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Cameroon;  Bio-Sand Filtration Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

Cameroon; Bio-Sand Filtration Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies



Cameroon; Bio-Sand Filtration Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

Cameroon; Bio-Sand Filtration Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies



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    Cameroon;  Bio-Sand Filtration Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies Cameroon; Bio-Sand Filtration Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies Document Transcript

    • Water 2010, 2, 285-306; doi:10.3390/w2020285 OPEN ACCESS water ISSN 2073-4441 www.mdpi.com/journal/waterArticleImproved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction inRural Water SuppliesValentine Tellen 1,*, George Nkeng 1,2 and Steven Dentel 31 University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, South West Region 273, Cameroon2 National Advanced School of Public Works (ENSTP) Yaoundé B.P. 510, Yaoundé Cameroon; , , E-Mail: gnkeng@yahoo.com3 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA; E-Mail: dentel@UDel.edu* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: tvasong@yahoo.com; Tel: +23-7-7791-0935; Fax: +23-7-2222-1816.Received: 30 April 2010; in revised form: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 /Published: 18 June 2010 Abstract: Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF) is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF. Keywords: bio-sand filtration; zero-valent iron; microbial reductions; household drinking water treatmentList of Acronyms and AbbreviationsAFNOR Standard Association Francaise pour la Normalisation (French National Standards Institute)BSF Bio-sand Filter
    • Water 2010, 2 286CAWST Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation TechnologyDBPs Disinfectant by-productsFC Fecal ColiformFS Fecal StreptococciGeosmin Trans-1, 10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalolMIB 2-methylisoborneolMS-2 A type of bacteriophageNOM Natural Organic MatterNTU Nephelometric Turbidity UnitØX174 A type of bacteriophageSSF Slow Sand FilterTC Total ColiformU.S. EPA United States Environmental Protection AgencyUDaily archive University of Delaware Daily archiveUN United NationsWEDC Water Engineering Development CenterWHO World Health OrganizationZVI Zero-valent iron1. Introduction The use of contaminated waters for drinking and bathing is one of the principal pathways forinfection by diseases that kill millions and sicken more than a billion people each year [1]. There is aneed for a sustainable, cost-effective, and reliable point-of-use (POU) water treatment to provide safedrinking water in the rural communities of developed and developing countries. Technologiescommonly employed in the developing world are typically too expensive, too complex to be locallymaintained and repaired, and incompatible with local customs and beliefs. Recently, Sobsey et al. [2] compared five different household water treatment technologies,according to criteria for performance and sustainability, and found that bio-sand filters (BSF) andceramics are the most effective household water treatment technologies. Interestingly, over 500,000people in developing countries currently use BSF [3]. However, the BSF is not without its drawbacks.The focus of this research is geared towards improvement of the household bio-sand filter.1.1. Background Biofiltration encompasses all forms of water filtration that include a biologically mediated treatmentcomponent, and this includes a wide variety of applications, designs, media, filtration rates, and watertreatment capabilities. This review focuses particularly upon intermittent slow sand filtration (SSF) orbio-sand filtration (BSF), a ―low technology‖ water treatment process that has a long history ofsuccessful international application (see Figure 1). The performance of BSF is controlled by anecosystem of living organisms (biolayer or schmudzdecke) whose activities are affected by the rawwater quality, and in particular, by the temperature. The quality of the treated water and the
    • Water 2010, 2 287maintenance requirements for the system depend on selected variables like sand size, flow rate, andsand bed depth. The sand used is characterized by its effective size (ES or d10) and uniformity coefficient (UCor d60/d10). The recommendations for ES vary between 0.15 mm and 0.40 mm [4]. The UC should bebetween 1.7 and 3.0, but preferably not greater than 2.7 [5]. The sand bed depth can be up to 1.4 m anda minimum depth of 40 cm. The conventional flow rate is 0.1 m/h or 0.6 L/m [4]. However, it ispossible to increase the flow rate considerably if effective pretreatment is given, and if an effectivedisinfection stage follows the filtration [5]. The National Environmental Engineering ResearchInstitute [6] in India used flow rates of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/h and found no significant difference in fecalcoliform reduction. Huisman and Wood [7] reported the use of higher filtration rates (0.25and 0.45 m/h) without any marked difference in effluent quality. Figure 1. Cross-sectional diagram of a traditional concrete intermittent bio-sand filter (BSF). Such a filter was used in these experiments (Modified from CAWST [8]). The zero-valent iron (ZVI) layer is only included in filter F3. Untreated water (added periodically) Diffuser plate Resting water (5 cm) Spout Layer of biofilm formation Treated water Fine sand (depth = 44 cm) Concrete wall Optional (tapered ZVI (5 cm) thickness) Coarse sand (5 cm) Gravel (5 cm)
