CatalystA PLATFORM FOR PEOPLE, PROJECTS & PROGRESSFOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MARCH 2007 WATER Safe Drinking Water Rain Water Harvesting Facing the Water Crisis Waste Water Management India Water Portal Water Bond
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TEAM 03 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Catalyst EDITORIAL TEAM Dr. Bhamy V. Shenoy Chief Editor email@example.com FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Ms. Bharati Kalasapudi — An insight into the complex Mr. Nasy Sankagiri problems of development and an Ms. Aarti Iyer Mr. Lakshman Kalasapudi attempt to provide solutions. Ms. Padmaja Ayyagari Mr. Rajesh Satyavolu Published by: Dr. Srinivasa Rao (Editor) Dr. Vasundhara D. Kalasapudi firstname.lastname@example.org Bharati Seva Sadan Advisory Board Srinivasanagar Colony Dr. Thomas Abraham Saluru- 535 591 Dr. Nirupam Bajpai Vizianagaram District, A.P. India Dr. Suri Sehgal Mr. M. Chittaranjan Dr. Rao V.B.J. Chelikani Contact: Editorial Board INDIA Dr. Abraham George Dr. Rao V.B.J. Chelikani email@example.com INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (IFHD) Dr. Ratnam Chitturi Balaji Residency, 12-13-705/10/AB firstname.lastname@example.org Gokulnagar, Tarnaka Hyderabad - 500 017, A.P. India Mr. Anil Chug email@example.com Mr. Ram Krishnan firstname.lastname@example.org USA Dr. Srinivasa Rao Mr. Balbir Mathur Balbir@TreesforLife.org ASSOCIATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (AFHD) 208 Parkway Drive, Roslyn Heights Mr. Yogi Patel New York,11577, USA email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Raj Rajaram email@example.com For all communication please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Viral Acharya email@example.com Ms. Volga MISSION firstname.lastname@example.org Disclaimer To present people, ideas, news and views periodically to The views and opinions expressed readers to promote networking among NGOs. herein by authors are not necessarily those of Catalyst for HumanTo publish peer reviewed professional articles on NGO movement Development magazine, its Staff or that can promote sustainable development and best practices. Editor, and they assume no responsibility for them. Catalyst To disseminate information on NGO movement to improve accepts no responsibility, directly orcommunication that in turn can catalyze human development. indirectly, for the views and opinions expressed by the authors as well as for the pictures used in the articles. To provide a platform for all concerned with sustainable Any omission of reference to development to catalyze the process of human development. materialfrom web or other sources is unintentional.
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TITLE PAGES OF FIRST FOUR ISSUES OF CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HIGHLIGHTS OF JANUARY 06 ISSUE u Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural India u Healthcare in India u Water Management in 21st Century - Policy and Planning u Food and Nutrition Through Value Addition to Agri Resources u Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural India u Cross-Fertilization Needed Between Universities & Scientific Labs u Balasakhi - A Village Voice u NRI Pioneers - Catalytic Agents for Development HIGHLIGHTS OF APRIL 06 ISSUE u Agenda For the Nation: An Approach u Economic Reforms in India - The Unfinished Agenda u A Villagers Agenda For a Healthy India u Consumer Movement - An Agenda u Indias Development - Agenda for NRIs u Stop Child Poverty u Could Our Classrooms Shape Indias Destiny u Unscrupulous NGOs are Denting Movement HIGHLIGHTS OF OCTOBER 06 ISSUE u Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural India u Healthcare in India u Water Management in 21st Century - Policy and Planning u Food and Nutrition Through Value Addition to Agri Resources u Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural India u Cross-Fertilization Needed Between Universities & Scientific Labs u Balasakhi - A Village Voice u NRI Pioneers - Catalytic Agents for Development HIGHLIGHTS OF JANUARY 07 ISSUE u Non Resident Indians contributions - Answering a Call to Ation u Eliminating Elephantiasis and Waterborne Diseases u Association for Indias Development - Improving Literacy in Rural India u Leading India toward Millennium Development Goals u How Can NRIs Help in Poverty Alleviation u Is Mega Philanthropy Going to Make a Difference? u Nobel Peace Prize 2006 - Muhammad Yunus u Indian National Development Congress
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CONTENTS 07 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTPREFACE08 h Preface by Dr. Bhamy V. Shenoy WATER 18 h Water Wars:WATER National Problems10 h Case Study of Bhavani River Basin from a Regional12 h Safe Drinking Water in Villages: A Step Perspective towards Rural Transformation15 h Rain Barrels Catalyze Water Harvesting17 h Empowering Indian Communities to Face the Water Crisis 21 h Rain Centre in19 h WaterHealth International Partners with Chennai, India Community Leaders and NGOs to Bring Clean Water to Indias Underserved23 h Rainwater Harvesting in India25 h The India Water Portal28 h Odyssey of an NGO: Lessons to Be Learnt WATER RIGHTS30 h Oorani- Rain Water Harvesting for Villages 40 h Get Real, Coke:32 h Pala Thulli - Community Wide Rain Water Water Rights Harvesting Protest33 h Integrated Water Systems Management in South Asia - A Framework for Research34 h The Benefits of WaterPartners Internationals Water Credit Initiative SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS36 h Innovative Approaches to Water Projects 44 h Examples of in India Social Contribution38 h IIM Kozhikode Runs on Rainwater from IIT Madras39 h Chinas Water Crisis AlumniWASTE MANAGEMENT41h Benefits of Using Wastewater in the CASE STUDY Production of Agricultural Products42 h Promoting Effective Waste M anagement: 45 h Gravity Head Ensures The Clean Himalaya Initiative a Green Plant and Sustainability: ANGO ACTIVITY Case Study of54 h Meeting Reports Gangtok CityPORTRAIT57 h Portrait of Dr. K.L. Rao 47 h Sustainable Rural WaterESSAY58 h Water Bond for Safe Drinking water, Essay Management - A Replicable by Dr. Srinivasa Rao Case Study
08 PREFACE CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT W hile several aspects of Indias multi dimensional water crisis have been discussed in this issue of Catalyst, there are many which remain conspicuous by their absence. Because of the interest of the President Abdul Kalam, the Supreme Court and the political class, interlinking of rivers has been put on the national agenda. Privatization or corporatization of water distribution system versus status quo under the inefficient and often corrupt administrative set up of local bodies is another critical issue. Productivity of using water for growing different crops and optimum way of allocating water for growing different crops, supplying water as free good versus collecting full or partial cost of supplying, supplying at least 50 liters per person per day of clean water to all and resolving interstate water conflicts are some of the other water related issues remain uncovered in this issue. Thousands of NGOs are involved with water issues. But most are involved often in the non controversial projects like water harvesting or development of low cost technology to reuse waste water. It is because of this, most of our articles may be dealing with this aspect of water crisis. No substance is more valuable than water, but none is likely to be more free. In Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith has referred to this phenomenon as "Diamond-water paradox". We all know that any good that is available for free is likely to be misused. Still it is difficult to find NGOs who have the courage to convince the government to price water either in residential sector for drinking purpose or agricultural sector for producing food crops. In the case of power sector, at least the central government having realized the folly of giving free power to farmers are asking the state government to change their policy. But in the case of water, no political party has dared to take this up. Because of free power, farmers are depleting ground water at frightening rate. Bore wells are going deeper. As wells go deeper, arsenic and saltwater can begin to seep in. Already in Punjab brackish water has infiltrated in several places. There can be no two opinions on the need to support farmers and so also the poor who are below the poverty line. At the same time, studies after studies have shown that subsidies do not reach the intended beneficiaries. In this case these subsidies have created huge problems. Free power along with free water has given rise to water shortage sometimes on a semi permanent basis. Unlike energy security which is a well recognized issue by the government, water security has not yet got the attention it deserves in India. Contamination of water is causing havoc throughout India causing totally avoidable illness like diarrhoea and sometimes even killing people. Indias NGO movement need to take this problem on a war footing since the government machinery is totally incapable of solving it despite having many laws and regulations. History has shown that from the time of Sumeria water has been a principle source of conflicts between nations. We in India have started to see the first signs of water conflict between states in recent years. These can result in constitutional crisis. At this issue goes to press, Karnataka is in turmoil because of the Kaveri Tribunals award going against it. We are likely to see more such conflicts in the future. We need to develop a sound methodology to settle such interstate water problems in a more objective and scientific way keeping aside the political and emotional factors. Dr. Bhamy V. Shenoy
10 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Case Study of Bhavani River Basin Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is the need of the hour and River Basin Organisations (RBOs) are using this for better water management and sustainable development of natural resources. This article highlights lessons learnt from the Bhavani River Basin Action Research Project.I N INDIA, like in many other developing countries in South Asia, water scarcity and deterioration in water DR. A. RAJAGOPAL is a Development Economist with a Ph.d from Centre For quality threaten the basics of food security and the Development studies, Trivandrum affiliatedfoundation of society. Increase in population, escalated to Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.competition from urbanization, growing urban-rural Since 1991 he has been working on a numberconflicts over water, over-exploitation of ground water, of policy issues in water resourcesfrequent droughts and floods are the major water management. Presently he is Executivemanagement issues that the country faces. Managing Director of SaciWATERs (South Asiancompeting demands from irrigation, urban and rural Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies),drinking, industrial sectors and minimum flows for Hyderabad.environmental purpose, has become a major challenge in21st century. The existing system of sectoral The National Water Policy, 2002 also emphasized thearrangements for water management is no longer importance of river basin management. It left the scopeadequate, and there is an urgent need for an integrated and power of the basin organisations to be decided byapproach to deal with these challenges. Integrated Water the states themselves. Most of the rivers in India areResources Management (IWRM), through River Basin inter-state in nature, and hence, there is a need for aOrganisations (RBOs), is the main strategy advocated for comprehensive approach to address the many issues ofachieving better water management and sustainable river basin management. However, in practical terms, thedevelopment of natural resources. It is also emphasized experience in RBM is very limited and the country has toas one of the means of achieving the Millennium go a long way in realizing the benefits of IWRM throughDevelopment Goal (MDG) of reducing poverty. RBM. India has few RBOs and all of them are managed byIWRM and River Basin Management (RBM) in India - the State. They are not functioning well due to excessivePolicy Issues control by the State, and the interests of stakeholders,India accepted IWRM and RBM as a strategy for water especially the poor, are hardly represented in theresources development in 1992 following the Dublin management. Given this, it is necessary to explore theconference. However, the progress on this was dismal scope for an alternative bottom-up approach thatuntil 1998, when the Government of India appointed a involves stakeholders. This article analyses thecommittee to recommend ways and means for opportunities and constraints for such an approach in theIntegrated Water Resources Planning and Development. Bhavani river basin in South India.The committee recommended the river basin as a unit forIntegrated Water Resources Planning and Development. Case Study of Bhavani River Basin Bhavani is an important tributary of the Cauvery River in Map 1 Location of the Bhavani river its mid-reach in Tamilnadu. The river originates from the basin in the Indian sub continent Silent Valley forest of Kerala, and flows in the south- eastern direction for 217 kms. The total area of the Bhavani river basin is 6000 sq km, a major portion (87%) of which is situated in Tamilnadu (See Map 1). The Lower Bhavani Project (LBP) is a multi-purpose reservoir project, constructed mainly for water storage and distribution to canal systems in the basin. The reservoir is also used for hydel power generation and fishing. Apart from this, water diversion dams, viz. Kodiveri and Kalingarayan, divert water into different canal systems that have existed for centuries. The Upper part of the basin is not well developed and depends mostly upon ground water and rain for agriculture. The
WATER WATER 11 11 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT mostly upon ground water and rainfor agriculture. The river plays animportant role in the economy ofCoimbatore and Erode districts byproviding water for agriculture, drinking,industrial purposes and for over alleconomic development. Due to anincrease in population, unplannedexpansion in the command area, andincrease in the demand for domestic andindustrial water supply, the basin isalready closing and stressed. There isintense competition among water usersand a sizeable gap between demand andsupply in the agriculture and domestic Map 2;Bhavani basin map withsectors. rivers and tributaries There are conflicts between the oldsettlers and the new command farmersregarding water use in the basin. Under the riparian Approachprinciples, the old ayacutdars- command farmers - were The basin water management situation has becomeentitled to 11 months water supply for growing two or precarious due to the uncoordinated actions ofthree paddy crops or annual crops like sugarcane, banana stakeholders. Based on our studies and meetings withetc, whereas the new ayacut farmers could only grow a different stakeholders (organized by SaciWATERs andsingle paddy crop or a dry crop like maize in a year. As Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore), welong as water supply in the dam was adequate, the realized the need for involving the stakeholders in theconflict was not pronounced. However, in 2002 the efforts of the State in addressing the issues of watersupply was at an all time low and water was not released resources management in an integrated manner.to the new command areas at all. This prompted the new Consequently, we organized a Multi-Stakeholdersayacutdars to file a case in the High Court seeking water Dialogue meeting in 2005 wherein farmers, NGOs,supply for at least one crop. The court asked the government departments, industrialists, social activists,Government to prepare a compromise formula for etc. discussed various issues. In that meeting, thesharing water among farmers, but this was rejected by stakeholders agreed to establish a forum to discuss thesethem, Negotiations organized by local politicians also issues further rather than resorting to court cases andfailed. The court, in its interim order, has asked the State agitations. The work of the forum, which is likely toto obtain its permission before opening the dam each become an RBO in the future, continues.season. Thus, the conflict situation led to the intervention Lessons from the experience: The action research inof the court in the operation of the reservoir, instead of the Bhavani basin has brought out the following lessons:the normal procedure of operation by the Irrigation l There is a need for coordinated action by the State inDepartment. planning for the development of water resources in an There is also a conflict between upstream and down area and the river basin offers the scope for suchstream users of the water in the basin. Many upstream planning as a logical -hydrological unit.users have resorted to direct pumping from the river and l Stakeholders increasingly resort to legal courses (whenthis has resulted in a court case by the down stream they lack faith in the existing mechanism) that are costlyfarmers. Thus, it is seen that farmers have increasingly and time consuming.resorted to legal remedies rather than their own l The role of an external party, as an unbiased facilitator,negotiated efforts. There are also other issues in basin is important in building confidence among differentwater management such as increase in demand for water stakeholders in undertaking stakeholders dialogues.for domestic and industrial uses, and the problem of l Stakeholders gain faith in the process of dialogues andpollution of the water by industries. Farmers affected by negotiated settlement of problems only when thepollution have sought legal remedies and have got closed participation of the State is assured.some of the polluting textile and chemical units, which l The bottom-up approach needs to be built up as a parthas affected employment opportunities in the area. of the State programme on a large scale. Dr. A. RajagopalImportance of Multi-Stakeholders Dialogue (MSD) Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
12 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Safe Drinking Water in Villages: A Step Towards Rural Transformation This article highlights the system adopted by Byrraju Foundation to provide safe drinking water in villages. The Foundation set up Sujala water treatment plants in over 45 villages through public-private partnerships.W ATER, ONE of natures most important gifts to sanitation, agri-advisory services and livelihoods. The mankind, is an essential element to good vision for the water programme is to provide safe health. Though 70% of the earths drinking water, as per WHO standards, in all thegeographical area is covered by water, only 1% of it is participant villages.potable, the rest being unsafe for consumption. Naturalwater sources, especially rivers, canals, ponds, wells, etc. Supply of Drinking Water in Villagesare being exploited, mistreated and contaminated, Improvement in the quality of drinking water significantlymaking drinking from them unsafe. Unlike in the inland benefits the health and well being of people. 63% ofareas, in delta regions, an adequate quantity of water is villages the Foundation is working in are dependent onmade available for drinking purposes, often through irrigation canals, while the remaining 37% are dependentirrigation canals and sometimes through subsurface on ground water. Under RWS Scheme, most of thesources. Over the years, however, the canal water has villages, especially in delta region, have a pond, fed bybecome highly polluted with presence of physical and the irrigation canal at regular intervals, and storing thechemical impurities, as well as harmful bacteria. required quantity of water. The water in the pond is The World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that passed through slow sand filters (SSF) followed bymore than 1.1 billion people across the globe draw water chlorination and pumping into an overhead tank forfrom unsafe sources, causing widely spread diseases like distribution through a system of pipes.diarrhoea. Nearly 70% and 80% of these people live in The quality of raw water in the pond is extremelyrural areas. It is difficult to control the quality of drinking poor, resulting in frequent clogging of SSFs, which arewater even in the most developed countries, and small designed for the raw water turbidity up to 30 NTU.community water supplies frequently fail on basic However, the actual turbidity is much higher, especiallymicrobiological quality and other physical impurities, like, during the monsoons, going up to 130 NTU. The SSFssuspended solids in case of surface water, and total are designed for 16 hours operation, with 3-phasedissolved solids (TDS) mostly in ground water. power, so as to supply 40 litres of treated water per The Byrraju Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation capita per day. The 3-phase power is only available for 6-dedicated to rural transformation, has embarked upon 7 hours a day in most of the villages, making it necessaryproviding safe drinking water, conforming to WHOs to pump untreated water as well. Furthermore, lack ofstandards, and improving the quality of life in 156 adequate funds does not allow proper maintenancevillages. In most of these villages, tests conducted on the of the SSFs.available water indicated failure in meeting the drinkingstandards, even after filtration and chlorination. To DANDU RADHA PRASADA RAJU holds doctoral degree in Mechanical Engineeringaddress this issue, the Foundation concluded that one joined the Government of India two decadesviable option was to separate the drinking water from the ago. Presently, while holding the position ofrest of the water supplied through Rural Water Supply Adviser in Department of Science and(RWS) scheme in villages. Technology, he is on sabbatical for over 3 years with Byrraju Foundation, an NGOFoundations Efforts Towards Provision Of Safe dedicated to rural transformation, workingDrinking Water in the Villages in 172 villages across 6 districts of Andhra Pradesh, impactingThe Foundation is presently working across East a million people. His association with Byrraju FoundationGodavari, Guntur, Krishna, Ranga Reddy, Visakhapatnam resulted in setting up of a number of community based waterand West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, directly plants, in public private partnerships, providing safe drinkingimpacting over million people, and over double that water in 130 villages on sustainable basis. Byrraju Foundation has been awarded Best Water NGO-Water Quality in Indianumber indirectly. Its interventions are in the fields of during 2006-07 by Water Digest and UNESCO.healthcare, education, adult literacy, water environment,
