)– Lipogenesis• Uses acetyl CoA from fat, amino acids,glucose• Storing fat (triglyceride)– Stored in adipose tissue
  14. 14. Biosynthesis and Storage• Making ketone bodies (ketogenesis)– Made from acetyl CoA• When inadequate glucose in cells• Making protein (amino acids)– Amino acid pool supplied from• Diet, protein breakdown, cell synthesis
  15. 15. Special States• Feasting– Excess energyintake fromcarbohydrate, fat,protein• Promotesstorage
  16. 16. Special States• Fasting– Inadequateenergy intake• Promotesbreakdown– Prolongedfasting• Protects bodyprotein aslong aspossible
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