    • Water 2010, 2 288 Additionally, BSF, due to its relative simplicity of design, basic maintenance procedures, and lowlabor costs, has often been considered suitable for smaller, less developed communities or those withless knowledge, skills, or access to higher technologies. However, SSF has also been applied for thetreatment of water at large-scale process plants in highly developed countries. SSF, as with other watertreatment technologies (individually or in treatment trains as operational systems), has distinguishablecapacities for the improvement of water quality. These capacities have been well described and aredetailed in numerous published papers, reviews, manuals, and texts. In fact, Huisman and Wood [7]state ―No other single water treatment process can improve the physical, chemical, and bacteriologicalquality of surface water better than bio-sand filtration.‖ Nonetheless, two drawbacks to the household BSF can be noted: 1. The flow rate through the sand decreases with usage, and this limit to water availability may lead to the application of excessive flows or use of other (untreated) sources of water. 2. Purification may be inadequate—especially with virus removal—when high flows or frequent loadings are imposed [9-13].1.2. Research Objectives This research assessed two improvements to the household bio-sand filter to alleviate the twodrawbacks cited above:  Increase in sand grain size. The greater pore size would be expected to increase initial flow rates and, possibly, flow rates even as the bio-layer develops.  Addition of zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a supplemental filter medium. This material, locally available as iron filings, has been shown [14,15] to have a biocidal effect on pathogens. These modifications were intended to improve the quality of water provided to users and to reduceunnecessary waits for production of treated water. The filter performance was to be assessed based onthe removal of total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococci (FS). In addition,turbidity, natural organic matter, flow rate, odor, and dissolved iron were closely examined.2. Materials and Methods2.1. Filter Characteristics The approach was to employ BSF units that were exactly as constructed and used in households, butwithin a controlled laboratory setting. Accordingly, two concrete filters were constructed inside thehydrology laboratory of the National Advanced School of Public Works in Yaoundé The room . otemperature range was 23–27 C. Filters were of the standard 1 m height and 0.3 m side dimensions.The two filters were used in three configurations F1, F2, and F3, with media characteristics shownin Table 1. Filter configuration F2 acted as the control, with the standard media size of 0.15 mm. ConfigurationF1 tested the effects of increased media size (0.3 mm). F3 tested the efficacy of both an increasedmedia size and the addition of ZVI as a layer around the lower part of its sand media.
    • Water 2010, 2 289 Table 1. Characteristics of filter challenge experiments. 1 Filter Configuration Filter Media (see Figure 1) ES or D10 F1 River sand 0.3 mm F2 Crushed granite gravel 0.15 mm F3 River sand + ZVI (0.5 kg) 0.3 mm 1 ES or D10 is the effective size of sand.2.2. Filter Construction and Design Filters were constructed using a steel mold according to the specifications of the Center forAffordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST), and generously loaned by the Life and WaterDevelopment Group in Cameroon. Materials required for each filter were three head pans ofgravel, 1.5 wheelbarrows of sand, 1 bag of cement, and sufficient water to provide concrete mixconsistency. Each filter also required 1.5 m of 0.6 mm PVC pipe, an aluminum diffuser plate, and awooden cover lid (not shown in Figure 1). Following the quantities mentioned above, gravel, sand, cement, and water were mixed together toform a mortar, which was then loaded into a steel mold (Plate 1). After 24 hours, the mold wasremoved and the empty concrete filter was obtained (Plate 2). The mold and the filters were fabricated,following the CAWST manual [8], and as shown in Figure 1.2.3. Media and Filter Preparation The steps used, in the construction, media preparation, and operation of the concrete intermittentbio-sand filters, are represented in plates, as shown in Figure 2. River sand was selectively sieved,using a set of sieves for sand analysis, to obtain an ES = 0.3 mm (i.e., D10 = 0.3 mm) and a UC of 1.7(Plate 3). The sand was washed (Plate 5) and then loaded consecutively into F1 and F3 (Plate 7), butthere was a column of ZVI mixed with sand in F3 (Figure 1). The crushed rock was sieved, followingthe Standard International Field procedure for BSF, to obtain an ES of 0.15 mm, with a UC of 2, andloaded in F2 (Plate 4). The loading of the filter constituents was in the sequence of: 5 cm gravel(6–12 mm), 5 cm coarse sand (2.5–4 mm) (Plate 6), then 44 cm sand media (0.15 mm for F2, 0.3 mmfor F1 and F3). The depth of ZVI in F3 was 5 cm. Also, water was present inside the filter beforeloading to avoid any occurrence of air spaces. Otherwise, there would be anaerobic conditions andabnormalities in the flow of water through the sand. Turbid water was poured into the BSF and thefiltrate appeared to be clear (Plate 8). An aluminum diffuser plate was then placed on the lip of the filter to avoid disturbance of the toplayer of sand during water loading of the filter (Plate 10). The gravel (Plate 6) provided a support thatprevented the clogging of the PVC pipe by sand, keeping the opening of the filter bottom free for theflow of water out of the filter. It has been shown that crushed rock is a better media type compared tosand, and Rao [16] found that crushed rock media with an ES of 0.47 mm recorded the best results interms of bacteria removal, turbidity removal, and length of filter runs, when compared to sand mediaof same ES. Unfortunately, crushed granite gravel is uncommon and it is expensive to produce inCameroon and most developing countries. Moreover, the idea here was to exploit the traditional BSF
    • Water 2010, 2 290to the best performance possible and to compare to that of the improved BSF made from locallyavailable river sand. Figure 2. Plates showing the steps used in the construction, media preparation, and operation of the concrete intermittent bio-sand filters.