WATER 13 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (In case of conventional treatment, membranes, high pressure pump and softner are not needed) Tests on water samples from 153 villages of West the idea of setting up one plant for every three villagesGodavari, East Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Ranga producing 1000-2000 litres of pure water an hour, to beReddy districts, supplied through RWS scheme, after operated by trained youth from the villages, who ensurefiltration and chlorination, indicated the presence of sustainability by collecting user charges. The quality ofcoliform, turbidity, chlorides and other physical and the produced water is strictly monitored and local Sciencechemical impurities. It was observed that 78% of the Colleges are involved in regular testing and controls.samples did not meet the safe requirements on account A pilot plant, named Sujala, was set up in July 2004 inof the above parameters. If the need for 0.2 ppm of a village called Gollalakoderu (near Bhimavaram in Westresidual chlorine is also considered, 96% villages failed in Godavari district), jointly supported by Gram Panchayat,meeting such norms. In case of upland areas, which Village Community and Byrraju Foundation. Based on itsdepend on ground water, high levels of TDS, including success and the responses from other villages, 45 plantsfluorides, in excess of WHO norms, were observed. have been set up (as on March 2007) in as many villages on Public-Private Partnership model.Foundations Initiatives in Supply of Pure Drinking A schematic diagram outlining the purification systemWater is given above with a period.In order to reduce the levels of pollution in the irrigationcanals, various initiatives like treating and diverting liquid Operation and Maintenance of Sujala plantswaste into the drainage canals, converting solid waste In order to ensure 100% satisfactory performance of theinto compost manure, burying dead animals, and so on, Sujala plants, the quality of input water is checkedmust be followed. Addressing these issues is a gigantic thoroughly for various parameters like turbidity, physicaltask, requiring a lot of resources, time and effort. When and chemical impurities, and bacteria, on a continuousthe Foundation highlighted the bad condition of SSFs, the basis. Based on the levels of impurities and bacteria, theGovernment made a one-time intervention, taking very process parameters are set for effective removal of thelimited measures in terms of repair and maintenance. same. To overcome the power-cuts, the plant is operatedHowever, realising the problems, the Foundation on single-phase for 12-16 hours a day on flexible timings,developed a strategy to address the situation. using voltage stabilisers for maintaining quality of the power. 100% standby for all the critical components, likeStrategy for the Supply of Pure Water pumps, motors, UV lamps, voltage stabilisers, multi-portOut of 40 litres per capita per day supplied by RWS, valves and adequate stocks of consumables are ensured.about 2 litres - 5% of the total - are used for drinking and Annual maintenance contract is entered into, initially forneed to be supplied to the villages. Since it is much easier 5 years, with the suppliers of the plant to ensure troubleto raise 5% of the water to drinking standards rather free operation. For every 5 Sujala water plants, athan the entire quantity, the Foundation came up with maintenance team, deployed within close vicinity of the
14 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTW ATER, ONE of natures most important gifts to microbiological quality and other physical impurities, like, mankind, is an essential element to good suspended solids in case of surface water, and total health. Though 70% of the earths dissolved solids (TDS) mostly in ground water.geographical area is covered by water, only 1% of it is The Byrraju Foundation, a not-for-profit organisationpotable, the rest being unsafe for consumption. Natural dedicated to rural transformation, has embarked uponwater sources, especially rivers, canals, ponds, wells, etc. providing safe drinking water, conforming to WHOsare being exploited, mistreated and contaminated, standards, and improving the quality of life in 156making drinking from them unsafe. Unlike in the inland villages. In most of these villages, tests conducted on theareas, in delta regions, an adequate quantity of water is available water indicated failure in meeting the drinkingmade available for drinking purposes, often through standards, even after filtration and chlorination. Toirrigation canals and sometimes through subsurface address this issue, the Foundation concluded that onesources. Over the years, however, the canal water has viable option was to separate the drinking water from thebecome highly polluted with presence of physical and rest of the water supplied through Rural Water Supplychemical impurities, as well as harmful bacteria. (RWS) scheme in villages. The World Health Organisation (WHO) reported thatmore than 1.1 billion people across the globe draw water Foundations Efforts Towards Provision Of Safefrom unsafe sources, causing widely spread diseases like Drinking Water in the Villagesdiarrhoea. Nearly 70% and 80% of these people live in The Foundation is presently working across Eastrural areas. It is difficult to control the quality of drinking Godavari, Guntur, Krishna, Ranga Reddy, Visakhapatnamwater even in the most developed countries, and small and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, directlycommunity water supplies frequently fail on basic impacting over million people, and over double thatCost of Sujala Plant: number indirectly. Its interventions are in the fields of1. Cost of building(civil construction) 500 sq feet : Rs 300,000 healthcare, education, adult literacy, water environment,2. Plant and machinery : sanitation, agri-advisory services and livelihoods. The a.Conventional UV process vision for the water programme is to provide safe(TDS in raw water <500 ppm) : Rs 400,000 drinking water, as per WHO standards, in all the b.Reverse osmosis process participant villages.(TDS in raw water >500 ppm) : Rs 500,000Requirement of Infrastructure: Supply of Drinking Water in VillagesConnected load (single-phase): 5 KW (for RO plant), 3 KW Improvement in the quality of drinking water significantly (non-RO plant) benefits the health and well being of people. 63% ofLand (for building) : 1500 sq ft (near main water villages the Foundation is working in are dependent on source of Gram Panchayat) irrigation canals, while the remaining 37% are dependent on ground water. Under RWS Scheme, most of theEcomomics of Operation: villages, especially in delta region, have a pond, fed by a. Rated capacity of plant : 1000 litres per hour (output-RO process) the irrigation canal at regular intervals, and storing the b. Number of hours of operation : 7 hours required quantity of water. The water in the pond is c. Production of pure water : 6500 litres a day passed through slow sand filters (SSF) followed by (minimum/average) chlorination and pumping into an overhead tank for d. Distribution of water : 6000 litres a day distribution through a system of pipes. (minimum/average) The quality of raw water in the pond is extremely e. Expenditure (per month): : Rs 17500 poor, resulting in frequent clogging of SSFs, which are - Emoluments/wages : Rs 7500 (operator/helper- 3 persons @ Rs 2500 pm) designed for the raw water turbidity up to 30 NTU. - Power (Rs 4 per unit, 20 units a day) : Rs 2500 However, the actual turbidity is much higher, especially - Consumables : Rs 2000 during the monsoons, going up to 130 NTU. The SSFs (alum, chlorine, detergent, filters, etc) are designed for 16 hours operation, with 3-phase - Annual maintenance charges : Rs 2000 power, so as to supply 40 litres of treated water per - Depreciation : Rs 2000 Prasada Raju - Incidental expenses : Rs 1500 Email: email@example.com f. Collection of user charges(@ 12.5 paise a litre): Rs 22500 References: g.Surplus : Rs 5000 Statistics on water:‘The facility of levying concessional tariff for consumption of power, as WaterPartners International http://www.water.org/resources/waterfacts.htmallowed to Public water Schemes in villages, usually 10% of normal rate Aquastat http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/main/index.stmas mentioned above, reduces the charges for running of plant making the Byrraju Foundation: http://www.byrrajufoundation.org/villagesfaq.htmunit break-even at 5300 litres of water distributed a day’. Statistics: http://www.unicef.org/wes/index_statistics.html
WATER 15 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Rain Barrels Catalyze Water Harvesting Rainwater harvesting through the rain barrel generates water for productive use that would otherwise go waste. This article shows how the Rainwater Club of Bangalore has used this approach effectively.T he potential of rainwater harvesting has been much talked about in recent times. But that an ordinary plastic water storage drum, connected to the roof SHREE PADRE is a journalist with manythrough a pipe, can harvest water is a fact that many years of experience in agricultural reporting.citizens in the Bangalore-Mysore region of India find He is the author of several books, includingsurprising. one on rainwater harvesting, published by The Rainwater Club of Bangalore is an organization Altermedia.intent on disseminating information on rainwaterharvesting. It is run by S.Vishwanath, a water activist ofinternational repute. When Vishwanath showed a small water by a bucket or by using a hosepipe.plastic drum that collects rainwater to a team of women A gate valve is fitted at the end of the down pipe toslum dwellers of Chamarajpet, Bangalore, they allow the water from the first rains of the season to runexclaimed, "Ishtena, ishtena?" (Is it this simple, this out. After 2-3 rains, the valve is closed and the rainwatersimple?). flows into the barrel. On top of the drum is a filter to These women will now install rainwater tanks in at improve the quality of the collected rainwater. This is aleast 200 houses with the help of a local NGO, small-perforated aluminium/stainless steel basin with twoRayapuram Development Society. layers of sponge on it. Regarding the thickness of the On another occasion, a Gram Panchayat member sponge, Vishwanath says, "Oh! Dont worry much onfrom Anekal was so moved by this simple idea that he this. If sponge is not easy available, you can place aimmediately decided to build a 10,000 litre Rainwater three-fold layer of ordinary dhoti."Storage tank in his village. The sponge filter can be seen from the outside, and This system, presented to the slum women and Gram when it is visibly clogged, it is cleaned by washing in aPanchayat member, is called a Rain Barrel, "A simple way bucket of water. Cleaning 3 or 4 times in a year may befor people to start harvesting rainwater", according to enough and thereVishwanath. is no need to Most people are not aware of how much rainwater replace the spongepours on their house-site or campus, and are not sheet.psychologically prepared to accept such water as potable. A rain barrel"It is this entry barrier that is most difficult to break", can collect aopines Vishwanath. Here the rain barrel comes in handy, substantial amounteasing away the mental block, and serving as a catalyst of water, given it is The rain barrels filter is sponge.for rainwater harvesting. emptied every time The rain barrel system is based on an ordinary plastic it rains. Assuming that the user empties the barrel once rainwater storage drum everyday (during the rainy season), a 50 sqm roof, A rain barrel connected available anywhere. The connected to a 500 litre rain barrel, can collect nearly to the roof through a PVC pipe. capturing area (roof or 23,000 litres of rainwater in a year, under Bangalore terrace) is cleaned once conditions. Similarly, a 1000 litre rain barrel can collect at the beginning of the nearly 35,000 litres of water in a year. In many parts of monsoon. Due to the Kerala, with over 100 days of rain annually, a 500 litre gravitational pull, the can collect around 40,000 litres! rain that falls on the The space required for a 500 litre rain barrel is four roof reaches the drum cubic feet and has an installation cost of about Rs 2500, through a PVC down while a 1000 litre rain barrel would cost approximately pipe. For convenience, Rs 4300. the rain barrel is placed Every rain barrel has a tap and an overflow outlet. The on a platform 18 inches water collected can be used to recharge open wells or above the ground to bore wells. Using a hosepipe and a Zero-B type filter, facilitate the drawl of which costs about Rs 60, the tap can be connected to the
16 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTT he potential of rainwater harvesting has psychologically prepared to accept such water as been much talked about in recent times. potable. "It is this entry barrier that is most But that an ordinary plastic water storage difficult to break", opines Vishwanath. Here thedrum, connected to the roof through a pipe, can rain barrel comes in handy, easing away theharvest water is a fact that many citizens in the mental block, and serving as a catalyst forBangalore-Mysore region of India find surprising. rainwater harvesting. The Rainwater Club of Bangalore is an S.VISHWANATH The rain barrel system is based on an ordinaryorganization intent on disseminating information of Bangalores plastic rainwater storage drum availableon rainwater harvesting. It is run by Rainwater Club anywhere. The capturing area (roof or terrace) isS.Vishwanath, a water activist of international cleaned once at the beginning of the monsoon.repute. When Vishwanath showed a small plastic drum Due to the gravitational pull, the rain that falls on thethat collects rainwater to a team of women slum dwellers roof reaches the drum through a PVC down pipe. Forof Chamarajpet, Bangalore, they exclaimed, "Ishtena, convenience, the rain barrel is placed on a platform 18ishtena?" (Is it this simple, this simple?). inches above the ground to facilitate the drawl of water These women will now install rainwater tanks in at by a bucket or by using a hosepipe.least 200 houses with the help of a local NGO, A gate valve is fitted at the end of the down pipe toRayapuram Development Society. allow the water from the first rains of the season to run On another occasion, a Gram Panchayat member out. After 2-3 rains, the valve is closed and the rainwaterfrom Anekal was so moved by this simple idea that he flows into the barrel. On top of the drum is a filter toimmediately decided to build a 10,000 litre Rainwater improve the quality of the collected rainwater. This is aStorage tank in his village. small-perforated aluminium/stainless steel basin with two This system, presented to the slum women and Gram Shree PadrePanchayat member, is called a Rain Barrel, "A simple way Email: firstname.lastname@example.org people to start harvesting rainwater", according to Rainwater ClubVishwanath. #264, 6TH Main, 6th Block, Vidyaranyapura, BEL Layout, Most people are not aware of how much rainwater Bangalore 560097. Phone: +91-80-23641690pours on their house-site or campus, and are not http://www.rainwaterclub.org Water Conservation at Motor Industries Company in India Water is everywhere. Yet about 97% of it is salty sea water and 2% is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps, which makes the remaining 1% a precious commodity, indispensable for our survival. This lifeline is today - contaminated and polluted. So water and other natural resource conservation are regarded seriously in the Bosch Environmental Management System. Environmental protection plays a significant role in stimulating and guiding product innovation. The pollution control measures we practice at Motor Industries Co. include automated effluent treatment plants, prevention of soil and ground water contamination, and minimized usage of hazardous chemicals. Water treatment At Motor Industries, we employ technologies like Extended Aeration, Reverse Osmosis and Ion Exchange for treatment and reuse of domestic and process waste water. This has resulted in 40% reduction of fresh water usage. Treated effluent About 800,000 litres of treated effluent per day are reused for secondary purposes like gardening and toilet flushing. More than 10,000 trees of different species, in addition to a garden of medicinal plants, are nurtured with the treated effluent. Rain water harvesting At our Jaipur Plant (Jaipur receives less than 300 mm of rainfall annually), the entire rain water runoff from the premises is recharged into the ground, thereby improving the quality and quantity of available ground water. In the last three years, more than 12 Million litres of rain water have been recharged in to the ground. by K.P. Murthy, Mico Bosch, India