    • Water 2010, 2 291 Figure 2. Cont. Following a 20 L water charge, the initial flow rates in each filter experiment were 2.1, 1.2,and 1.9 L/m for F1, F2, and F3 respectively. The sand bed depths for all three filters were keptconstant at 44 cm, while the water head levels were also kept constant, with 5 cm (2‖) of head duringthe pause period (Plate 11). The porosity was determined using the cubic lattice approach. It wasassumed that sand is well packed and has a face-centered cubic lattice alignment. Thethree-dimensional structure of F2 has a packing density of 74%, resulting in a void fraction (or
    • Water 2010, 2 292porosity) of 26% or 0.26, while F1 and F3 have a packing density of 70%, resulting in a porosity of 0.3.The two filters used for the three different experiments are shown in Plate 9. Based on the filtercharacteristics, as described in Table 1 above, two experiments used these filters with theconfigurations F1 and F2. Configuration F1 was then replaced with F3 by emptying and replacing thefilter contents, as detailed in Table 1.Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) The ZVI (iron filings) used for this study was composed of commercial iron particles obtained froma peerless metal powder and abrasive workshop, where cutlasses and knifes are sharpened, and ironmaterials are made smooth (Plate 12). The iron filings were washed with tap water until the wastewater, which was initially dark in color, showed no further decrease in clarity.2.4. Experimental Design Three filtration experiments, each with a duration of 65 days, were conducted consecutively. Twocomparisons of configurations F1 and F2 were followed by an experiment comparing F2 to F3, todetermine the efficacies of the three bio-sand filters in reducing the concentration of fecal coliform(FC), total coliform (TC), and fecal sreptococci (FS), and to explore the effects of daily water chargeon microbial reduction. In addition, turbidity and natural organic matter (NOM) were monitored. Thefilters were charged with raw water drawn daily from a well, with the water containing sufficient levelsof challenge microorganisms to obviate the need for seeding.2.5. Sample Collection Sample bottles of volumes of 1 L each, provided by the Environment and Hygiene Laboratory at theCentre Pasteur du Cameroon, Yaoundé were used to collect water samples from each filter after 14, 19 ,and 62 days, respectively, for microbial analysis. These samples included the raw water and thefiltered water from both filters. The time of sample collection and transportation to the lab was less than 1 hour, while at roomtemperature. Elliott et al. [17] demonstrated minimal mean die-off rates for challenge microorganismsafter overnight storage at room temperature. Thus, the effects of time and temperature on microbialsurvival were regarded as negligible in this study.2.6. Odor Management After the fifth week, there were odor problems produced from the F2 effluent. Thus, all three filterswere cleaned by pouring some water on the top of the sand bed and gently swirling the upper layer ofthe sand using the hand, such that the suspended particles mixed with the water, which was thenremoved using a cup.2.7. Microbial Analysis of Water Samples Raw water was collected from a well, used for drinking, and other domestic purpose. Total coliform,fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci in water were not seeded, but occurred naturally and were
    • Water 2010, 2 293quantified using the membrane filtration technique. The medium used were SLANETZ & Tergitol 7,at 37 oC for 24 h, and at 44 oC ± 0.5 oC for TC and FC, respectively, and ENTEROSEL agar at 37 oCfor 48 h for FS. The reductions, in pathogen indicator concentrations by passage of raw water throughthe three BSFs, were calculated in percentages.2.8. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Water Samples Turbidity and pH were measured using a conventional turbidimeter (Model 2100n, Hach, Loveland,CO, USA) and pH electrode, respectively. The amount of natural organic matter (NOM) in eachsample was measured by the oxidizability of sample water. Oxidizability was determined by reactionwith hot oxidized potassium permanganate (KMnO4). The amount of dissolved iron (Fe3+ or Fe2+)present in the water sample from F3 was monitored over the course of the filtration experiment, usinga spectrophotometer, since iron becomes oxidized when in contact with water. Analyses were done at the Environment and Hygiene Laboratory at the Centre Pasteur duCameroon, Yaoundé Based on the observed parameters, the results were compared to the chemical .and microbiological criteria of the French Norm AFNOR, which is used as Cameroon’s water norm forwater destined for human consumption. This norm has limits, which are similar to WHO guidelines fordrinking-water quality [18].2.9. Data Analysis Data from microbial analysis were subjected to analysis of variance ratio (ANOVA) andcomparisons made between treatment means to see if there were significant differences betweentreatments. In order to investigate this further, Tukey’s post hoc test was employed to determine whichtreatments differed significantly from the rest. Also, bi-variable graphical displays were use to analyzeturbidity, flow rate, and microbial removal. The analyses were done using Minitab 15 and MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007.3. Results and Discussion Results are presented in six subsections: microbial reduction; NOM removal; water chemistryeffects; head-loss development over BSF operating time; turbidity removal; taste and odor removal;and finally, effect of media size. Results from separate filtration runs have been consolidated tofacilitate comparisons. In light of the interpretation, the section then discusses the extent to which theimproved BSF complements the traditional BSF for increasing rate of flow, while assuringpathogen removal.3.1. Microbial Reduction Table 2 shows the concentration of pathogen indicators that were measured during the course of thefiltration experiment.
    • Water 2010, 2 294 Table 2. Concentration of pathogen indicators measured from water samples collected during the course of filter experiments. Concentration of Pathogen indicators (Colony Forming Units per 100 mL) Week 2 Pathogens Raw Water F1 F2 F3 TC >100 >100 10 0 FC >100 >100 10 0 FS 100 80 10 0 Week 4 TC >100 100 3 0 FC >100 100 3 0 FS 100 50 0 0 Week 9 TC >100 80 0 0 FC >100 80 0 0 FS 100 30 0 03.1.1. Total and Fecal Coliforms The microbial counts and percent reduction of total and fecal coliforms (Tables 2, 3a, and 3b) wereconsistent with each other. The p value for the ANOVA (p = 0.001, which is <0.05) indicates that thetreatment means differed. Because there was a trend of increased pathogen indicator reduction withtime, the average values are only meaningful in a qualitative sense. Although the 95% confidenceintervals (CI) do overlap, percentage reduction in TC from F3 appears to be greater than those from theother two filters. Tukey’s post hoc test was used for more rigorous statistical comparisons. At a 95% confidence level,comparison of averages for F1 and F2, and F1 and F3, differed significantly in pathogen indicatorlevels, but F2 and F3 did not. This shows that either the ZVI inclusion or the increased media sizeimproved performance over the conventional BSF, but that neither modification was significantlysuperior to the other.3.1.2. Fecal Streptococci The percent reduction of fecal streptococci is shown in Table 3c and the p value for the ANOVA(p = 0.000) indicates that the averages of the groups will differ from each other at a 95% confidenceinterval. Statistical conclusions are the same for coliforms: F2 was not significantly different from F3,while F1 differed significantly from F2 and F3. The trend in F1 and F2 filtration experiments is towards increased TC, and FC and FS percentreductions over time (Tables 3a and 3b). This suggests the impact of ripening, caused by maturation ofbiofilm, while in the F3 experiment, the results demonstrate the impact of ZVI (a disinfectant) throughhigh percentage removal of FC, TC, and FS throughout the filtration experiment. Although percentreductions in FS were equal for F2 and F3, the percent reductions in TC and FC were lowest for F1,intermediate for F2, and highest for F3 experiments.
    • Water 2010, 2 295 Table 3. Percent reductions in (a) Total Coliform, (b) Fecal Coliform, and (c) Fecal Streptococci, over the course of three filter experiments. Time (days) Percent Reduction of Total Coliform (%) F1 F2 F3 14 0 98.88 99 29 0 98.97 99 62 95 99 99 Average 31.7 98.9 99 (a) Time (days) Percent (%) Reduction of Fecal Coliform F1 F2 F3 14 0 98.88 99 29 0 98.97 99 62 95 99 99 Average 31.7 98.9 99 (b) Time (days) Percent (%) Reduction Of Fecal Streptococci F1 F2 F3 14 95 98.88 99 29 98 99 99 62 98.57 99 99 Average 97.2 99 99 (c) Also, the results suggest that biological activity may play a major function in F2; the percentreductions of FC and TC increased over time (suggesting biofilm ripening). This is expected, as asmaller sand size will have a larger total surface area available for biofilm growth, and therefore, morebiofilm can be in contact with the raw water. Nam et al. [19] demonstrated that finer sand beds hadclose to three times the biofilm surface area per unit sand area compared to coarser sand beds. F1 had alarger sand size, hence larger interstices between the sand grains, smaller surface area, and higher flowrate. This gave rise to less adsorption and less total surface area for biofilm to grow on. In fact,the 95% reductions in FC and TC after the eighth week suggests less biofilm formation, which mayaccount for the resulting poor pathogen indicator removal in F1. From this perspective, it is reasonableto suggest that pathogen indicator removal was achieved primarily through biofilm formation in F2 butto a lesser extent in F1 and F3. The F3 case show high values from the start of the filtration experimentand it is suggested to be primarily due to the ZVI in this filter, which is suggested to have a biocidaleffect on pathogens. Recent research by Elliott et al. [3] on reductions of E. coli, echovirus type 12, and bacteriophagesin a bio-sand filter show that filter performance depended on the ripening time (time required forbiolayer development) and on the volume of water poured into the filter daily. After 30 days ofripening time, the bio-sand filter reduced E. coli by almost 99% on average. Virus removal by thebio-sand filter differed greatly, depending on the specific viral agent. Of the two different types of
    • Water 2010, 2 296viruses tested, the bio-sand filter reduced echovirus 12 by more than 99% on average; however, thefilter reduced bacteriophage (MS2 and PRD-1) concentrations by 70% on average. The paperidentified the pause period for the filter as an important operating parameter, with implications on therecommended quantity of water per day and the frequency of use. Their results confirm the challenge,to the traditional BSF, of the limited volume of water that can be poured into the filter daily. This research is the first demonstration of pathogen removal from contaminated water by ahousehold bio-sand filtration incorporated with ZVI as a disinfectant. Changha et al. [14] suggestedthat the reaction of Fe (II) with intracellular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide may induce oxidative stressby producing reactive oxygen species that cause cell lyses of bacteria, such as E. coli. It was said thatthe bactericidal effect of ZVI nanoparticles was a unique property which was not observed in othertypes of iron. The result suggests that pathogen removal in the improved filter experiment wasachieved due to the biocidal effect of ZVI, while that of traditional BSF was achieved due to theformation of a biofilm in the upper layer of the sand bed. Tables 3a and 3b shows that on average, the reduction achieved by F3 in FC and TC is 99%. Thisshows the effectiveness of ZVI as a disinfectant in a