WATER 17 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Empowering Indian Communities to Face the Water Crisis Water quality testing infrastructure in India is still weak. This article recommends decentralized system of water testing alongwith community-based quality monitoring and the use of field test kits.F RESH WATER, that was once considered to be an SS MEENAKSHI SUNDARAM has had 36 infinitely renewable natural resource, is no longer years of experience as officer of the Indian available in plenty. Several countries are now Administrative Service. Besides working inexperiencing serious fresh water supply problems on the Prime Ministers Office with threeaccount of increasing demand due to population different Prime Ministers, he was Secretary topressure, over exploitation, rapid growth in agriculture, Government of India in the Ministries ofindustry and urbanization. In India, the per capita water Rural Development, Disinvestment, Spaceavailability, which was over 5,000 cubic meters per and Atomic Energy. After retiring from the IAS, he is currently a Visiting Professor at the National Instituteannum in 1950, has now come down to less than 2,000 of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.cubic meters*. Though the country has made significantprogress with regard to drinking water, thanks to thesustained efforts of the Central and State Governments, testing has to be introduced. Adoption of communityheavy dependence on ground water, coupled with based water quality monitoring, and involvement ofinadequate recharging efforts and the neglect of health department in water quality surveillance, mighttraditional practices like rain water harvesting, have also mitigate the quality problems. A "catchment arearesulted in the depletion of ground water levels. This has approach", involving locally available infrastructure andbrought about water quality problems in several parts of institutions for water quality testing at the habitationthe country. This article will examine the quality level, with the help of village panchayats and the districtproblems, which, so far, have not received adequate labs, needs to be advocated.attention in the Indian context. To implement the community based catchment area Despite improved coverage and access to water approach on a large scale, user friendly and reliable watersupply, nearly 400,000** children, under the age of five, quality field test kits should be made available. Althoughdie in India due to diarrhoeal diseases attributable to some test kits are now seen in the Indian market, it iscontaminated water and poor hygiene practices. Apart necessary to closely scrutinize their efficacy on the twofrom this, other major water quality problems include counts - user-friendliness and reliability - so that theirhigh salinity and high fluoride, arsenic, iron and nitrate potential for large scale use can be determined. Secondly,concentrations. While some water quality problems are standardization of these kits may be necessary toof geological origin, others are man-made. Unlike iron facilitate local manufacture, training communityand salinity, the presence of arsenic, fluoride or representatives, as well as for decentralized marketing ofbacteriological pollution does not result in an easily these kits in district/block level shops. There is also aidentifiable change in colour or taste. As a result, a large need for an institutional arrangement for assuring quality,number of people unknowingly drink contaminated receiving feedback from the users, and periodical designwater. refinement of these kits. There is a substantial scope for Water quality testing infrastructure in India is still private-public participation in designing, producing andweak. Some districts do not have qualified labs, while marketing these kits. Empowering the communities inothers do not have qualified staff or adequate transport testing water quality of their own sources is the only wayfacilities. The dispersed nature of water sources poses for users to know if their water sources are safe. Onlyimmense logistics problems in transporting samples to then they can initiate timely remedial action.the district labs and conveying results to the community, S.S. Meenakshi Sundaramas frequently as is necessary. Although regular sanitary Email: email@example.com are prescribed to prevent bacteriological References:pollution, these are seldom conducted. * Centre for Science and Environment: http://www.cseindia.org/dte What then is the solution? Provision of safe water supplement/industry20040215/ agriculture.htmsources and treatment units should get the highest ** UNICEFpriority. In addition, a decentralized system of water UK:www.unicef.org.uk/fundraising/resources/unicef_interfaith_action_hindus.pdf
18 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Water Wars: National Problems from a Regional Perspective Shortage of water and inefficient management of water resources have led to several inter-state water disputes in India.This article points out the necessity of adopting a regional focus iin the resolution of water problems at the national level.T here have been inter-state water disputes ever since PROF. RAMAMURTHI RALLAPALLI India gained independence. Inter state disputes (Ph.D., D.Sc) is a former Vice-Chancellor of include the disputes between Punjab, Haryana and S,V.University in Tirupati, and is GeneralRajasthan over Sutlej-Yamuna,Tamilnadu and Karnataka President of the 2008 Indian Scienceover Cauveri waters, and Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka Congress. He is an Environmental andover Krishna waters. Tribunals were constituted to Biomedical Scientist of internationaldevelop a formula but political undertones pushed these reputation. He is a fellow of Indian Nationaltribunals into inaction. The most glaring example is the Science Academy (F.N.A.Sc)., NationalCauveri water tribunal to sort out the claims of Academy of Sciences,India (F.N.A), Received ISCAKarnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. The award declared Millennium Plaque of Honor award from Honble Prime Minister of India, Jan, 2006after an inexplicably protracted delay of seventeen yearsin February 2007 received more criticism than awareness and implementation of water saving practices,appreciation. As the river flows through several states, an the problems of water shortage are actually accentuated.ideal apportionment has been a challenging task and has While interlinking of rivers advocated by Late K.L.Raoeluded a universally acceptable verdict. The announced who was dreaming of National water grid has beenverdict is not acceptable to Karanataka and the state is discussed and debated several times, regional andpreparing for long verbal, legal and social wars through within the state water resources could be linked. Forlife paralyzing bandhs and an all party delegation of example linking of Godavari - Krishna, Galeru - Nagari,politicians taking the matter to courts and to the Central and Handri - Neva in Andhra Pradesh may provide muchGovernment. What goes beyond the imagination of sane needed access to water for irrigation and drinking inthinking citizens is the lack of realization that gone are several districts. This is what is being done in Andhrathe days of easy availability of surface and ground water. Pradesh.Due to the lack of control over sinking of bore wells and If a concerted proactive approach is made, many water problems could be solved. Success stories such as Krishna water being sent to Chennai through the Telugu Ganga project is solving to a great extent the drinking water problems of Chennai. This should act as a model for social political vision for State leaders. Public /private partnerships and industry involvement should lead the way for quenching thirst of millions whose basic access to clean drinking water is denied. The Olavanna experiment in Kerala, the Byrraju Foundation projects in Andhra Pradesh and Sri Satya Sai water projects have shown the way for public/private partnerships and Ramamurthi Rallapalli Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
WATER 19 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT WaterHealth International Partners with Community Leaders and NGOs to Bring Clean Water to Indias Underserved This article presents the experience of WaterHealth International in catering to the water needs of rural communities. It uses a partnership approach to extend ongoing outreach and education programs that effectively communicate the relationship between clean water, improved hygiene and good health.A PPROXIMATELY 70 percent of Indias citizens live TRALANCE ADDY earned BA and BS in rural communities, with poor, if any, access to degrees in chemistry and mechanical potable water*. Addressing this need has been a engineering simultaneously fromdaunting challenge for governments, private industry and Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, in 1969, and subsequently earned MS and PhDNGOs alike. In response to the crisis, WaterHealth degrees in engineering from the University ofInternational (WHI) is redefining the way potable water Massachusetts at Amherst. Prior to joiningis provided to the worlds underserved populations. WaterHealth, Dr. Addy was an international vice president of Johnson & Johnson, and a member of theBreakthrough Technology Global Management Committee of Johnson & Johnson Medical,The foundation of the companys products is a versatile, Inc. He is a recipient of several corporate awards for innovationinnovative technology platform. The patented, award- and entrepreneurship, and the holder of 13 US andwinning technology, UV Waterworks™, employs a international patents.unique air-suspended ultra-violet process that is gravitydriven, and features a contoured flow channel instead of sizes. Non-proprietary components that are coupled witha cylindrical pipe. UV disinfection is an extremely safe, UVW in WHIs installations are readily available in mostreliable and environmentally superior method of parts of the world. Ease-of-use and low maintenancedisinfecting water. UVW delivers a high dose of this requirements mean that the systems can be deployedradiation that inactivates micro organisms through even in the most remote locations.disruption of their DNA processes. The technology wasinvented at the, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories A Unique Approach to Sustainabilityin California by Dr. Ashok Gadgil, a Staff Scientist, who WaterHealth Internationals unique business approach toalso holds the position of VP of Scientific Affairs of WHI. reaching the underserved includes financing for theHe has received wide international acclaim for his purchase and installation of the systems. This makes itinvention and its ability to deliver high-quality water at possible to deliver comprehensive and integratedvery low cost. The high quality of water meets the products for safe, clean water, even to communities oncepotable water standards of the World Health considered "unreachable".Organization. User fees for treated water are used to service the In both its operational characteristics and application financing costs and to cover the expenses of operatingpotential, the UV Waterworks process and system design and maintaining the equipment and facility. Therepresent a significant departure from the existing company hires and trains local residents of thepurification processes. For deployment in rugged communities it serves to operate and perform the day-to-environments and locations with little technology day maintenance of these "micro-utilities". This createsinfrastructure it has significant advantages over employment and builds capacity, as well as spawnstechnologies such as conventional UV systems, reverse entrepreneurial opportunities for local residents toosmosis, ozonation and chlorination, among others. provide related services, such as delivery of the purifiedBenefits of the technology include high efficacy water to outlying areas.combined with high throughput, a small footprint, and Because the facilities are owned by the communities inlong-term reliability. The modular design means that which they are installed, the user fee becomes ansystems can be scaled to serve communities of various important source of revenue for communities after the
20 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTA PPROXIMATELY 70 percent of Indias citizens live systems can be scaled to serve communities of various in rural communities, with poor, if any, access to sizes. Non-proprietary components that are coupled with potable water*. Addressing this need has been a UVW in WHIs installations are readily available in mostdaunting challenge for governments, private industry parts of the world. Ease-of-use and low maintenanceand NGOs alike. In response to the crisis, WaterHealth requirements mean that the systems can be deployedInternational (WHI) is redefining the way potable water even in the most remote locations.is provided to the worlds underserved populations. A Unique Approach to SustainabilityBreakthrough Technology WaterHealth Internationals unique business approach toThe foundation of the companys products is a versatile, reaching the underserved includes financing for theinnovative technology platform. The patented, award- purchase and installation of the systems. This makes itwinning technology, UV Waterworks™, employs a possible to deliver comprehensive and integratedunique air-suspended ultra-violet process that is gravity products for safe, clean water, even to communities oncedriven, and features a contoured flow channel instead of considered "unreachable".a cylindrical pipe. UV disinfection is an extremely safe, User fees for treated water are used to service thereliable and environmentally superior method of financing costs and to cover the expenses of operatingdisinfecting water. UVW delivers a high dose of this and maintaining the equipment and facility. Theradiation that inactivates micro organisms through company hires and trains local residents of thedisruption of their DNA processes. The technology was communities it serves to operate and perform the day-to-invented at the, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories day maintenance of these "micro-utilities". This createsin California by Dr. Ashok Gadgil, a Staff Scientist, who employment and builds capacity, as well as spawnsalso holds the position of VP of Scientific Affairs of WHI. entrepreneurial opportunities for local residents toHe has received wide international acclaim for his provide related services, such as delivery of the purifiedinvention and its ability to deliver high-quality water at water to outlying areas.very low cost. The high quality of water meets the Because the facilities are owned by the communities inpotable water standards of the World Health which they are installed, the user fee becomes anOrganization. important source of revenue for communities after the In both its operational characteristics and application loans are repaid.potential, the UV Waterworks process and system designrepresent a significant departure from the existing Partnering for Effective Public Outreach andpurification processes. For deployment in rugged Educationenvironments and locations with little technology Community involvement and knowledge are vital factorsinfrastructure it has significant advantages over in the widespread and lasting adoption of practices totechnologies such as conventional UV systems, reverse win the fight against waterborne diseases. In theosmosis, ozonation and chlorination, among others. communities it serves, WaterHealth developsBenefits of the technology include high efficacy partnerships with healthcare professionals andcombined with high throughput, a small footprint, and Dr. Tralance Addylong-term reliability. The modular design means that Email: email@example.com Water-Related Disease Facts 1. The leading cause of child death in the world is Diarrhea. 2. Of the 37 major diseases in developing countries, 21 are water and sanitation related. 3. Each year, children under five suffer 1.5 billion episodes of diarrhea, four million of which are fatal. 4. No intervention has greater overall impact upon national development and public health than does the provision of safe drinking water and proper disposal of human excreta. 5. At any given time, half the people in developing countries are suffering from water-related diseases Reference: WaterPartners International Fact Sheet from www.water.org, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
WATER 21 11 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Rain Centre in Chennai, India This article showcases the activities of the Rain Centre, the first Indian organisation to provide assistance and information on rainwater harvesting. Situated in Chennai, the rain Centre also serves as a one-stop information centre.A FEW like-minded people formed the Akash Ganga SHEKAR RAGHAVAN is a Physicist by Trust in January 2001. On August 21, 2002, the Trust education and training. He received his Ph.D. launched Chennais Rain Centre, the first of its kind in in 1976 from Madras University in the area ofthe country, is a one-stop information and assistance center High Energy Physics. For the past ten years,on rainwater harvesting. This Centre was inaugurated by the he has been involved in a door to doorHonorable Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. campaign in the city of Chennai trying to The initial seed money for the Center came from a few create awareness about the importance ofnon-resident Indians living in the U.S. Further support, in the RWH in urban areas. It all started in Besantform of resource material, was provided by the Centre for Nagar. For the past four years, he has been with the Rain Centre as its Director. Before that he was with Centre for Policy studiesScience and Environment, an NGO headquartered in New for about eight years where he met Mukundan.Delhi. The State Government of Tamil Nadu is also one of theco-sponsors. The Rain Centre, which is open to all, charges no fee for cisterns equipped with sand filters to enable immediateits services. Its activities, carried out with the funds received use of the water, and with overflow directed to traditionalby the Akash Ganga Trust through donations, are dug wells for use and recharge purposes;summarized below. The Centre has been involved in the c. Trapping of surface runoff on individual properties throughpromotion of urban Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) since its shallow trenches dug and directed in such a way as tolaunch three years ago. direct the trapped water into a recharge well. 4. Video film shows on RWH are presented periodically forEducation the general public.1. A number of large sized colorful poster panels, 5. Resource materials like booklets, posters etc. have been highlighting the value of water and the importance of prepared in English and Tamil and are provided at a RWH, are on permanent exhibition in the Rain Centre. nominal cost. The posters have also been pasted in public2. Working models in the Centre demonstrate RWH both places, where people tend to assemble, like the Divisional from flat and sloping roofs and from ground surface and Zonal offices of the Municipal Corporation and runoff. Chennai Metrowater, post offices, marriage halls, bank3. Different types of actual RWH systems have been installed branches, and school and college notice boards. in the Centres premises, e.g.: 6. A publicity button was prepared and worn by Trusta. Diversion of rooftop rainwater into plastic tanks above members in order to publicize RWH. A sign saying ground, for immediate use; "RAINWATER HARVESTING DONE IN THIS PLOT",b. Diversion of rainwater into below-ground masonry distributed to people who have implemented harvesting in their respective premises, also generates publicity when it is fixed on the gates so as to attract the curiosity of passersby. 7. During the last couple of years, students from several schools and colleges have visited the rain centre and learnt about RWH. Key persons from the centre have also visited several institutions, both within and outside the city and the state, to give talks, make video presentations and organize exhibitions about RWH. 8. Several NGOs, working in both water sector and other areas, have visited the rain centre. 9. Seminars and workshops have also been organized in the centre.
22 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Collect roof water First flush Filter Sump WellA FEW like-minded people formed the Akash Ganga 1. A number of large sized colorful poster panels, Trust in January 2001. On August 21, 2002, the Trust highlighting the value of water and the importance of launched Chennais Rain Centre, the first of its kind in RWH, are on permanent exhibition in the Rain Centre.the country, is a one-stop information and assistance center 2. Working models in the Centre demonstrate RWH bothon rainwater harvesting. This Centre was inaugurated by the from flat and sloping roofs and from ground surfaceHonorable Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. runoff. The initial seed money for the Center came from a few 3. Different types of actual RWH systems have been installednon-resident Indians living in the U.S. Further support, in the in the Centres premises, e.g.:form of resource material, was provided by the Centre for a. Diversion of rooftop rainwater into plastic tanks aboveScience and Environment, an NGO headquartered in New ground, for immediate use;Delhi. The State Government of Tamil Nadu is also one of the b. Diversion of rainwater into below-ground masonryco-sponsors. cisterns equipped with sand filters to enable immediate The Rain Centre, which is open to all, charges no fee for use of the water, and with overflow directed to traditionalits services. Its activities, carried out with the funds received dug wells for use and recharge purposes;by the Akash Ganga Trust through donations, are c. Trapping of surface runoff on individual properties throughsummarized below. The Centre has been involved in the shallow trenches dug and directed in such a way as topromotion of urban Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) since its direct the trapped water into a recharge well.launch three years ago. 4. Video film shows on RWH are presented periodically for the general public.Education 5. Resource materials like booklets, posters etc. have been prepared in English and Tamil and are provided at a nominal cost. The posters have also been pasted in public places, where people tend to assemble, like the Divisional and Zonal offices of the Municipal Corporation and Chennai Metrowater, post offices, marriage halls, bank branches, and school and college notice boards. 6. A publicity button was prepared and worn by Trust members in order to publicize RWH. A sign saying "RAINWATER HARVESTING DONE IN THIS PLOT", distributed to people who have implemented harvesting Shekar Raghavan Executive Director, Rain Centre Email: email@example.com Rain Centre is located at 4, Third Trust Link Road in Mandavallipakkam. It is located off Santhome High Road near the Registrars office. The telephone number at the centre is (044) 2461-6134. The website is http://www.raincentre.org.