household BSF, and also as a supplementalmedium to compensate for the inadequate pathogen removal as in F1, which had the larger media ES.Table 3c shows that the average percentage reductions in FS for F2 and F3 were not significantlydifferent (99%), but less for F1, compared to the other two. Although FS is suggested to be removedprimarily by straining, and the effect of capture in a traditional SSF, ZVI evidently adds othermechanisms, plausibly involving adsorption and inactivation for removal. Chiu [20] noted that by using elemental iron in a filtration process, viral agents from drinking waterwere removed at very high efficiencies. Virus removal was 99.99% after 20 minutes and eventuallyexceeded 99.999%. The zero-valent iron (Fe) used in this process is inexpensive and widely availableas a by-product of iron and steel production. Viruses were speculated to be either chemicallyinactivated or irreversibly adsorbed to the iron [20]. Plausibly, the improved BSF (F3) technologycould provide 99.999% virus removal, unattainable with the traditional BSFs (F1 and F2). Murray and Laband [21] applied kinetic theory to data obtained from sequential extractions ofadsorbed virus and suggested that the inactivation observed was due to the physical disruption ofvirions. He also suspected that the van der Waals interactions between solid surfaces and virus inducedspontaneous virion disassembly. Also, You et al. [15] reported that viral removal by zero-valent ironwas over 4 log10 in an initial pulse test and over 5 log10 in a second pulse test. They assumed that theimproved efficiency was due to continuous formation of new iron (oxyhydr)oxides, which served asvirus adsorption sites. In addition, both the magnetite and hematite present in the iron have been shown to absorb a varietyof viruses. Moore et al. [22] analyzed the adsorption of poliovirus type 2 by 34 well defined soils andminerals and discovered that magnetite sand and hematite, which were predominantly oxides of iron,were the most effective adsorbents. In a recent study using goethite-coated sand [23], they furthershowed that 90% of MS-2 and 95% of ØX174 were removed, and that the removal was due mainly toinactivation, rather than reversible adsorption. An additional 1-to-2 log10 removal was observed andwas most likely due to the formation of new iron oxides (i.e., new adsorption sites) resulting from thecorrosion of ZVI during a 10 day period. Although removal via filtration by sand alone in the F3experiment could not be completely excluded, it was probably negligible, since the iron column had a
    • Water 2010, 2 297higher porosity than the sand column, where removal was minimal (as in F1). Additionally, nopressure build-up or flow rate reduction was observed over this period. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the biocidal effects of ZVI on TC, FC, and FS removaland the inactivation within the improved BSF (F3), may account for the 99% reduction of thechallenge microorganisms at the beginning of the F3 experiment, suggesting that the improved filtercould account for even better results as the biofilm matures with time. Therefore, it can be suggestedthat straining, the effect of capture due to change in transport efficiency, and to some extent biofilmformation, as seen in F1, may account for the 99% reduction in the challenge microorganisms at theend of the F3 experiment. In contrast, the effect of straining and capture due to change in transportefficiency may account for 98.88% reduction for traditional BSF (F2) at the start of the filtrationexperiment, while in addition, biofilm formation may account for a 99% reduction at the end of theexperiment. These suggested factors, which are involved in the removal of pathogen indicators fromthe traditional BSF (F2) and the improved BSF (F3), are summarized in Table 4. Table 4. Suggested factors involved in pathogen removal. Traditional BSF (F2) Improved BSF (F3) Pathogen indicator Pathogen indicator Days Factor Factor removal removal -ZVI biocidal effects -Straining <14 <98.88% -Capture efficiency 99% -Capture efficiency -Straining -All factors for < 14 days -All factors for <14 days >14 98–99% 99% -Biofilm -Biofilm3.2. Natural Organic Matter Slow sand filtration removes NOM due to both biodegradation and adsorption [24,25]. Table 5 andFigure 3 present NOM levels, showing that during the first two weeks, the NOM in the effluent fromF3 was less, but increased with time. Although NOM is undoubtedly required for bacterial growthwithin the biolayer, levels in treated water exceeded those in the raw water in some cases. This onlyoccurred after 28 and 62 days of treatment, and a cleaning of the BSFs during the fifth week decreasedNOM levels. This suggests that sloughing from the mature biolayer was responsible for the increasedNOM in treated water. Table 5. Natural organic matter levels as measured by permanganate oxidation. NOM (mg/L) Days Raw Water F1 F2 F3 AFNOR/WHO Limits Day 14 2.9 1.6 0.9 0.6 <5 Day 28 2.5 2.9 6.2 3.3 <5 Day 62 2.3 2.4 3.2 1.8 <5
    • Water 2010, 2 298 Figure 3. Natural organic matter levels as measured by permanganate oxidation. 