WATER 23 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Rainwater Harvesting in IndiaRainwater Harvesting (RWH) is known to India from the past few centuries. With increasing water crisis, there is an urgent need for practising and popularising rainwater harvesting. The article provides an insight into the prevalent practices.C APTURE RAIN water, store it and use it - it is as RAM KRISHNAN was born in Trivandrum, simple as that". Collect the rain water falling on schooled in Madras, Delhi and Bombay. Ram house tops, collection ponds, lakes, open areas is an alumnus of IIT Madras. He graduated inwith natural grading. Rain water is naturally pure 1967 with a B.Tech and M.Tech. He founded(excepting where it becomes acid rain due to industrial and operated a Logistics Consultingpollution); ground water could be brackish or polluted company for 15 years in the US. Afterwith various contaminants. working in the Minnesota, US for 30 years, Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) was practiced in India Ram Krishnan, for the past few years, spendseven before the British installed municipal pipelines. As 3 months in India every year, learning, working andthe population of India rose from 100 million in the advocating for the poor in Indias villages.1900s to 1,027 million in 2005, the demand for drinkingwater increased many fold. The population increase also highest rainfall country in the world and almost 90% ofsaw many water bodies in both urban and rural areas this rainfall reaches the ocean.covered by buildings and other structures. RWH in Urban Locations Rain falling on the roof and the sides of the building is collected, filtered and charged. For a single family house in a metro city, the only additional investment (about Rs 2000) is the installation of PVC pipes. Installing a RWH unit in a multiple tenant flat complex with 25 families will cost about Rs 50,000. In the picture on the left, a metro home owner needs to install only items 2, 3, 4 and 9. All other items - sump, electric pump, overhead storage - already exist to receive and distribute the city delivered water. RWH Unit Costs - Starting Estimates (2001 Costs) The actual costs depend upon specific RWH design, size of the facility/ house, and percent of rain waterWater Everywhere Starts as Rain harvested and stored. Given below are a few unit costs: Rain is the source of all water in the world. 97.5% of lSump: (only if required) 12,000 litre sumps costs aboutthe worlds supply of water is salt water in the oceans and Rs 50,000 (about Rs1.5% of water is in the arctic glaciers. The remaining 1% 3.50 per litre for largegoes through the water cycle. India receives the 6th sumps). lDrain pipes cost around Rs 15 to Rs 30 per running foot. lBends and elbows around Rs 20 to Rs 75 per piece. lFilter chamber 2x2x2 with pebbles and sand cost Rs 1,500. l10 deep percolation pit with sand, pebbles, air vent and a perforated slab on
24 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT C APTURE about Rs 50,000 (about Rs 3.50 per litre for large sumps). R A I N lDrain pipes cost around Rs 15 to Rs 30 per running foot. water, lBends and elbows around Rs 20 to Rs 75 per piece. store it and use it lFilter chamber 2x2x2 with pebbles and sand cost - it is as simple as Rs 1,500. that". Collect the l10 deep percolation pit with sand, pebbles, air vent and rain water falling a perforated slab on the top costs Rs 2,500. on house tops, collection ponds, RWH in the Hostel Sector of Educational Institutions lakes, open areas (IIT Madras)with natural grading. Rain water is naturally pure Roof rain(excepting where it becomes acid rain due to industrial water from 12pollution); ground water could be brackish or polluted hostels iswith various contaminants. diverted to 4 Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) was practiced in India large wells andeven before the British installed municipal pipelines. As recharges thethe population of India rose from 100 million in the underground.1900s to 1,027 million in 2005, the demand for drinking Months afterwater increased many fold. The population increase also the rainysaw many water bodies in both urban and rural areas season, water iscovered by buildings and other structures. available inWater Everywhere Starts as Rain these wells. This Rain is the source of all water in the world. 97.5% of project servesthe worlds supply of water is salt water in the oceans and 45% of the1.5% of water is in the arctic glaciers. The remaining 1% water needs ofgoes through the water cycle. India receives the 6th 3,600 students.highest rainfall country in the world and almost 90% ofthis rainfall reaches the ocean. RWH in Factories andRWH in Urban Locations Buildings Rain falling on the roof and the sides of the building is Many industrial units like Ashok Leyland (top), Asiancollected, filtered and charged. For a single family house Paints (bottom), Escorts, and TVS have installed RWH toin a metro city, the only additional investment (about Rs meet their drinking water needs as well as their industrial2000) is the installation of PVC pipes. Installing a RWH processing needs. All units in the State of Tamil Naduunit in a multiple tenant flat complex with 25 families will have installed RWH, thanks to the Governmentcost about Rs 50,000. ordinance. It is important to note that the ordinance In the picture on the left, a metro home owner needs covers "All" (not just new) buildings, houses, public placesto install only items 2, 3, 4 and 9. All other items - sump, in the "Entire State".electric pump, overhead storage - already exist to receiveand distribute the city delivered water. RWH in Rural Areas - Community Wells, Village Statistics on water:RWH Unit Costs - Starting Estimates (2001 Costs) WaterPartners International The actual costs depend upon specific RWH design, http://www.water.org/resources/waterfacts.htm size of the Aquastat http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/main/index.stm facility/ house, Few key links: and percent of Center for Science and Environment - rain water http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org harvested and Arghyam and India Water Portal - http://www.arghyam.org and stored. Given http://www.indiawaterportal.org below are a few Rainwater Harvesting - Tutorial - unit costs: http://adshare.adayana.net/suneer/index.htm International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association lSump: (only if American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association - required) 12,000 http://www.arcsa-usa.org/ litre sumps costs
WATER 25 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT The India Water Portal ROHINI NILEKANI is Founder-Chairperson of ARGHYAM, a public charitable trust she has personally endowed with Rs 100 crores. She is also Chairperson, Akshara Foundation, Karnataka. She is Founder-Chairperson, Pratham Books, a non-profit publishing house set up to create high quality, low cost books for children. She is Chairperson, Unmeelan, the arts and the ideas forum at Infosys Technologies Ltd. sharing, and the application of "water knowledge". Coordinated and funded by Arghyam, a public charitable The Prime Minister launching the India Water Portal at a function on January 12th 2007.Also in the picture are Mr. Sam Pitroda, Chairman of the National Knowledge Commission, trust based in Bangalore (www.arghyam.org), this Portal and Ms. Rohini Nilekani Chairperson, Arghyam. is a collaborative space for sharing water managementO n Jan 12th, 2007, the Prime Minister officially knowledge amongst practitioners. It draws on the launched the India Water Portal, along with the experience of experts, adding value to it through India Energy Portal, at a function held at his technology and then disseminating it to a larger audienceresidence. The occasion was the submission of the 2006 through the internet.report of the National Knowledge Commission (NKC). The Water Portal is packed with resources andThe NKC had mooted the idea of knowledge portals in applications, some of which are groundbreaking. One ofseveral areas, and as a first step, the Water and Energy the key innovations is the extensive use of GISportals were launched. These websites are dedicated to (Geographical Information Systems). A prime example isall the issues related to their areas and are run as a the Meteorological Data application, which imports datacommunity partnership without undue influence or sets of 9 climate parameters (e.g. precipitation,agendas. temperature, cloud cover) covering the entire country on There is a need for a neutral and open platform where a .5 by .5 degree latitude/longitude grid, and spanningthe power of discourse can be deployed for problem the time period from 1901 to 2002. This has beensolving and improving governance practices. The India integrated into a GIS administrative map of the country.Water Portal then becomes a hub where the interaction The end user can zoom into the map to pick aof different stakeholders can enhance the creation, the particular area of interest, choose climate parameters and The Meteorological Data Application
26 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTO n Jan 12th, immediately get the data 2007, the Prime in the form of tables and Minister officially charts. Such ease oflaunched the India Water availability ofPortal, along with the meteorological data on aIndia Energy Portal, at a free, public website isfunction held at his probably a first for theresidence. The occasion country. One can lookwas the submission of the forward to fresh and2006 report of the innovative usage of thisNational Knowledge data that was hithertoCommission (NKC). The not in public domain.NKC had mooted the On the Water Portal,idea of knowledge the "Tools andportals in several areas, Techniques" section hasand as a first step, the information on waterWater and Energy portals A slide from the e-learning course on Watersheds management, organizedwere launched. These websites are dedicated to all the into practice areas that are widely acknowledged asissues related to their areas and are run as a community crucial for both short term and long term sustainability ofpartnership without undue influence or agendas. water resources, and are: There is a need for a neutral and open platform wherethe power of discourse can be deployed for problem l Rainwater Harvestingsolving and improving governance practices. The India l AgricultureWater Portal then becomes a hub where the interaction l Drinking waterof different stakeholders can enhance the creation, the l Waterbody Restorationsharing, and the application of "water knowledge". l Urban WaterCoordinated and funded by Arghyam, a public charitable l Groundwatertrust based in Bangalore (www.arghyam.org), this Portal l Watershed Developmentis a collaborative space for sharing water management l Sanitationknowledge amongst practitioners. It draws on the l Wastewaterexperience of experts, adding value to it through l Water Qualitytechnology and then disseminating it to a larger audiencethrough the internet. Case studies, slideshows, courses and movies have The Water Portal is packed with resources and been collected, developed or documented for eachapplications, some of which are groundbreaking. One of Practice. An effort to bring together the relevant policies,the key innovations is the extensive use of GIS research papers and reports for each practice, has also(Geographical Information Systems). A prime example is been made.the Meteorological Data application, which imports data One of the key investments has been in the area of E-sets of 9 climate parameters (e.g. precipitation, Learning courses. Such courses are being developed intemperature, cloud cover) collaboration with domaincovering the entire country experts in 3 areas -o n W a t e r s h e da .5 by .5 degree Development, withlatitude/longitude grid, Samaj Pragati Sahyog,and spanning the time G r o u n d w a t e rperiod from 1901 to 2002. Management withThis has been integrated A C W A D A Minto a GIS administrative (www.acwadam.org), andmap of the country. Fluoride Mitigation with The end user can zoom BIRD-K (www.birdk.org).into the map to pick a The partners provide theparticular area of interest, content, drawing heavilychoose climate parameters from their experience inand period of time, and India Water Portal field work and in training
WATER 27 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT A screenshot of the Organisation Locator applicationand mentoring. The courses are designed using audio, organisation. Users can add their own organisations byanimation and 3-D simulations to bring the topics to life. filling out a simple form. This is a powerful way to quicklyLinks to courses offered by other organizations have also scale up the database to many hundreds and evenbeen added to make it a comprehensive repository over thousands of items.time. These courses will be put on CDs and used at River Basins: It is commonly recognized that river-training workshops, NGO centres and in kiosks, to basin planning, based on natural watershed boundaries,achieve scale in capacity-building. leads to optimum solutions in water resource An Organisation Locator has also been implemented, management. To facilitate this, a diverse range of dataagain coupled with GIS, to allow users to find has been collected on climate, culture, land use, waterorganisations that work on a water-related topic in any use, groundwater, water quality, and wastewater frompart of the country through an easy Search facility. The the Government and other published sources. This dataorganisations are shown on an interactive map of the has been shown on maps and provides a holistic picturecountry, each of them represented by a marker, clicking The India Water Portal: www.indiawaterportal.orgon which provides available information on the The India Energy Portal: www.indiaenergyportal.org. Arghyam Trust is a public charitable foundation setup in 2001 in India with a personal endowment from Rohini Nilekani. Our mission is “Enough water, safe water ….. always and for all”. A rghyam seeks to support strategic and sustainable efforts in the water sector that enhance equity in access to water for all citizens. We emphasize sustainability - environmental, financial, social and technical - as the key desirable outcomes in all projects we support. Working with diverse partners, including NGOs, research institutions and government agencies, we give special attention to people’s participation, capacity building, awareness and education with a potential for scale in our work. Current project areas include Integrated Domestic Water Management, Rainwater Harvesting, Groundwater Management and Water Quality We are working with several partners to develop the India Water Portal, which is an open, inclusive, web-based platform for sharing knowledge, information and data on the water sector in India. The objective of the Portal is to create a collaborative space for those interested in water and related issues like sanitation, agriculture, wastewater management etc. Through this effort, we want to leverage knowledge to address equity and sustainability issues in the Water Sector and we will actively support alternate outreach methods that make this knowledge work for those on the ground who need it most.
28 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Odyssey of an NGO: Lessons to be Learnt This article is about Mysore Grahakara Parishat, an organisation that has been struggling for the last 17 years to improve Mysores water supply.K AVERI RIVER and Krishna Raj Sagar (KRS) dam are less than 15 kilometers from Mysore. Sir M. BHAMY V. SHENOY is an IIT Madras alumnus. He earned his M.S. in Industrial Visweswarayya had the foresight to develop a Engineering from Illinois Institute ofworld class water supply system to pump water from the Technology-Chicago in 1962, Ph.D. inKRS reservoir to the city and citizens got 24 hours water Business Administration in 1972 from thesupply till a few years back. However, today the people University of Houston and MBA fromof Mysore face water crisis irrespective of the level of Columbia University in 1982. Dr. Shenoywater level in the KRS reservoir. contributed to Indias development in the Mysore Grahakara Parishat (MGP) is a consumer areas of Consumer Movement, Energy Industry Development,organization that began in 1989 and that has about 700 Environmental Movement and Education from 1987-1997 &members. It has been fighting to improve water supply to 2003-present. He has published hundreds of articles on variousthe city with very little success. This article gives a brief topics in Indian newspapers.account of its odyssey and the lessons learnt. What is truefor Mysore city is likely to be even truer for other Indian proper training and when something goes wrong, it takescities, which do not have the advantages of Mysore. a long time to get it fixed. Mysore, with a population of about one million, needs About 15 years back, water supply was under thenearly 135 million liters per day (LPD), on the assumption control of the Karnataka Urban Water Supply andthat per capita water need per day is 135 LPD. Drainage Board. But Mysore City Corporation (MCC)Theoretical supply capacity is about 218 million LPD. decided to take over the responsibility of supplying waterAssuming transmission and distribution losses of 30%, giving the local political class a bigger clout. MGPthe city should get a supply of 153 million LPD, which vehemently opposed such a move since MCC had noshould be more than adequate to meet the need of the technical capability to manage such a complex operation.city. However, this is not the case. Since MCC still uses single entry book system, it has First of all, since maintenance is poor, the actual no idea of the cost of supplying water to its customers.pumping capacity is much below the design limit. Water When MGP asked the accounts officer of MCC for suchsupply department often puts the blame on power details, the response was that since MCC is bound by lawfailure, which may be the case some times, but not to supply water to every citizen, it should not worryalways. Standby pumps are not kept ready, and when the about making profit and so there is no need to have suchmain pump fails, there is no backup. Also, engineers and information. Prof. G S Sastry of the Institute for Social andthe staff in charge of the pumping stations do not have Economic Change has estimated that it costs Rs 23 to supply one kiloliter of water to Bangalore. The cost for Mysore is probably much less, but not less than Rs. 5-6 per kiloliter. However, MCC is not able to collect even Rs 2 per kiloliter. This is because 50% of MCCs customers do not have meters, and 50% of the meters do not function. MGP has been pressurising the authorities to rectify these meters at the earliest and also to disconnect those connections that are without meters - this has fallen on deaf ears. Most new mayors, after taking office, promise that water supply will be restored to all citizens and that every one will get water supply every day. Of course, no such promises are ever kept. When there is shortage of water, politicians favour some by sending water tanks or forcing water supply to some preferred areas. Water supply authorities can collect charges higher than the official (Water coming from the right is mixed with sewage getting into the canal on the left) rate, while supplying water through tankers In short,
WATER 29 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTeven an essential good like water is exploited for makingillegal monetary gains. MGP periodically tests water for quality. When itfound the water to contain E. coli, authorities, instead oftrying to solve the problem, blamed MGP for causingpanic. Using a simple Manja Test, which is approved byWHO, the presence of E. coli can easily be detected at asmall cost of Rs. 30, whereas the elaborate procedure cancost more than Rs 250 per sample. MCC always tookexception to Manja test calling it unscientific. Even whenMGP used an elaborate testing procedure, MCC did not (Low water level at KRS in Mysore)accept the findings. Once, because of watercontamination, more than 15 people died and an IAS those crores from the World Bank, ADB or the Centralofficer conducted an inquiry. The report concluded that Government under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urbaninstead of using bleaching powder, chalk powder was Renewal Mission etc. They never consider the possibilityused in the water supply. MGP took up this issue. But the of collecting from the users by charging the right amountgovernment did not take steps to punish the concerned and also by managing the water supply efficiently.employees! MGP has been trying to promote the idea of In June of 2006, MCC announced that the city will corporatising water supply activities so that they can behave reduced water supply because of the maintenance better managed. MGP has also suggested that thereof a canal feeding the water pumping station. When should be an independent body to monitor theMGP went to find the real reason for the reduction, it operations of a monopoly like water supply and fix tarifffound that just by diverting water, bridge across the canal rates. When this is corporatised and has a well qualifiedcan be built. Canal repair was conducted by a different manager and competent technical people, there is a hopeauthority which is in charge of the Cauvery water system for improved water supply. Today Mysores water supplyand it is not responsible for supplying drinking water to department has neither competent technical people northe city. But MCC never tried to find a way to mitigate an able management. Bangalores water supply is betterthe problem. Only after MGP raised the issue in the managed than Mysores because it is under the control ofmedia, MCC restored the water supply. an autonomous company owned by the Government. In Every summer, when water level goes down in KRS, 2006, when politicians were not in charge, MCC sent awater supply reaches a crisis level. With proper recommendation to the state government to form suchmanagement of limited water available in the reservoir, an independent company. Unless the proposal issuch crisis can be avoided. The tragedy is that no one is promoted in Bangalore by Mysoreans, babus inin over all charge of water supply. The authority in charge Bangalore are unlikely to act on it.of Cauvery water is concerned about supplying water to Throughout this ordeal of daily water crisis, citizens offarmers only. No one in the government looks at the Mysore have been the mute spectators expecting MGPoverall water supply situation to plan the release from or other NGOs to take up the fight on their behalf. Inmonth to month to ensure a steady supply of drinking early 2007, through photos, MGP showed where sewagewater. MGP undertook this exercise in 2004 and 2005 was getting into the drinking water. Ironically, whenand was successful in reducing the severity of water crisis. MCC disagreed with MGP by issuing press releases,MGP had to meet with the minister in charge to force the citizens found it convenient to agree with the authoritiesconcerned authorities to manage the limited water and not with the NGO.supply in the reservoir. After 17 years of consistent efforts to improve water MGP has been suggesting to MCC to computerize its supply of Mysore, MGP has not been able to achievebilling and other accounting functions to improve its much. One reason for such failure is the indifference ofrevenues. Only since a year, MCC has finally introduced citizens of Mysore. Another reason could be the wronga very rudimentary computer system for billing activities. strategies of MGP in convincing the authorities or politicalMCC has not been able to develop a full-fledged leaders to accept their recommendations. Finally it is notaccounting system to manage its water supply activities. possible to end the article with any positive note, but toThis is because no one either in MCC, or in water supply hope that the society will throw up some better leadershipdepartment, is held accountable by the citizens or higher to reform the system which has fallen apart.authorities; there is just no pressure to improve themanagement. All the time, political leaders talk of where Bhamy V. Shenoyto invest crores to augment water supply and how to get Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
30 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Oorani - Rain Water Harvesting for Villages Ooranis are village tanks or ponds that provide water for drinking and for livestock, and also help recharge groundwater. This article shows how DHAN Foundation has involved communities in the provision of clean and healthy water through Ooranis.What is an Oorani (Tamil)? RAM KRISHNAN was born in Trivandrum,Ooranis are village tanks or ponds, which can be used for schooled in Madras, Delhi and Bombay. Ramharvesting rainwater and storing it for use during the rest is an alumnus of IIT Madras. He graduated inof the year. They offer many benefits for people who live 1967 with a B.Tech and M.Tech. He foundedin an area with saline groundwater, poor rainfall and and operated a Logistics Consultingfrequent droughts They provide water for drinking and company for 15 years in the US. Afterfor livestock, and also help recharge groundwater, working in the Minnesota, US for 30 years,including in drinking water wells. Ram Krishnan, for the past few years, spends 3 months in India every year, learning, working andBetter Health advocating for the poor in Indias villages.Collective community restoration and management ofooranis has resulted in a reduction in the incidence of season. The de-siltation work on this oorani took placediseases, especially those related to water shortages and during the next two months. On our second visit inwater-borne diseases. They also save the village women December 20, 2004, the panchayat leader led us to thefrom making daily trips to neighboring villages to fetch oorani, which was, by now, full of water. He told us thatwater. the oorani contained enough water to last the entire year. Also, in addition to his village, people from twoVelayuthapuram Oorani - A Recently Completed neighbouring villages were also using this drinking water.Project In July 2004, together with DHAN, we undertook a Project Figures:watershed project in the village Velayuthapuram, in the Total project cost: Rs 2,51,000 (including villagersVilathikulam region. The oorani, at the village, was contribution)almost dry because of silt deposits and evaporation, Villagers contribution: Rs 62,750 (Rs. 45 = $1)although it was full with water during the monsoon 250 families, a total of 1100 population The village panchayat leader
WATER 31 11 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Gross Capacity of the oorani: 37,061 cubic meters Evaporation losses: 17,224 cubic meters Seepage losses : 8,367 cubic meters Net storage capacity : 11,200 cubic meters Community involvement The oorani belongs to the village. The families living in that village must come forward and agree to work on the project. This may be a time consuming process and may meet with resistance from some members of the community, but is well worth the effort. DHAN Foundation typically requires 30% of the project funding to come from the villagers. TBS (Tarun Bharat Our NRI team visited the village - 2005 Sangh) in Rajasthan insists on almost 80% to be invested by the villagers. How do you get 30% from a villager who has no money? 30% contribution can be in the form of money, materials or labour. Of these three, labour is the best form of contribution. By investing labour, the villagers get truly connected to the project. This gives them a sense of ownership and accomplishment. Once the project is completed, the community takes care of the oorani. DHAN Foundation 18 Pillaiyar Koil Street, S.S.Colony, Madurai 625 010, India Telephone: (91)-452-261-0794 or 261-0805 Email: email@example.com Website: http://www.dhan.org Ram Krishnan Email: firstname.lastname@example.org WATER FACTS1. Approximately 60% to 70% of the rural population in the developing world have neither access to a safe and convenient source of water nor a satisfactory means of waste disposal.2. Water systems fail at a rate of 50% or higher.3. 20% of the worlds population in 30 countries faces water shortages Reference: WaterPartners International Fact Sheet from www.water.org, Email: email@example.com
32 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Pala Thulli - Community-wide Rain Water Harvesting Malayala Manorama, a leading newspaper and magazine group in Kottayam, Kerala, launched a multi-pronged state-wide effort to mobilize Community Rain Water harvesting programs in the state. This program, called Pala Thulli serves as a model for community-wide rain harvesting programs that conserve water and solve the water shortage problems.Manoramas Response to Natures Challenge in Kerala Manorama would join hands with them to implementAs Kerala was reeling under its fourth successive drought various projects to collect rain water. Manoramas aimin 2004, Malayala Manorama decided to lead the people was to inculcate in people a new water culture thatof the state in meeting the challenge posed by the trail of would prevent Keralas plentiful water from beingdestruction and misery wrought by the drought. The wasted.paper initiated The Pala Thulli project with a front pageeditorial on May 23, 2004 promising the people that A Steady and Unswerving Mission For one whole year, Manoramas special weekly feature page discussed rainwater harvesting and its impact on water conservation. The paper focused on mass education, popular initiative and mobilisation of peoples participation. Thanks largely to the sustained action by the Malayala Manorama, both through the newspaper columns and through direct intervention and initiative, a new water culture evolved in Kerala. The paper regularly highlighted a string of imaginative systems for water conservation built by various institutions, many of which were emulated and implemented at other places. Build and Show Manorama kept its promise of actually building systems for rainwater harvesting by setting up the first ever system for water collection from roof tops at the Government Civil Stations in Palakad on September 16th last year. The water thus collected is capable of meeting the requirements of the government offices working in the campus. Manorama set up full-fledged rainwater harvesting systems at almost all its units in Kerala and opened them for public view. It also built a string of model rainwater Malayala Manorama Kottayam 686 001, Kerala India Telephone: (481)-256-3646 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
WATER 33 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Integrated Water Systems Management in South Asia - A Framework for Research This article suggests a framework to guide future research in water systems management.W ATER SYSTEMS in South Asia are under stress JAYANTA BANDYOPADHYAY is Professor because of the large population, high level of and Head of Centre for Development and poverty and rapid growth. Sustainable and Environment Policy at IIM, Calcutta, India.integrated management of the water systems of the His research in the past 25 years has aimed atregion will largely depend on the use of an generating public interest on criticalinterdisciplinary knowledge base and an innovative environmental issues, specially mountain"institutional" approach. areas and water systems. He has published a In the last one or two decades, many professionals number of important research papers onhave made useful contributions to interdisciplinary water water systems management in South Asia, in particular on thesystems knowledge on South Asia. Unfortunately, there Himalayan Rivers.is a disconnect between this knowledge and the real lifepractice of water systems management in the region. 3. Wider application of economics in the making of The growing and conflicting demands on water in water policy and valuation of ecosystem services ofSouth Asia in the areas of food security, commercial water to promote conservation and sustainable use.farming, urban domestic water needs, hydropowerprojects and industrial demands need to be quickly 4. Promotion of ecological perspectives of extremesolved. Research on the water needs of the ecosystems hydrological events, and regional mechanisms forhas also attracted attention. Therefore, it is imperative mitigating their impacts.that interdisciplinary research on water systems becontinued and conveyed to policy makers. 5. Social dimensions of water systems use, local This paper provides a framework for new research governance and water conflicts.activities in South Asian universities, suggesting thefollowing focal points for research: 6. Emerging technological options in water systems management.1. Generation of eco-hydrological knowledge on surface water systems and groundwater systems, and 7. Global change and water systems in South Asia. institutional mechanisms for its sustainable use and protection from pollution. 8. Issues of regional cooperation and conflict resolution.2. Methodology for comprehensive assessment of water transfer projects on social, economic and ecological Jayanta Bandyopadhyay grounds. Email: email@example.com DID YOU KNOW? l More than 1.5 billion people do not have access to safe and adequate water supply. This number could increase to 2.3 billion by 2025. l More than half of the worlds population lacks access to adequate sanitation. Reference: WaterPartners International Fact Sheet from www.water.org, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
34 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT The Benefits of WaterPartners Internationals WaterCredit Initiative This article presents the efforts of WaterPartners International in giving access to clean water and sanitation to villagers in Ayinapatti, India.A YINAPATTI, IN the Tiruchipalli region in India, is a remote farming village with minimal access to JOHN FITZPATRICK serves as Director of clean water and sanitation facilities. Initially, water International Programs at WaterPartners International. Fitzpatrick joinedwas delivered to the community through a faulty WaterPartners in May of 2006, and bringsoverhead tank and two unreliable hand pumps. When more than 25 years of internationalthe government installed this system, it did not provide experience, primarily in the commercialthe community with the training and resources needed to sector. In his current role, he is responsible formaintain it. Since the system was unable to supply the growth and management of water supplysufficient water to meet the communitys basic needs, projects around the world. Fitzpatrick holds a B.A. inpeople collected water from polluted rivers and ponds. Government and International Studies from the University of In addition to the lack of access to clean water, Notre Dame.sanitation was also a serious problem for this community.Over 85 percent of the villagers did not have access to a organization, Gramalaya.latrine, leading to the routine practice of open defecationin the local farms, bushes and along the road side. Due to Year-round Access to Water Suppliescultural norms and lack of privacy, women and girls were Approximately 45 household water connections wereoften unable to defecate during the day, which subjected installed, and five womens self-help groups and thethem to serious health problems and dangerous Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC)situations at night. facilitated loans that financed installation costs. The Both the water and sanitation crises were directly community water tank and public hand pumps wererelated to lack of organization in the community and lack completely rehabilitated, and waste water disposal pitsof hygiene education. WaterPartners program not only were installed next to the hand pumps to absorb runoff.provided the hardware necessary for the water point, but In addition, water connections were installed at thealso contained a strong organization and training primary school.component related to water and sanitation. WaterPartners is a Kansas City-based nonprofit Access to sanitation facilities at each householdorganization dedicated to helping people in developing Gramalaya, WaterPartners local partner organization,countries gain access to safe water supplies and presented the community with toilet models that variedsanitation. Since its inception in 1990, WaterPartners has in style and price so that families could select the toilethelped transform the lives of more than 165,000 people that best matched their financial and social requirements.in eight countries. By forging partnerships with partner Each family obtained a loan from the local self-helporganizations, it empowers local communities to develop group and today all households have toilets. Ayinapattiand sustain solutions to their water needs. WaterPartners instituted a policy to fine anyone caught practicing openmost recent innovation, WaterCredit Initiative, makes defecation in the village and since August 15, 2005, it hasloans to individuals and communities for water projects - been declared "100% sanitized". Human waste no longeras part of a revolving fund - in areas where credit is not threatens the water supply, which has resulted in areadily available. reduction of water and food contamination. WaterPartners project in Ayinapatti had four mainobjectives: (1) to provide year-round access to water Community Mobilization and Hygiene Educationsupplies; (2) to provide access to sanitation facilities at At the beginning of the project, Gramalaya conducted aeach household; (3) to mobilize the community and baseline survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)provide hygiene education; and (4) to establish a exercises to better understand the socio-economicrevolving loan fund to recover project hardware costs for environment. The exercises helped the communitywater connections and latrines. Project activities were understand the benefits of the sanitation program, andfacilitated and managed by WaterPartners local partner the importance of 100% community participation.
WATER 35 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTApproximately 271 women, men and children attendedthe PRA exercises. Through the PRA and baseline survey,Gramalaya determined that the community was willingand able to take loans for water and sanitation facilities.Gramalaya Provided a Variety of Trainings, Including:l Multiple operation and maintenance trainings for the VWSC, self-help groups, and the community at large, on the maintenance and repair of water and sanitation facilities.l Basic hygiene and sanitation education lessons.l Instructions on how to construct soak pits that act as drainage for grey water, and how to create kitchen gardens with drainage water. Self-help group members participated in field trips to Nallachi and her gardennearby communities that had effectively completed suggested I use my waste water to make a kitchenwater and sanitation projects. On these trips, members garden and gave me seeds to plant. At the waste watershared their experiences, and learned from the outlet, I planted a garden using banana saplings, brinjalcommunities what worked well and what could be saplings, and pumpkin seeds. I cared for the garden untilimproved. Gramalaya, in collaboration with the VWSC, it bloomed. Now we have bananas and vegetables to eat.formed a school health group to promote hygiene The mosquito menace went away and everyone sleepseducation through songs, rallies and debates. Today, well at night. My family is very happy and no oneVWSC members are working as "community change contacted the disease, Chikinguniah, although myagents." Members identify households qualified to apply neighbors were affected by it. Following the Gramalyafor loan assistance, and encourage these households to staffs suggestions has freed us from mosquito bites andapply. VWSC has assumed responsibility for maintaining medical expenses, and the kitchen garden also generatesthe water system. income. I now tell others about the importance of having a garden so that they can all benefit like me.Recover Project Hardware Costs via a Revolving LoanFund Case Study #2: Daughters Hygiene Song ChangesHardware costs for water connections and latrines were Fathers Attitudesupported through a revolving loan fund. The repaid * Case study relayed by Mrs. Rakkini, Health Educator,funds are used to finance additional water and sanitation Gramalaya.projects. Gramalaya is collecting the loan payments from Mr. Sangapillai, a resident of Ayinapatti village, has athe self-help groups, retaining interest on the loans to young daughter named Kokila. At the Ayinapatti villagepay for operational costs. The actual loan amount will be meeting, the Gramalaya staff taught hygiene songs toused for future water and sanitation projects. the assembled children. During the meeting, Kokila learnt "Father, I need toilet; Mother, I need toilet". KokilaCase Studies brought the song home with her. The next day, Mr. Sangapillai called the GramalayaCase Study #1: Gramalaya Staff Helps Family Prevent staff and requested measurement markings for toiletMosquito-Borne Illness and Generate Income construction. This surprised the Gramalaya staff, as* Case study relayed by T.Radhika, Community Health earlier, Mr. Sangapillai had refused to have a toilet. WhenOrganiser, Ayinapatti. the staff questioned him about his change of attitude, he I am Nallachi and my husband is Ganesan. When the replied, "Yesterday I heard the song my daughter sangstaff of Gramalaya visited our village, they saw the and that changed my mind. She is growing now, and willstagnant waste water in front of my house. This water certainly need a toilet. I changed my attitude and amwas from bathing and washing, and it smelled very bad. asking for a toilet."Mosquitoes were a big problem during the day, and at Note: This project was undertaken by WaterPartnersnight no one could sleep well because of them. through funding from Ethos Water, now a part of When the Gramalaya staff visited my house, they Starbucks.explained that that stagnant water in front of the housecaused the mosquitoes to breed heavily, and that John Fitzpatrickmosquitoes can transmit diseases to humans. They Email: email@example.com
36 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Innovative Approaches to Water Projects in India As high-cost infrastructural investments become tough to come by, new approaches are needed to promote and implement urban water projects. This article highlights some of the innovative approaches for better water management in urban India.E STIMATES INDICATE that close to 300 million SUNDARESAN SUBRAMANIAN is an people live in Indias urban centers*. By the year energy/environmental professional with a 2030, it is expected that almost half of Indias wide array of leadership and managementpopulation will live in cities**. Thus, city infrastructure experiences in India and the US. As the Program Director for the State Environmentaland services, especially those for water and sanitation, Initiative (SEI) at the US Council of Statebecome particularly important. As high-cost Governments, Kentucky, he had facilitated 30infrastructural investments are hard to find for many energy and environmental partnershipgrowing cities, new approaches are needed to promote projects in six Asian countries including India. Earlier, heand implement urban water projects. This article served for many years as the Regional Director of US-Asiaattempts to outline some of the innovative approaches to Environmental Partnership (US-AEP) at the Americanurban water projects in India. Consulate in Chennai/India. In recognition of his work, he has been honored with several international energy andBenefits of Partnerships environmental awards.Partnerships between the U.S. and Indian organizationshave a proven record of success in leveraging finances wastewater and recycle it for process use.and sharing technical and managerial skills. The Pooled Financing Mechanismexperience of the U.S. in helping small cities raise money Until recently, municipalities in India had limited access tothrough bond financing and using revolving funds to capital markets for financing water-related projects.improve water supply and sanitation, can be of significant Increased access to clean drinking water can happen onlyvalue in finding finances for urban water projects in India. if substantial private funding, preferably through localNew water purification technologies developed in the sources, is made available to the utilities.U.S. can help the Indian industry treat polluted To assist developing countries, the Development Credit Authority (DCA) of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) provides USAID Missions the authority to issue credit guarantees to private lenders, particularly for local currency loans. These guarantees cover up to 50% of the risk in lending to projects that advance USAIDs development objectives. Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India, has helped pioneer the first pooled financing bonds in India for investment in water and sanitation projects. At the end of 2003, the State issued its first municipal bond to domestic investors. The proceeds from this public sale capitalizes a fund for loans to local municipalities for infrastructure projects. The interest payments to the bond holders are, in part, secured by a guarantee from USAID, which supports the establishment of VSEP technology applied to industrial wastewater. The dark color water on the right is before the treatment. the "Water and Sanitation Pooled Fund" The clear water on the left is after the VSEP treatment. (WSPF). WSPF will provide funding of $6.4
WATER 37 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT several years, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu has sought a commercially and technically viable solution to effectively treat its wastewater. What follows is an example of a successful partnership between U.S. and Indian organizations. California-India Partnership on VSEP Feasibility Testing of Effluent Treatment Using a grant award from SEI, Californias New Logic Inc. partnered with GEA Energy Systems, India, to demonstrate its unique "Vibratory Shear Enhanced VSEP equipment installation at AD Textiles, India (Photos courtesy: US-AEP/India) Processing" (VSEP) technology at a total of 13 locations in India. VSEP demonstrations on industrial wastewatersmillion to multiple municipal water and sanitation provided a possible solution for wastewater disposal andprojects. The funds raised by the bond issuance are some progressive companies in Indias textile industrydisbursed as sub-loans to the participating municipalities signed contracts to install VSEP effluent treatmentfor these projects. These have helped to support projects systems to purify wastewater to required standards.for 14 participating municipalities in Tamil Nadu. Sundaresan Subramanian Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgWastewater Treatment and Recycling in Industry References:The contribution of the industrial sector to water * Census of India 2001: http://www.censusindia.net/results/rudist.htmlpollution in urban India is considerable. Over the past ** India Together: http://www.indiatogether.org/2003/sep/pov-upairev.htm SHYAMMOHAN is one of the leading cartoonist of India. For the past 18 years he has been tickling the minds of the readers, with his gentle wit and humour. He has worked in various Magazines and produced thousand of cartoons in print. He is a specialist in social issues. His works on themes like, environment, corruption, AIDS and globalization are well acclaimed.