7 6 5 Raw Water NOM (mg/L) 4 F1 F2 3 F3 2 Limit 1 0 day 14 day 28 day 62 Time (Days) The high value produced by F2 at Day 28 shows that the traditional BSF occasionally producedpoor effluent water quality, with high amounts of NOM after a few weeks of operation. This value wasabove the acceptable limit (>5 mg/L) of water destined for human consumption, according to theFrench norm, AFNOR, and WHO standards. Cleaning was suggested to remove NOM such that justthe right amount to support bacteria growth is retained; hence, better results were obtained during theeighth week. Since fractions of NOM are biodegradable, NOM may promote bacterial growth in thebiofilm of the BSF, boosting bacterial population. In addition to NOM removal by microbialorganisms in the schmutzdecke, it is probable that ZVI in F3 also removed organic material, such ashumic acid, because trivalent metal ions (Al3+ or Fe3+), and their hydroxide species (Fe (OH)n3−n),will form insoluble complexes with NOM that will precipitate. That process is called chargeneutralization [26]. This dual process may account for the high efficiency in the removal ofNOM in F3. Interestingly, F1 and the improved BSF (F3) both produced effluents with acceptable levels ofNOM (i.e., <5.0 mg/L) in the drinking water throughout the experiment, according to the French Norm,AFNOR NF T90-420, of Cameroon drinking water standards and to WHO guidelines fordrinking-water quality. However, the traditional BSF (F2) failed during the fourth week of operation.Ferric salts are common coagulants and studies [27,28] have shown that NOMs, such as humic acid,adsorb to iron oxides. Thus, it may be surmised that as contaminated water flows through the ironcolumn, iron oxides are continuously formed, acting as binding sites for humic acid. The overall effectis the continuous removal of humic materials from contaminated water.3.3. Some Impacts on Water Chemistry The pH of raw water samples were measured daily, and the pH ranged from 7.5 to 8. These valueswere maintained for the filtrate water samples, except for that of F3. The mean pH values recorded forthe three experiments were; F1 = 7.5, F2 = 7.5, and F3 = 6.5. These values are within the pH range fordrinking water in Cameroon, according to Norm AFNOR. Also, the amount of dissolved iron in water
    • Water 2010, 2 299ranged from 0.0 mg/L to 0.4 mg/L (Table 6), with an average amount of 0.13 mg/L throughout thecourse of the filter experiments. The limit is < 0.2 mg/L for water destined for human consumption,according to the French Norm AFNOR. Table 6. Amount of dissolved iron in F3 water samples over the course of the filter experiment. Days 14 28 62 Limit F3 0.4 0.0 0.0 <0.2 mg/L This suggests that there is a chemical reaction between iron and water, and supports the findings ofYou et al. [15] that there is continuous formation of complexes by the reaction of iron (oxyhydr)oxides,which serve as new adsorption sites for pathogens and NOM. The complexes formed settle out ofsolution and precipitate, and then remain within the filter bed.3.4. Head-Loss Development over BSF Operating Time The flow rates for the challenge filtration experiments are shown in Table 7, and the average flowrate is low for the traditional BSF (F2), but high for the Improved BSF (F3), and higher for F1. Table 7. Daily Filtration (flow) Rate Upon initial 20 L Charge of Water over the course of the filtration experiment. Flow rates (L/m) Time (days) F1 F2 F3 1 2.1 1.2 1.9 14 2 1.1 1.8 22 1.95 0.9 1.8 28 1.9 0.8 1.7 32 1.8 0.8 1.5 48 1.8 0.7 1.5 54 1.8 0.6 1.5 62 1.75 0.5 1.45 Average 1.8875 0.825 1.64375 The patterns of flow rate decline, and thus head-loss development, after each 20 L charge arecompared for the three filter experiments as shown in Figure 4. A decline in flow rate is expected due to head-loss accumulation as the filter ripens or matures.Particulate accumulation and biological growth in the top-most layer of the media bed are typicallyresponsible for ripening. Figure 4 shows that higher flow rates were reported for F1 and F3, and theyshowed less of a decline in flow rates than did F2. The ZVI in F3 may have filled the pores of the largesand particles at the lower section of the media bed, reducing the flow of water through the pores inthis section of the media bed; this may explain the difference in flow rates between F3 and F1, eventhough they have the same media ES. The concentration of organic substrate that supports themicrobial colonization on the filter, which produces the head-loss, is a factor that was constant among
    • Water 2010, 2 300the three filter experiments, because the concentrations of organic substrate in the 20 L charge were thesame. Therefore, the results suggest that ripening and biofilm development will vary with the ES ofmedia and flow rate. The increase in flow at Day 48 was due to the cleaning of the BSF; this gave asharp increase in F2, but no sharp increase in F1 and F3, because solids in the raw water are able topenetrate deeper into the coarser sand, which have proportionately higher flow rate than fine sand withlower flow rate. Figure 4. Filtration rate upon initial 20 L charge of water over the course of three filter microbial challenge experiments. Line Plot of F1, F2, F3 2.25 Filter F1 F2 2.00 F3 1.75 Flow Rates (L/m) 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 1 14 22 28 32 48 54 62 Time (days) The mean flow rates for F1, F2, and F3 were 1.9, 0.8, and 1.6 (L/m), respectively, and this showsthat the conventional flow rate of the traditional BSF (i.e., 0.6–1 L/m) can be increased considerably,while still providing safe water, if an effective disinfection stage is incorporated into the BSF. Thiswill go a long way towards reducing the unnecessary waits. One often sees this predicament with usersof traditional BSF who have large families. These people have to wait for longer periods, due to lowerflow rates, to obtain enough filtered water to satiate the whole family. Moreover, Baumgartner et al. [29] investigated the performance of the BSF with respect to pausetimes between filtration runs, water-dosing volumes, and the effluent volume at which a filtered watersample was collected. They found that total coliform removal by the BSF decreased with an increase inthe sample collection volume; greater removal of total coliforms occurred when filter pause periodwas 12 hours versus 36 hours. The authors’ findings encourage users to filter five liters of water at atime, or when filtering more than five liters at a time, to use the first five liters for drinking/cooking,and the remainder for other household needs. However, the results from this study suggest that users ofthe improved biosand filter will not have to rely on pause periods (though they are required), and canuse more than five liters of water at a time for drinking.