38 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT An Institute Running on Rainwater This article showcases the rain water harvesting practices adopted at the Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode. The institute is nearly self-sufficient for all its water needs.T HE INDIAN Institute of Management (IIM), Kozhikode, Kerala has 350-400 inmates, and an average daily water consumption exceeding onelakh litres; irrigation requirement for the lawn, gardenand horticultural crops is not included in this. The institute, which has a 96-acre campus occupyingtwo steep hillocks,.has adopted rain water harvesting(RWH) in a big scale. Though it can not boast of zero-run-off, it catches rain from at least two thirds of itsentire campus, making it self-sufficient in its water needs. At the foot of a hillock, is a huge pond of 1.5 acresdug only to catch rain water. The run-off from the upperparts of the hill is not directly fed into the main pond; itis spread in an adjoining five acres plot, which is thecatchment area. A major part of the rainwater in thecatchment subsequently reaches the main pond by way The catchment area. Rainwater from over 50 acres collects here and percolates from nearof percolation. Also the excess water goes away through this pond and the arecanut garden around it to the main pond. Pic: Harish Halemane.a cement canal, ensuring that the slightly tainted run-offdoes not get into the main pond. The capacity of the water pond is 30,000 cubic Water from the main pond is treated and pumped to meters. The whole system cost the institute Rs 80 lakh.an overhead tank, from where it is distributed for the Except this capital cost, other expenditures are notnecessary domestic use at the institution and staff considerable (10 lakh = 1 million; Rs 45 = $1).quarters. "It was a sort of team work and collectivethinking. Our then director, Dr Kalro was a man open tonew ideas. We didnt have scope to get more water fromany other way. So, after many rounds of discussions, wedecided on this option, recalls Rajiv Varma, Civil Engineerof IIM. To reduce soil erosion from the hillocks, Coconut geo-textiles (GT), supplied by the Coir Board were used.Seeds of Congo-signal grass were dibbled through theGT. Today, one does not see any traces of the textile, butthe grass remains as a thick vegetative cover. Rainwater Pipes: The RCC gutters were built while constructing the building. Pic: Harish Halemane. The institute also has sewage water treatment. When the campus strength is full, they get 50,000 litres of output from sewage. Treated water is utilized for irrigation. IIM-K contact Rajiv Varma Phone: +91-495-280 9195 The large pond that stores rainwater for the campus. Pic: Harish Halemane. Email: rajivarma @ iimk.ac.in
WATER 39 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Chinas Water CrisisA S A LOCAL resident in Beijing, I suddenly SHA YU, is an intern working with the discovered that Water has become a hot topic Byrraju Foundation to learn the best there. Since 2004, the price of water for residential practices in water management, to go backuse has increased by 28% and it is said that the to China and implement them.government is thinking of enhancing the price again thisyear, which, to some extent, reveals the severe situationof water shortage. In fact, China suffered from the scarcity of water fornearly half a century. One of the reasons contributing toChinas water scarcity is its huge population. On the in Harbin. other side, the imbalance in the distribution of water Meanwhile, compared to the cities, the water safetyexaggerates the problem. For instance, while nearly half situation is more worrying in Chinas vast rural areasof the population and natural resources are in the with over two thirds of the countrys population. This hasnorthern China, it only has 19% water storage. been acknowledged by Gu Hao, spokesman for To alleviate the disparity among the regions, China has the Ministry of Water Resources. More than 300initiated a great many projects, such as Three Gorges, to million people in rural areas do not have adequateredistribute the water storage. Among them, the most clean drinking water and hundreds of thousands ofdistinct and controversial one is the South-to-North Chinese are afflicted with various diseases from drinkingWater Diversion Project, which included three water water that contains too much fluorine, arsenic,transfer projects, i.e. Western Route Project (WRP) and sodium sulfate or bitter salt. China spent 2 billion RMBMiddle Route Project (MRP) and Eastern Route Project (about 250 million U. S. dollars) to help 11 million(ERP) will divert water from upper, middle, and lower members of the rural population access to drinking waterreaches of Yangtze River respectively, to meet the in 2005. And China plans to lower the population faceddeveloping requirements of Northwest and North China. with drinking water problems to a third by 2010 and However, other than solving the water shortages, ensure safe drinking water for every one bythese projects may bear the severe environmental risk, 2020. which would in turn lead to large scale water shortages. In addition, because of its huge population, China is a Fortunately, China has become aware of its water country short of natural resources, and now China hasproblems, and began to take actions. Mother River already started to think of sustainable development.Protection Operation (MRPO) is one of such actions. To However, in practice, the priority of natural resourceprotect and improve eco-environment of the Mother protection depends on the strategic importance ofRivers of China – Yellow River, Yangtze River and other resources. Petroleum, for instance, was considered as theimportant water areas, MRPO makes use of the social directly relating to the security of the nation and highlyefforts, building new environmental protection projects, valued. In that case, the sustainable development ofmonitoring the current actions, and involving the whole water is mainly dependent on the social efforts. However,society, especially the youth, for water protection. the dilemma here is that in China civil society is still on the However, water safety was not highlighted until the way of development, and only a small number of NGOschemical pollution disaster of Songhua River in Northern and NPOs are able to involve themselves inChina. In November 2005, the explosion taking place at environmental protection.Jilin Chemical Industrial Co. plant led to an outpouring of (Ed. It is interesting to observe that despite not havingaround 100 tonnes of chemicals including mainly several NGOs in China, Sha Yu, an NGO intern isbenzene, into the Songhua River. 10 days later, an 80-km spending time with Byrraju Foundation to learn the bestcontaminated stretch of water reached Harbin, the main practices and go back to China to implement them.city in Northern China, and was expected to take 40 China has already put Water crisis on the nationalhours to pass, leaving around 3.5 million people agenda. It is not clear India has done that. One of thetemporarily without access to water, since Songhua River objectives of Catalyst is to promote such learning so thatis the main resource of residential water there. And NGOs learn the best practices from one another. )authorities were increasing water flows to dilute Sha Yupollutants and providing bottled water for the population E-mail : email@example.com
40 WATER RIGHTS CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Get Real, Coke: Water Rights Protest Activists have launched a movement against beverage giant Coca-Cola, accusing the company of draining water from some of the worlds poorest communities.C ONSUMERS AND activists have called on Coca- severe water shortages and health problems. In Cola to stop draining water from some of the Plachimada, in southern India , Cokes water extraction worlds poorest communities, according to a press has dried up hundreds of hand-pumped wells, leavingrelease from activist group Corporate Accountability people without enough water for basic needs. InInternational. "Community leaders, religious leaders, Mehdiganj, in northeastern India , Coke has decreasedstudents and educators (San Francisco in the Bay Area) the level of groundwater by 40 feet, leaving smallspoke out against Cokes abusive practices in India and farmers without enough water to irrigate their crops.delivered thousands of public comments to Coke Coke gets away with its abuses because of itscorporate headquarters in Atlanta and regional tremendous economic and political clout. From Sanheadquarters in Oakland, Calif., the release added. Francisco to Mehdiganj , India , people are mobilizing"These local activists took part in an international day of and organizing against destructive corporate practicesaction telling Coke to stop stealing water. and forcing Coca-Cola to change its ways or stop its production," said Angana Chatterji, an activist and professor at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco . Protest against Coke in India Reverend Alexandra Childs of the United Church of Christ delivered the public comments to Cokes Oakland office. Coke officials refused to take the public comments, so the concerned consumers left them outside the doors to the regional headquarters. Cokes practices are part of a much larger problem of corporations contributing to a global water shortage, the Protest against Coke in San Francisco. release says. The United Nations estimates that two- thirds of the worlds population will not have enough "Similar events were held in seven cities across the U.S. water by 2025 if current trends are not reversed.in conjunction with a major protest in northeastern India According to a former Vice President of the World Bank,, where thousands of people are gathering to demand an "The wars of the 21st century will be fought over water."end to Cokes abuses." Cokes water depletion contributes to this problem and is The release says that as a result of Cokes water making water shortage a reality right now for someextraction, at least five communities across India face communities.
WASTE MANANGEMENT 41 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Benefits of Using Wastewater in the Production of Agricultural Products Ecologically sound waste water management can catalyze economic development. This article highlights the advantages of using waste water for agricultural activities.T HE SHEAFFER Modular Reclamation and Reuse JOHN R. "JACK" SHEAFFERS, contributions System (SMRRS) can be managed to recycle the to the field of floodplain management began pollutants. When wastewater is treated and in the mid to late 1950s. A graduate studentrecycled for agricultural use, water resources are of Gilbert White, he studied the effect ofprotected and conserved, land values are enhanced by urbanization in floodplains. In the 1960s, he began to promote the idea of flood proofingusing sites for multiple purposes, and carbon is as a viable floodplain managementsequestered, which mitigates the threats of global alternative. In 2002, Jack co-authored thewarming and air article Encouraging Wise Use of Floodplains with Marketquality degradation. Thus, ecologically sound Based Incentives, exploring how existing programs and land-wastewater management can act as a catalyst for use authorities could be utilized to create public-privateeconomic development. partnerships. Jack is also an inaugural member of the ASFPM Wastewater can be used as a catalyst to produce Foundation Board of Trustees.agricultural benefits, which can be summarized asfollows: likelihood, will be reduced to the nutrients levels allowed1. Reductions in nutrients discharged into a waterway. in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System2. Carbon credits gained by recycling or reusing nutrients (NPDES) permits. Officials in the Commonwealth of rather than using natural gas and electricity to produce Virginia determined a value of $11.00 per lb for nitrogen commercial fertilizers. and $5.00 per lb for phosphorus to initiate its nutrient3. Using the reclaimed water and nutrients to stimulate exchange program. No value was established for crop production. The estimated increase in yields of potassium. Based on a realistic example of using waste 100 bushels per acre will take more carbon dioxide out water in the state of Virginia in the US, it is estimated that of the atmosphere - carbon sequestering. John Sheaffer4. Flood damage mitigation by detaining and retaining Email: firstname.lastname@example.org water on agricultural land.5. Groundwater recharge to replenish drinking water aquifers. One acre of land can be evaluated to quantify therange of benefits in economic terms. Assuming that theacre of farmland is managed as an integral part of aSMRRS, and the irrigation rate is 46 inches per year(1,249,107 gallons), dollar values can be assigned to thebenefits. The nutrients in the wastewater would berecycled rather than discharged into a waterway, wherethey will add to the dead zones (due to lack of oxygenresulting from nutrients). The 46 acre-inches ofwastewater would contain 338 lbs of Kjeldahl nitrogen(TKN), 100 lbs of total phosphorus and 100 lbs ofpotassium. These nutrients can be used to fertilize crops. One acre of land will directly or indirectly use 338 lbsof TKN nitrogen contained in the treated wastewater. Ata trade value of $11.00 per lb, the acre produces $3,718.In terms of total phosphorus, a trade value of $5.00 perlb would yield $500. However, these trade values, in all
42 WASTE MANAGEMENT CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Promoting Effective Waste Management: The Clean Himalaya Initiative This article is about an initiative promoting productive solid waste management in Rishikesh, India.T HE MUNI-KI-RETI - Tapovan - Lakshmanjula area, located along the Ganges River in the Himalayan VENKATESH DUTTA is an environment foothills, about three kilometers from Rishikesh in and development scientist currently employed as Lecturer in postgraduate SchoolNorthern India, is considered by many to be one of the for Environmental Sciences, Babasahebholiest places in the world. However, in recent times, its Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University,sanctity has been marred by a combination of many Lucknow. His research interests includefactors: the intense development of hotels, shops, Environmental and Development Economics,homes, and ashrams; the greater use of plastic bags and Integrated Environmental Planning &other non-degradable packaging materials and the lack Management, Policy Analysis, EIA and Entrepreneurshipof organized municipal garbage pick-up and disposal. Research. Recently he was awarded British Chevening Garbage litters the roadsides, drains, ravines, and the Scholarships (2006) to pursue a course on EnvironmentalGanges banks. Also, plastic waste thrown into irrigation Management and Sustainable Development at the Universitychannels litters the farmland and pollutes the water used of Wales, UK.for farming. Stagnant water in drains, blocked by plastic,fosters the growth of disease-carrying organisms. Toxins cleanliness of the Ganges and the Himalayan areafrom plastic and non-degradable waste enter the ground through solid waste disposal and management, protectwater and, finally, the many wells dug along the banks of animals and the environment from toxic materials, andthe Ganges. provide employment and income for the sweepers and Western students of the spiritual teacher, Andrew their supervisors.Cohen, visiting Rishikesh in the year 2000, became aware Jitendra continues to make determined efforts tothat they were contributing to the pollution through by solicit business. Several times a week, he visits hotels,using mineral water packaged in plastic bottles. These shops and homes to explain the project and to sign upbottles were everywhere, and the students felt the need new clients. He hands out attractive posters and pointsto do something about it. With the help of one of out the importance of source segregation and recycling.Andrews Indian students, Jitendra Kumar, they began He also regularly visits the establishments that havepicking up bottles from ravines and off the street. joined the project to ensure that the garbage collectorsJitendra was shocked to see how garbage littered the come daily, that the clients are satisfied with the service,streets, ravines, and the banks of the Ganges. He and to sustain a friendly relationship. He has alsoorganized rag-pickers to collect plastic bottles and other requested the Sub-District Magistrate to allocate land fordry waste from local guesthouses and ashrams. on-site composting and waste segregation.Gradually, this service grew into a small enterprise under In future, Clean Himalaya hopes to hire its own streethis supervision. sweepers or coordinate its efforts with those of the This small service caught the attention of well-wishers, municipality, so that drains would be cleaned daily andwho donated money so that Jitendra could purchase a garbage on the roadside would be both picked up andcart for collecting garbage, have posters printed, and hire sorted for recycling. It also plans to provide instructionmore workers. The donors hoped that the service would and dissemination of educational literature to the publiceventually become self-sustaining, capable of paying the relating to the importance of keeping the surroundingsoperating costs and providing salaries for the garbage clean. It plans to educate school children and includecollectors. Currently, the program, "Clean Himalaya", them in cleaning projects.employs four workers, who collect and segregate Currently, there is no municipal system of storage orgarbage from ashrams, hotels, restaurants and homes in disposal of waste, and most of the population simplyMuni-ki-reti, Tapovan, Lakshmanjula and along the dumps the waste on the streets or in open spaces,Border road. They sell recyclable garbage and burn non- creating serious hazard for the overall community healthrecyclable garbage. and sanitation. The Clean Himalaya project uses a novel The project aims to maintain the sanctity, beauty and approach - it does not rely upon state support; it is
WASTEMANAGEMENT 43 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTtruly entrepreneurial. This project is aimed at benefiting the Ganges / Himalayas area in Tapovan, Muni-ki-reti and Lakshmanjhulathrough proper waste disposal, resulting in a clean environment. It intends to protect the streams that find their wayinto the Ganga and the water that is used for irrigation of farmland from garbage. The intent of the project is also topromote practical knowledge and awareness in order to foster greater participation in the waste management activitiesaround Rishikesh. The project hopes to shift responsibility away from the local municipal government to privateentrepreneurs who will be fully accountable. The participation of residents, shops, and hotels continues to grow, andwith the passage of time, when cooperation with municipal sweepers is achieved, an even more significant and visiblebenefit to everyone in the area is expected. Clean Himalaya now covers the salaries of its four workers and general operating expenses such as telephonecharges, gasoline, bags and additional labour, setting aside money for contingent expenses as well. It expects thatincome from user fees, selling recyclable waste and finished compost will be sufficient to cover the operation andmaintenance costs in subsequent years. Currently, the venture covers less than 25% of the total area, but after scaling-up, it may be possible to use thesystem for the entire population, thereby leading to improvement in the environment as well as providing work for anumber of people. Other groups facing similar constraints and opportunities can adopt the project concept, and thereis a great potential for this idea to be scaled-up to a much larger level of participation. Its innovative financing methodand support process can be tried elsewhere and employed with success.Venkatesh DuttaEmail: email@example.com
44 SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Examples of Social Contribution from IIT Madras Alumni. Dr. Sundar Ram Shetty, a renowned opthalmic surgeon. The Globe Eye Foundation has recently completed a decade of service in Eye Care mainly to the rural people in Karnataka. Starting in a modest rented house in Hoskote in 1996, GEF has now done over 20,000 free cataract operations. GEF has a full fledged Eye hospital with built up area of 14,000 sq ft on the Highway NH4 close to Hoskote. Presently GEF is doing about 4,000 operations per year. Visit the website www.globeeye.org for further details. S. KUMAR; Daya Ghar (firstname.lastname@example.org ) Kumar has started an NGO called Daya Ghar to house and educate poor children from slums in Adyar. ARAJ VARADARAJAN: housekeeper takes care of cooking and upkeep of theMinvalai internet exchange house. Kumar, his wife and some of the well wishers give(www.n-logue.com) lessons to children. Children are sent to nearby schoolsSingle Teacher schools and Kumar pays all the school fees. Currently Kumar is(www.singleteacherschools.org the major donor of Daya Ghar. If more financing is(email@example.com) available he can expand his activities by housing moreRaj returned to India in 1986 and joined Makkal Sakthi than eight children which is doing now. ContactEiyakaam started in 1988 by Dr, M.S.Udayamurthy a firstname.lastname@example.orgRhodes Scholar. Eiyakkam was involved in making thevillagers stand on their own leg by concentrating on T. A. ANANTHU:Education, Women empowerment, Economic Navadarshanamimprovement, savings, hygiene and health, prohibition (email@example.com)and religious tolerance. So when Prof. Ashok Anathu and Jyothi have been involved in exploringJhunjhunwala developed WLL to take internet to rural sustainable living for 30 years. They have formed a trustIndia he along with several alumni took franchise for fifteen years back called Navadsrshnama in Thally,Tiruvallur district to give internet connection to the Tamilnadu where they are exploring alternatives to thevillages in this district. The other partners of this effort modern living and thinking, keeping in mind thefrom the pioneer groups are Lionel Paul, T. ecological and spiritual perspectives of life. For moreSuryanarayanan and MS Chandramouli. details see www.navadarshanam.org This led to the next involvement in even remotervillages to educate the illiterate children by joining SwamiVivekananda Rural development society in Tamilnadu. RAM KRISHNAN is an alumnus of IIT Madras, graduated in 1967 with a B.TechFrom 2002 this society has already established single and M.Tech. After working in the USteacher schools in 540 villages and wants to add 1500 (Minnesota) for 30 years, Ram spent 3more villages in the next 2 years very similar to months in India every year for the past 4Ekalvidayala. years learning, working and advocating for the poor in India’s villages, untouched byDR. B. R. PAI: the meteoric IT growth and the average 7% annual GDPGlobe Eye Foundation growth. Ram Krishnan is committing his next 4+ years to(firstname.lastname@example.org) work for sustainable and scalable projects in the villages ofGEF was started in 1995 with a view to provide the best India, where about 240 million people live and earn lessof eye care to the rural people. The Founder Chairman is than Rs 50 per day.
CASE STUDY 45 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Gravity Head Ensures a Green Plant andSustainability: A Case Study of Gangtok CityIntroduction leveled ground at the site the overall hydraulic gradient isThe picturesque state of Sikkim is cradled in the foothills steep (45 feet, 12m).of the mighty Himalayan range in the north-easterncorner of India. This land, dotted with monasteries, is also The Problemknown as the garden of the Himalayas. Gangtok its Originally before 1978, the treatment facility consisted ofcapital city is rapidly developing into an international only a plain sedimentation tank and chlorinationtourist center. The city is located between 2000 to 5500 (bleaching powder CaOCL). Later in 1978 and 1985 twofeet above mean sea level (MSL). The only motorable plants of capacity 1.0MGD and 2.0MGD each wereaccess to Gangtok is through the valley of river Trista (a constructed in the same premises. Each plant consisted ofpart of old indo-china silk route.) from Siligudi in West sludge blanket (hopper bottom) settling tank and rapidBengal. On clear days, the snow clad peaks of sand gravity filter beds. To cater to rapidly increasingKanchanjunga ranges are visible in the pristine glory. The demand in 1990 the PHE Dept proposed to increase thePublic Health Engineering Department of Govt. of Sikkim capacity of scheme from 3.0MGD to 7.5MGD. Themanages the water supply scheme of Gangtok. capacity of the existing plant complex was increased The water treatment plant complex (7.50 MGD, accordingly during 2002-2004. The plant wasMillion British Gallons per Day) for Gangtok city, is commissioned in the year 2005. There was a severelocated on a steeply sloping hill at 6000 feet above MSL. power shortage in the state, and frequent land slidesThe raw water source is a perennial Himalayan stream ensured that even single-phase supply to plant was(Rathechu Khola) tapped at 8500 feet. This river intermittent. Obviously, all the unit processes needed tooriginates from a lake at 14,000 feet, which is fed by a be independent of electrical energy. The rotarymelting glacier. Water is of high quality for ten to eleven mechanical components had to be bare minimum duemonths. The raw water supply to the plant and treated lack of skilled maintenance. The existing plant at site waswater supply from the plant is by gravity. Due to lack of only supplying partially treated water to the city. Lack of
46 CASE STUDY CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTIntroduction New Inlet Works (7.50 MGD)The picturesque state of Sikkim is cradled in the foothills Residual raw water head available at the plant is 60m.of the mighty Himalayan range in the north-eastern Inlet works consists of a receiving chamber to dissipatecorner of India. This land, dotted with monasteries, is also the excessive head. This is followed by two grit collectionknown as the garden of the Himalayas. Gangtok its channels a Parshall Flume and a circular cascade aerator.capital city is rapidly developing into an international Grit channels trap the grit, fine sand and mica particlestourist center. The city is located between 2000 to 5500 originated upstream. Aeration ensures that trace ironfeet above mean sea level (MSL). The only motorable (which occurs during summer) gets oxidized. A splitteraccess to Gangtok is through the valley of river Trista (a box is provided to divide the flow in two streams eachpart of old indo-china silk route.) from Siligudi in West of capacity 3.0 MGD (Old plant) and 4.50 MGD (NewBengal. On clear days, the snow clad peaks of Plant). The level difference between these two units,Kanchanjunga ranges are visible in the pristine glory. The which is more than 2.50m, is utilized to accommodatePublic Health Engineering Department of Govt. of Sikkim an aesthetically pleasing "crescent moon" shaped watermanages the water supply scheme of Gangtok. fall. The freefall of 0.50m on the downstream side The water treatment plant complex (7.50 MGD, of splitter weirs is used as a rapid mix unit for additionMillion British Gallons per Day) for Gangtok city, is of coagulants.located on a steeply sloping hill at 6000 feet above MSL.The raw water source is a perennial Himalayan stream Clarification (Settling) Units(Rathechu Khola) tapped at 8500 feet. This river The dilapidated existing plain sedimentation tank wasoriginates from a lake at 14,000 feet, which is fed by a structurally strengthened to convert it in to two streamsmelting glacier. Water is of high quality for ten to eleven of flocculation-tube clarification system. The modifiedmonths. The raw water supply to the plant and treated tank has two units, each of 2.25 MGD. Each unit iswater supply from the plant is by gravity. Due to lack of further divided into two compartments, one each forleveled ground at the site the overall hydraulic gradient is Flocculation and Tube Clarification. The drives for verticalsteep (45 feet, 12m). paddle type Agitators (Flocculators) are operated with hydraulic head using simple water wheel turbinesThe Problem (Capston-type). These low-head turbines are driven by aOriginally before 1978, the treatment facility consisted of head of 2m of water which is ensured betweenonly a plain sedimentation tank and chlorination flocculation tank and the up-stream Splitter box. Part or(bleaching powder CaOCL). Later in 1978 and 1985 two full portion of the incoming water, after rotating theplants of capacity 1.0MGD and 2.0MGD each were drives enters the Flocculation tank (ensuring the flexibilityconstructed in the same premises. Each plant consisted of for agitator speed). The agitators are directly coupled tosludge blanket (hopper bottom) settling tank and rapid the drive wheels.sand gravity filter beds. To cater to rapidly increasing The Tube Settling compartment is located on the outletdemand in 1990 the PHE Dept proposed to increase the side of each unit. The Tube Modules are placed 2.50mcapacity of scheme from 3.0MGD to 7.5MGD. The above the tank bottom. The modules and the collectioncapacity of the existing plant complex was increased troughs are supported from the bottom. The sludgeaccordingly during 2002-2004. The plant was settled on the flat bottom of the tanks is removedcommissioned in the year 2005. There was a severe manually by water hoses through the drain pipes. The lowpower shortage in the state, and frequent land slides inlet turbidity allows de-sludging operation once in a year.ensured that even single-phase supply to plant wasintermittent. Obviously, all the unit processes needed to Gravity Filter Bedsbe independent of electrical energy. The rotary The Clarified Water is conveyed to new Rapid Sand Filtermechanical components had to be bare minimum due beds of 4.50 MGD capacity (1.25 MGD x 4 nos. each).lack of skilled maintenance. The existing plant at site was The conversion of existing rapid sand filter beds to dualonly supplying partially treated water to the city. Lack of media required extensive modifications and hence wasspace on a steep terrain had ruled out the possibility of ruled out. The beds are designed on the principal ofconstruction of a new plant. There was no option left but constant rate filtration with influent flow splitting weirs toto augment the plant by making maximum use of the avoid maintenance prone rate-of-flow-controllers. Theexisting units and by constructing minimum possible new beds are washed with hard-wash only. The wash-waterstructures. It took two and a half year to complete the S. J. Kardilemodifications. The "new look" existing complex with Consulting Engineer, K Consultation,7.50MGD capacity was commissioned in the year 2005. Nasik-Road, Maharashtra, India Email: email@example.com
CASE STUDY 47 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Sustainable Rural Water Management A Replicable Case Study By Lalit Sharma*, Jay Sehgal, Ellora Mubashir, The Sehgal Foundation , Gurgaon.S EHGAL FOUNDATION works on integrated and village and get contaminated (Figure 1 and 2). A ridge to sustainable village development in Mewat region of valley approach (Figure 3), was adopted by building gully Haryana. This goal is implemented through four plugs to slow down the speed of water, thereby reducingprograms (1) Water Management (2) Income soil erosion and the silt load entering the dam. OtherEnhancement (3) Family Life Education (4) Rural Health, options, including diverting natural streams to rechargingand the support services of Infrastructure Building and wells or injecting wells (Figures 4 and 5) are also anCommunications. The approach is participatory and efficient way to add to ground water. Even dry wells areprograms are organized around Village Level Institutions structurally well? connected to the underground waterand Village Champions. The factors responsible for table, while much more effort is required to find othersustainability of any rural development project are - parts of the village where soil has good percolating abilitymotivational, financial, organizational and technical. right up to the water table. In Ghaghas the quantity of available ground water Safe disposal of domestic waste water is addressedwas inadequate and fast depleting, its quality too was through soak pits, which are simple and cheap drainagepoor with high content of nitrates and fluorides . Since structures facilitating the disposal, filtration andthe ground water of Ghaghas is an important water percolation of wastewater into the ground (Figure 6, 7).source for several neighboring villages, they are alsoadversely affected. This scenario is now improved with II. METHODOLOGYthe interventions. Working with the Community As in many villages of India, the domestic waste water As a first step, the requirements of the people areflows into the streets, creating dirty puddles which are a identified at community meetings followed by survey ofbreeding ground for pathogens and their carriers. This the region together with some villagers, their knowledgewater is a medium by which the ground water gets is solicited, experts are brought in and Sehgalcontaminated due to open defecation, open composting Foundations engineer works out a draft blueprint. Theand excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in blueprint has details of design, material, time?lines andthe agriculture. To address the high nitrateand fluoride contents found inthe drinking water, it wasdecided to work on the qualityof the water at the sourceitself rather than use othersolutions like filters or watertreatments . The logicadopted was to dilute theground water with rain water,so that the nitrate and fluorideconcentration would reduceto acceptable standards and atthe same time the groundwater would be replenished. In Ghaghas, a check damwas built at a locationupstream so that the runoffwater from the Aravali hills isnot allowed to enter the Figure 1: Integration of new structures with revived traditional ones
48 CASE STUDY CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Figure 2: Percolation of stream water before it gets contaminatedS EHGAL FOUNDATION works on integrated and dirty puddles which are a breeding ground for pathogens sustainable village development in Mewat region of and their carriers. This water is a medium by which the Haryana. This goal is implemented through four ground water gets contaminated due to open defecation,programs (1) Water Management (2) Income open composting and excessive use of chemical fertilizersEnhancement (3) Family Life Education (4) Rural Health, and pesticides in the agriculture.and the support services of Infrastructure Building and To address the high nitrate and fluoride contentsCommunications. The approach is participatory and found in the drinking water, it was decided to work onprograms are organized around Village Level Institutions the quality of the water at the source itself rather thanand Village Champions. The factors responsible for use other solutions like filters or water treatments . Thesustainability of any rural development project are - logic adopted was to dilute the ground water with rainmotivational, financial, organizational and technical. water, so that the nitrate and fluoride concentration In Ghaghas the quantity of available ground water would reduce to acceptable standards and at the samewas inadequate and time the ground waterfast depleting, its would be replenished.quality too was poor In Ghaghas, a checkwith high content of dam was built at anitrates and fluorides . location upstream soSince the ground water that the runoff waterof Ghaghas is an from the Aravali hills is Gully plugs slow down the flow ofimportant water source water, to percolate it and reduce not allowed to enterfor several neighboring silt load to check dam the village and getvillages, they are also contaminated (Figureadversely affected. 1 and 2). A ridge toThis scenario is now valley approachimproved with the (Figure 3), wasinterventions. adopted by building As in many villages gully plugs to slowof India, the domestic down the speed ofwaste water flows into water, therebythe streets, creating Figure 3: Integrated Ridge to Valley Approach in Ghaghas reducing soil erosion
CASE STUDY 49 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Table 1 : Cost (Rupees) of Interventions to Sustain the Ground Water in Ghaghas Time period : 2002 to 2004 Overcoming the Structures Cost per No. of Sehgal Community Total Technical unit Units Foundation Contribution, Challenge of Contribution, per unit Silting through per unit (may be labor) Reviving traditional 8,000 1 6,000 2,000 8,000 Innovations structures* Check Dam Check Dam in Ghaghas 4,50,000 1 3,70,000 80,000 4,50,000 Each year, the Well Recharging 15,000 1 10,000 5,000 15,000 sedimentation of Roof Water Harvesting 5,000 1 4,000 1,000 per unit 5,000 the silt load Soak Pit 150 56 50 per pit 100 per pit 8,400 brought by the Chizel (deep plowing) 450 per acre 60 acres 150 300 27,000 rainwater runoff Total Direct Cost 5,05,400 Total Indirect Cost 1,00,000 decreases the (Sehgal Foundations institutional cost for water management program in Ghaghas) effective storage Grand Total = Rs 6,05,4001 capacity of check * Repair of an earthern embankment and its stabilization with vetiver grass. dams and the percolation ofand the silt load entering the dam. Other options, water. Invariably removal of this silt from the storageincluding diverting natural streams to recharging wells or basin is laborious and expensive, which the villagers areinjecting wells (Figures 4 and 5) are also an efficient way usually not motivated enough to do, leading toto add to ground water. Even dry wells are structurally abandonment of such structures after some time.well? connected to the underground water table, while In addition to the ridge to valley (Figure 3) approachmuch more effort is required to find other parts of the which reduces the silt load reaching the check dam, avillage where soil has good percolating ability right up to cheap technique for desilting has been introduced in thethe water table. design of the check dam itself, by providing several Safe disposal of domestic waste water is addressed outlets at its ground basin level (Figure 8 and 9). Thesethrough soak pits, which are simple and cheap drainage desilting drains are closed on upstream side with a layerstructures facilitating the disposal, filtration and of brick masonry. In about 2-3 years, the villagers wouldpercolation of wastewater into the ground (Figure 6, 7). need to plow the basin with the help of tractor before the first monsoon rain and break open the desilting drain II. METHODOLOGY openings.Working with the Community In this region the distribution of monsoon rain is inAs a first step, the requirements of the people are intense spells with gaps in between. The first intenseidentified at community meetings followed by survey of monsoon rain would force the loosened silt out of thethe region together with some villagers, their knowledge check dam through the drains. During the dry spellis solicited, experts are brought in and Sehgal between two showers these openings are to be closedFoundations engineer works out a draft blueprint. The with a layer of brick masonry like before, for waterblueprint has details of design, material, time?lines and storage.costs (Table 1), which is presented to the community. The The silt which deposits outside the check dam is fertilevillagers often modify it and also decide on what they can soil and can be used in agricultural fields. It can be carriedcontribute, since some contribution from them is away by villagers easily in carts from this place, unlike ifmandatory by the Foundations policy. In this whole they had to carry the ploughed silt from the basin of theprocess the Village Level Institution , Village Champion check dam.& Panchayat are involved. Recharging Wells In Ghaghas, there is a natural stream which runs through the village during monsoon and Table 2: Cost comparison of Filters versus Check dam in Ghaghas this water flows out without being used for Options Cost in Rupees Solves recharging the ground water. Two minor Household models 4,50,000 capital + 60,000 Only Fluorides interventions at an appropriate location have of Defluorination filters : annual maintenance significantly reduced this waste (Figure 4 and Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. 5). It was observed that the Government had & Mytry Check dam & 5,08,000 All contaminants earlier built three injecting wells near the other interventions & water depletion stream but currently water from the stream was not reaching them, thus these useful
50 CASE STUDY CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Holistic Solutions: ridge to valleyS EHGAL FOUNDATION works on integrated and sustainable Small masonry structure forces flowing water into wells village development in Mewatregion of Haryana. This goal isimplemented through four programs(1) Water Management (2) IncomeEnhancement (3) Family LifeEducation (4) Rural Health, and thesupport services of InfrastructureBuilding and Communications. Theapproach is participatory and Water diverted to nearby abandonedprograms are organized around well, through an inverted filter and underground pipeVillage Level Institutions andVillage Champions. The factors Figure 5: Ground-water Recharging through well in Ghaghasresponsible for sustainability of anyrural development project are - motivational, financial, work on the quality of the water at the source itself ratherorganizational and technical. than use other solutions like filters or water treatments . In Ghaghas the quantity of available ground water The logic adopted was to dilute the ground water withwas inadequate and fast depleting, its quality too was rain water, so that the nitrate and fluoride concentrationpoor with high content of nitrates and fluorides . Since would reduce to acceptable standards and at the samethe ground water of Ghaghas is an important water time the ground water would be replenished.source for several neighboringvillages, they are also adversely In village Agon, Ferozepur Jhirka Blockaffected. This scenario is nowimproved with the interventions. As in many villages of India, the BEFORE Soak Pit AFTER Soak Pitdomestic waste water flows into thestreets, creating dirty puddles whichare a breeding ground for pathogensand their carriers. This water is amedium by which the ground watergets contaminated due to opendefecation, open composting andexcessive use of chemical fertilizersand pesticides in the agriculture. To address the high nitrate andfluoride contents found in the Figure 6 : Soak pit - a mechanism for safe disposal of waste waterdrinking water, it was decided to
CASE WATER STUDY 11 51 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT Figure 7 : Soak pit design In Ghaghas, a check dam was built at a location structures facilitating the disposal, filtration andupstream so that the runoff water from the Aravali hills is percolation of wastewater into the ground (Figure 6, 7).not allowed to enter the village and get contaminated(Figure 1 and 2). A ridge to valley approach (Figure 3), II. METHODOLOGYwas adopted by building gully plugs to slow down the Working with the Communityspeed of water, thereby reducing soil erosion and the silt As a first step, the requirements of the people areload entering the dam. Other options, including diverting identified at community meetings followed by survey ofnatural streams to recharging wells or injecting wells the region together with some villagers, their knowledge(Figures 4 and 5) are also an efficient way to add to is solicited, experts are brought in and Sehgalground water. Even dry wells are structurally well? Foundations engineer works out a draft blueprint. Theconnected to the underground water table, while much blueprint has details of design, material, time?lines andmore effort is required to find other parts of the village costs (Table 1), which is presented to the community. Thewhere soil has good percolating ability right up to the villagers often modify it and also decide on what they canwater table. contribute, since some contribution from them is Safe disposal of domestic waste water is addressed mandatory by the Foundations policy. In this wholethrough soak pits, which are simple and cheap drainage process the Village Level Institution , Village Champion & Panchayat are involved. Overcoming the Technical Challenge of Silting through Innovations Check Dam Each year, the sedimentation of the silt load brought by the rainwater runoff decreases the effective storage capacity of check dams and the percolation of water. Invariably removal of this silt from the storage basin is laborious and expensive, which the villagers are usually not motivated enough to do, leading to abandonment of such structures after some time. In addition to the ridge to valley (Figure 3) approach which reduces the silt load reaching the check dam, Figure 8 : Ghaghas Masonry Check Dam a cheap technique for desilting has
52 CASE STUDY CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT water is a medium by which the ground water gets contaminated due to open defecation, open composting and excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture. Silt Drains To address the high nitrate and fluoride contents found in the drinking water, it was decided to work on the quality of the water at the source itself rather than Masonry use other solutions like filters or water treatments . The Check dam logic adopted was to dilute the ground water with rain Silt deposition site, water, so that the nitrate and fluoride concentration when drains opened would reduce to acceptable standards and at the same time the ground water would be replenished. Figure 9 : Silt Drains of Check dam In Ghaghas, a check dam was built at a locationS EHGAL FOUNDATION works on integrated and upstream so that the runoff water from the Aravali hills is sustainable village development in Mewat region of not allowed to enter the village and get contaminated Haryana. This goal is implemented through four (Figure 1 and 2). A ridge to valley approach (Figure 3),programs (1) Water Management (2) Income was adopted by building gully plugs to slow down theEnhancement (3) Family Life Education (4) Rural Health, speed of water, thereby reducing soil erosion and the siltand the support services of Infrastructure Building and load entering the dam. Other options, including divertingCommunications. The approach is participatory and natural streams to recharging wells or injecting wellsprograms are organized around Village Level Institutions (Figures 4 and 5) are also an efficient way to add toand Village Champions. The factors responsible for ground water. Even dry wells are structurally well?sustainability of any rural development project are - connected to the underground water table, while muchmotivational, financial, organizational and technical. more effort is required to find other parts of the village In Ghaghas the quantity of available ground water where soil has good percolating ability right up to thewas inadequate and fast depleting, its quality too was water table.poor with high content of nitrates and fluorides . Sincethe ground water of Ghaghas is an important water It took approx. 1 year for the dilution effects to to travelsource for several neighboring villages, they are also 1.5 km underground, indicating that horizontaladversely affected. This scenario is now improved with movement of recharged water is a slow process.the interventions. As in many villages of India, the domestic waste water * For Correspondence. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org into the streets, creating dirty puddles which are a a Website: www.smsfoundation.org, annual reports are postedbreeding ground for pathogens and their carriers. This b High level of nitrates is due to agricultural chemicals. c High level of fluorides is due to concentration of natural fluorides because of depleting water quantity. d Filters and water treatments have prohibitive costs for villagers, not easily available, address only a few toxins and their adoption in each household cannot be ensured. e The water in recharging wells cannot be used for drinking or domestic purpose; it effectively percolates to the ground water table and gets naturally filtered by the soil to become usable. f Injecting wells are bored into the ground, have an inverted filter and a perforated pipe leading into the ground to recharge the water table g Village Level Institution is a local peoples association, inspired by the Foundation, which is dedicated to the benefit of the whole community, based on the needs of the people, and is impartial to the socio?religious?economic dynamics of the village. The Panchayat also works for village development but is a political body and is mostly handed down funds for highly specific actions, as decided by the higher Government authorities, often without consulting the local people. h A Village Champion is a respected local person with leadership qualities, who acts as a development cheer leader and has natural altruism in her/his personality to work for the benefit of the whole village. i The filter pit is first filled with the largest sized stones or brick pieces, the middle layer has medium sized stones or brick pieces and the upper layer closest to the Figure 10 : High nitrate & fluoride levels reduced due to check dam ground has sand (Figure 6).