    • Water 2010, 2 3013.5. Turbidity Removal Table 8 shows the percent removal of turbidity by the three filter experiments. The variation inturbidity removal is especially interesting, because it may offer some insight into the removal ofinorganic particulate matter, such as clay or mud. Raw water turbidity averaged from 6to 8 Nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), and filtered water turbidity ranged from 0.5 to 3 NTU. Table 8. Percentage turbidity removal from raw water for the three filter experiments. Time (Days) Turbidity Removal (%) F1 F2 F3 8 50 83.3 91.5 25 51 95 95.1 62 70 98 98 The high raw water turbidity was seen during rainy periods and may be due to the runoff, whichcontains clay particles, entering into the well. After filtering raw water through the three filters F1, F2,and F3, the results show turbidity removals of up to 70%, 98%, and 98% respectively, which not onlyattests to the small sizes of the colloids causing the turbidity, but also to the removal efficiency of BSF.A graphical display of percent turbidity removal over the course of three filter experiments is shownin Figure 5. Figure 5. Average turbidity removal (%) over the course of the three filter experiments. These results show the importance of biological action for the removal of inorganic and organicparticles. The results show that turbidity removal improved as the biofilm ripened. Huisman andWood [7] reported that the sticky gelatinous film on the surface of the schmutzdecke causes inertmatter to be held until the schmutzdecke was removed. The production of exocellular polymers by themicroorganisms attached to the sand particles within the sand bed also appears to be probable.Pavoni et al. [30] reported that exocellular polymers produced by activated-sludge-type bacteria could
    • Water 2010, 2 302flocculate kaolinite (clay) suspensions and promote settling. It is suggested that the high turbidityremoval observed in F2 could have been caused by high levels of production of exocellular polymer,while in F1 and F3, only a few exocellular polymers may have been produced. However, ferrous andferric ions are common coagulants, and are speculated to have improved the effluent turbidity in F3,due to the ions’ ability to coagulate suspended particles in the iron column.3.6. Taste and Odor Removal The effluent from the three filters showed improvement in the taste and odor of raw water; it isspeculated that biodegradation of geosmin and MIB were dependent on the respiratory activity of thebiofilter microorganisms. The degradation of geosmin and MIB, by bacteria attached to different filtermedia, have been utilized in the drinking water filtration processes, with extended retention times, suchas slow sand filtration and infiltration [31-33]. Episodes of increased odor of raw water commonlyoccurred during the warm periods, when microbiological activity is high. Moreover, odor episodesoccurred in F2, even when the raw water had no odor, when the effluent water measured high levels ofNOM. This suggests that NOM is a possible cause of odor in water. However, the odor was absentafter cleaning the BSF. Observed higher removals at higher influent concentrations of MIB by SSFhave suggested the removal to behave almost as a first order reaction [34,35]. Based on the results ofthis study, the occurrence of odor in the BSF is said to be a signal for cleaning time. The precipitatedinsoluble complexes of the hydroxide species of iron with NOM in F3 did not give any odor problems,as the effluent water measured low levels of NOM.3.7. Effect of Sand Size on Bio-sand Filtration The results in Table 9 suggest that the treatment efficiency of the bio-sand filter is very sensitive tosand size. Table 9. Effects of sand size on bio-sand filter performance. Average percent reduction Average Effective size Average flow Average Filter (%) Turbidity of sand (mm) rate (L/m) NOM (%) TC FC FS removal (%) F2 0.15 97.2 97.2 99 98 0.82 53.97 F1 0.3 31.7 31.7 98.9 70 1.88 47.64 The average percentage reduction in pathogen indicators increased with decreasing sand size. It issuggested that mechanical processes, such as straining, changes in transport efficiency, and adsorption,may account for the 98.88% reduction in TC and FC in F2 at the start of the experiment. This would beexpected, as the smaller interstices between smaller sand particles have a larger surface area, andwould allow more adsorption to take place. In this light, the 31.7% reductions in TC and FC by the F1experiment suggest inadequate purification when a larger ES of sand is used in the BSF, whilethe 97.2% reduction by F2 suggests a better result. More so, it is suggested that FS was removed primarily by straining and by changes in transportefficiency, due to the fact that the smaller interstices between smaller sand particles in F2 may account
    • Water 2010, 2 303for a 98.88% reduction of FS from the start of the experiments, while the larger interstices betweenlarger sand particles in F1 may account for a 95% reduction at the start of the experiment. However, tosome extent, biofilm formation and straining, may account for the 98.57% reduction in F1 observedafter eight weeks of filtration. This indicates that FS is physiologically different from FC and TC. Therate of flow in F1 and F3 is higher than that of F2, suggesting that the rate increases with an increase insand size. Also, turbidity removal is greater in F2 than in F1, suggesting that the amount of removalincreases with a decrease in the effective size of sand. Therefore, increases in the effective size of sandlead to decreases in microbial removal, turbidity removal, and NOM removal, and an increase inflow rate.4. Conclusions The improved household BSF, in which the zero-valent iron was incorporated, gave improvedreductions in pathogens indicators, NOM, odor, and turbidity, relative to the performance of atraditional BSF. The flow rate increased with increases in sand size, while pathogen removal decreasedwith increases in sand size. The difference in the reduction for different microbes suggests multiplemechanisms of attenuation. The increase in microbial reduction that occurred over repeated chargesand time in use is related to filter maturation and to the continuous formation of new adsorption sites(i.e., iron (oxyhdr)oxides). These mechanisms need a systematic study. These findings provide someanswers to questions about the assurance of safe water provided to users via traditional BSF during theearly stages of operation before biofilm formation. This was because the media had been modified toprovide a disinfectant function to compensate for the lower initial microbial removal that was due tothe lack of biofilm. Removal of pathogen indicators was enhanced by the biocidal and coagulant effects of ZVI in theimproved BSF (F3). Thus, ZVI has a high disinfection potential as a water treatment applicant in ahousehold BSF, and therefore, ZVI can reduce chlorine use, which produces DBPs, such astrihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, through the reaction of chlorine with humic materials. While acting as a disinfectant, ZVI also showed significant removal of NOM (e.g., humic acid).This provides an economical means of simultaneously reducing the risks associated with microbialpathogens, disinfectants, and DBPs. Use of a larger media size can reduce the unnecessary waits for BSF users, so as to obtain largervolumes of filtered water in a short time, a capacity which is important for larger families. However,this necessitates the use of a disinfectant for the effective removal of microbial pathogens. Therefore,combining the increase in grain size of sand and the inclusion of ZVI as a supplemental filter mediumcan effectively counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF.Recommendations 1. Since viruses are far smaller than bacteria and protozoan cysts, they can travel further into the sand bed of the BSF, thus making BSF less effective in removing viruses. Further research under well controlled conditions is needed to characterize viral removal by the improved BSF.
    • Water 2010, 2 304 2. Although this study indicates that the improved BSF can provide significant benefits, the capacity and limitations of ZVI use should be better understood, such as its long term performance and the quantity required in the BSF. 3. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms of adsorption and inactivation of microbial organisms and of the removal of NOM by ZVI.Acknowledgements The assistance of Peter Njodzeka of the Life and Water Development Group, Cameroon; EngineersWithout Borders (EWB) of the University of Delaware (UD), USA; and Magda Pachocka of UD, USAhave been very much appreciated. Thanks are also expressed for support in data collection and analysis by the National AdvancedSchool of Public Works (ENSTP) Yaoundéand the National Reference and Public Health Laboratory―Center Pasteur Du Cameroon.‖References1. Environmental priorities for development. In World Development Report: Development and the Environment; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 1992; pp. 44-50, 98-111.2. Sobsey, M.; Stauber, C.; Casanova, L.; Brown, J.; Elliot, M. Point of use household drinking water filtration: A practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 4261-4267.3. Elliott, M.A.; Stauber, C.E.; Koksal, F.; DiGiano, F.A.; Sobsey, M.D. Reductions of E. coli, echovirus type 12 and bacteriophages in a biosand filter. Water Res. 2008, 42, 2662-2670.4. Ellis, K.V. Slow Sand Filtration. CRC Crit. Rev. Environ. Contr. 1985, 15, 315-354.5. Ellis, K.V. Slow sand filtration. Water Engineering Development Center (WEDC). J. Develop. World Water 1987, 2, 196-198.6. Slow Sand Filtration; Final Project Report; National Environmental Engineering Research Institute: Nagpur, India, 1977.7. Huisman, L.; Wood, W.E. Slow Sand Filtration; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1974; pp. 47-79.8. Biosand Filter. Manual for Design, Construction, Installation and Maintenance; Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST): Calgary, Canada, 2008; pp 26-79; Available online: http://www.CAWST.org (accessed on 1 June 2009).9. Poynter, S.F.B.; Slade J.S. The removal of viruses by slow sand filtration. Prog. Water Technol. 1977, 9, 75-88.10. Muhammad, N.; Ellis, K.; Parr, J.; Smith, M.D. Optimization of slow sand filtration. In Reaching the Unreached: Challenges for the 21st Century, Proceedings of the 22nd WEDC Conference, New Delhi, India, 9–13 September 1996.11. Jin, Y.; Chu, Y.; Li, Y. Virus removal and transport in saturated and unsaturated sand columns. J. Contam. Hydrol. 2000, 43, 111-128.
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