RECAP 53 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Tackling Indias Water ScarcityW ater is essential for human survival. Although Indias average annual rainfall is adequate to DR. RAJARAM is an environmental engineer working with Techknow Engineering in provide water for various uses by the billion Chicago, IL , an international consulting firmpeople living there, water scarcity has become the norm working in the areas of energy and water. Hein both the rural and urban areas of India. As Avinash has been in the US since 1970, and since 1996,Roul has reported in "Indias Water Future," has been active in doing environmental(www.ecoworld.com/home/articles), efficient use of projects in India. He has completed severalwater correlates far better with the wealth of a country wastewater treatment plants, solid andthan how much water it has consumed. He also states hazardous waste management projects, and trained severalthat dramatic gains in the economic well-being of a people in hazardous waste management. He is working withcommunity can be had by more efficiently using the IIT Chicago to establish a Distance Learning Program inavailable water than increasing it. A good water policy Envrironmental Management throughout India. His passion isthat encourages water conservation by such means as to improve Indias environmental management practices. He has a Ph.D. from University of Wisconsin, and a J.D. inleakage prevention, efficient use of the available water, environmental law from IIT Chicago. He did hiswaste minimization, cleaner industrial production, water undergraduate work in Osmania University in Hyderabad.pollution control, equitable allocation and pricing ofwater among competing users, and instituting strictenforcement of the prevailing regulations will go a long We hope that the case studies detailed here andway in minimizing water scarcity and even in making elsewhere and other papers presented in this issue ofadditional water available for beneficial uses. Catalyst will spur local action by the people living in cities This Catalyst issue makes a small effort to describe a and villages to improve the quantity and quality of watermicrocosm of case studies mainly from India to available to them. We also hope that citizens anddemonstrate that water for drinking, industrial, and stakeholders alike will get more involved to holdagricultural uses can be potentially made available and government officials accountable for managing watersustained in water scarcity areas. We hope that case supply and wastewater collection, treatment, andstudies such as these and many others that are not disposal in a cost effective manner. Credible nonincluded here have the potential to provide adequate governmental agencies (NGOs) that have a good trackwater to satisfy all the above needs in an efficient manner record should be encouraged to form private and publicif they are replicated around the country and made partnerships to play a bigger role in catalyzing propermandatory by the Central, State and Local governments. management of water resources. One such NGO isImmediate action is extremely necessary as water Arghyam (www.arghyam.org), who have written anshortages are acute in many villages and cities in India. article on the water portal being maintained by themThe situation in India is becoming critical day by day and (released by the Prime Minister of India on January 12,it should be addressed by massive awareness campaigns 2007). This article shows how the required data andand allocating adequate funding in Indias current and knowledge resources for managing water scarcity isfuture plans for properly managing all water resources to readily available on the portalsustain the desired economic growth rate. (www.indiawaterportal.org) and can be accessed by all. The linkages between water supply, wastewater and Minimizing water scarcity in India requiressewage disposal, and the resources in the wider water involvement by the citizens at the Local, State anddrainage basin have not been recognized in many parts Central government levels, and the pricing of water in aof the country. The United Nations Human Settlements manner which improves conservation and promotesProgramme published a book entitled "Meeting efficient use. Water, wastewater and sanitation shouldDevelopment Goals in Small Urban Centers, Water and be considered integral parts of water management andSanitation in the Worlds Cities 2006" (unhabitat.org, an integrated water resource management strategyISBN-10; 1-84407-305x) which presents several case should be implemented.studies from around the world of integrated waterresources management. These case studies can be of Vasudevan Rajaramvalue and should be studied for replication in India to Board Member, IDCA, Oak Brook, ILtackle water scarcity. E-mail: email@example.com
54 NGO ACTIVITY CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Meeting Reports Empowering Grassroots for Sustainable Development in India IDCAs Third International Conference On January 10, 2007, India Development Coalition of America (IDCA) organized an International conference at Punjab Haryana Delhi (PHD) Chamber of Commerce House in New Delhi. Several dedicated social scientists and technologists, in the fields of sustainable livelihoods, healthcare, water, and education came together to share their experiences and explore ways of helping lift Indias over 650,000 villages from poverty. It was co-hosted by Education Promotion Society for India (EPSI- www.epsfi.org), and the Sehgal Foundation (www.smsfoundation.org), Gurgaon, Haryana. More than 125 people representing various organizations from many parts of India and several NRIs participated in the 12-hour long program. Both IDCA and EPSI are setting historic precedents in bringing together the finest minds and the highest ideals from the Diaspora as well as from within India herself. Welcoming the conference participants from throughout India, the U.S., England and other countries was IDCAs President, Dr. Mohan Jain. He emphasized on the need for promoting Sustainable Development in India in light of looming global warming threat and need to use resources more frugally to meet the needs of masses. He suggested two important references (Plan B 2.0, by Lester R. Brown, and Ecology of Commerce, by Paul Hawken) to better understand these issues. Next Mr. Manohar Chellani, Secretary General of EPSI, introduced his organization, which in only eighteen months of existence has made great strides in living up to its name. EPSI has implemented programs, cut through government red tape and connected resources to projects throughout the country. Mr. Jay Sehgal made a brief presentation about the integrated rural development work done by the Sehgal Foundation, Gurgaon, in nearby villages since 2001. Ms. Anjali Makhija, Group leader at the Sehgal Foundation, Gurgaon, served as master of ceremony for this session. Timothy Somers and Mohan Jain YES Fund- A Global Fund for Youth Entrepreneurship Wednesday, February 7, 2007 at the India Habitat Center, New Delhi New Delhi, India: The Youth Employment Summit (YES) Inc. is pleased to announce the official launch of its pilot site in India to develop a replicable model for its project the Global Fund for Youth Entrepreneurship (YES Fund). This pilot initiative is funded by Microsoft. YES Inc. works with diverse stakeholders in over 80 countries to build partnerships and develop the capacity of youth to lead in-country youth employment initiatives, and build coalitions for addressing youth unemployment. YES Inc. offers a powerful youth led platform to engage their peers in the development efforts of their nation thought leadership and entrepreneurship. YES Fund is a 2006 Clinton Global Initiative aimed at "building a coalition of partners all over the world to work on creating markets and unleashing entrepreneurship". This goal would be largely achieved by orchestrating a global training and development program that supports young people to identify business opportunities and participate in a global competition for at risk capital and business development services. Microsoft is a core partner that is committed to working with YES Inc. to raise USD 25 million over the next three years. The Networking Meeting January 21st, 2007, Chennai (India) About 35 grass-roots workers, representing the full range of rural and urban development issues, attended a daylong meeting at Asha Nivas, an NGO located in Nungambakkam in Chennai. Smt Shantha Sheela Nair, ex-secretary in the rural development department of the Govt of Tamil Nadu, made a presentation on eco-san sanitation methods. Each attendee was requested to describe their work, their successes as well as their challenges. The afternoon session was structured along 4 themes, with the panel members taking questions from the audience. It was a common request that such networking meetings be held at least once a year. Ram Krishnan, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
NGO ACTIVITY 55 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT "Hearts over Horizon" - Share and Care Silver Jubilee in India January 26-27, 2007 at Rajkot, GujaratDuring the weekend of January 26, 2007, thirty-five Indian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organization) from all over Indiaconverged in Rajkot, Gujarat to connect their hearts with those from thousands of miles away residing in USA - the Share andCare Foundation. This was an attempt to continue work towards the common goal of service for rural masses of India to closethe gap of "haves and Have not".The weekend meeting between Share and Care, its strategic partner- Life and its long-term partners was convened to begincelebration of Share and Care Foundation Silver Jubilee and its long-term partnership with the NGOs, discuss their successesand challenges, share experiences and chalk out programs and plans for the future. This two-day meeting was attended by 70representatives from 35 NGOs, staff and management from Life and 5 key members of Share and Care. As communicatedearlier, on Saturday morning, January 27, 2007 plenary session was attended by over 100 representatives. Share and CareFoundation took this opportunity to create awareness about Share and Care future thrust based on the analysis of theenvironment in rural India.Share and Care stressed the need for concentrating its activities to accelerate development of rural youth, empowerment ofthe rural women and associated basic healthcare activities. A guest speaker, an expert on NGOs governance presented veryinteresting views about characteristics of a successful NGO. Specific activities encompassing the 3 major objectives as abovewere covered in conjunction with each group of NGOs working in the individual field during the breakout sessions for each ofthe 3 major areas. Each NGO was requested to present its work to date, future plans and challenges. Share and Care sessionchairs and moderators summarized the observations during each session to arrive at a list of action items towards achievingcommon goals of all attendees. Attendees feedback stressed the value of this type of meeting and need for convening thismeeting on an annual basis.We believe, this meeting created more camaraderie, better understanding of each others need, effective exchange of vitalinformation, potential formation of a self-help network of NGOs conducting synergistic activities with aligned goals, platformfor operational improvements and focus on needs as well as priorities. A team is being formed the develop follow-up plansand address the specific action items with an ultimate goal to sharpen our focus, improve performance, stretch our grantsfurther and make the activities sustainable, systemic and replicable.For more information about Share and Care Foundation, please visit: www.shareandcare.org or call 201-262-7599Jayant and Yogini Shroff E-mail: email@example.com Development Congress discusses NGOs roleIn order that India marched ahead rapidly on the path of development, several high profile speakers at a DevelopmentCongress held recently at the Nagarjuna University underscored the urgent need for a coordinated effort between therespective governments in different states, the local Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and universities. They felt thiswould go a long way in sharing experiences with each other, monitoring each others activities and thus acting as catalyticagents in national development.Four different sessions were held at the event, called AP Development Pre-Congress, on topics like 1) vision sharing; 2)Government-NGOs partnership; 3) Network of NGOs; and 4) Material management, with eminent personalities drawn fromdifferent fields of research and development acting as Resource Persons. Nagarjuna varsity hosted the event, in collaborationwith AFHD, Catalyst magazine, IFHD and Pragathi Welfare Society, the theme of which was Role of NGOs in NationalDevelopment. Acharya Dr. Balamohan Das, Vice-Chancellor of Nagarjuna University, inaugurated the event.Dr. Sarvodaya Prasad and Dr. Srinivasa Rao wanted that NGOs should emerge as visionaries in national development. They mustconcentrate on basic needs like a) education; b) health; and c) poverty. Dr. Rao VBJ Chelikani, Mr. Ravikishore and Prof.Lakshmipathi Raju as well as representatives of a few NGOs had a captivating discussion on problems being faced bygovernments and NGOs in coming together to collaborate in national development and felt that a) government should extendall support to genuine NGOs in playing their role in the matter; b ) NGOs should motivate people to fully utilize all resourcesthat governments provide for public welfare; c ) NGOs should work in collaboration with local varsities; and d) media shouldhighlight the good work being done by NGOs.Dr. Chelikani Rao emphasized the need to fight corruption and injustice at all levels in the process of development and for unityamong NGOs in the discharge of their responsibilities. Dr. Srinivasa Rao, who acted separately as Resource Person on MaterialManagement (Capacity Building and funds), wanted a platform for NGOs to share not only their experiences but also resourcesbetween themselves and seek little or no help from governments.Speakers spoke highly about the remarkable role Catalyst magazine, being published in English, was playing in highlightingactivities of some honest NGOs and emerging in the process as a platform for all NGOs in the country. Dr. Srinivasa Raoannounced that the magazine would soon start coming out in Telugu language too.The next AP Development Congress is expected to take place in November/December, 2007 by roping in all NGOs in the state. (Catalyst Thanks Acharya Nagarjuna University for hosting this meeting)
56 NGO ACTIVITY CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Synergy and Networking Between University and NGOs By Prof. M. Lakshmipathi Raju and Dr. V. Venkateswarlu, Acharya Nagarjuna University.T HE AP Development Congress held in Acharya Nagarjuna University on 21st January, 2007 PROF. M. LAKSHMIPATHI RAJU, Head of identified a set of areas in which the University will the Department of Sociology has undertaken consultancy work on Child Labour Projectcollaborate with NGOs by sharing ideas, experiences, sponsored by ILO and presently working inexpertise and other resources. These areas include child collaboration with Dr. M.C.R. HRD institute,labour, income generation, public health, street children Hyderabad, as an executing agency forand child trafficking. The cooperation has taken the form sensitization and capacity buildingof field work training, placement of students, project programme for elimination of child labour.work, lectures on developmental issues (i.e. HIV/ AIDS,environment protection, child abuse, gender and needs and requirements of the most vulnerable and weakgerontology), involving both faculty and students in sections of the society.research projects undertaken by the NGOs. As part of the activities of the University - NGOThe University has rendered consultancy services to the Forum, the Department of Social Work has taken on theNGOs by extending academic inputs, preparations of development of efficiency of NGOs functionaries. Thisproject proposals, drafting the constitution for the NGOs includes preparation of training modules by involvingand guiding them in effective delivery of services using academics and field experts, who would also organiseprofessional skills and methods of social work. activities such as group discussions, panel discussions, and workshops. The training modules would involveSynergy and Networking of Organizations writing of project proposals, implementation, monitoringCooperation between the University and NGO enables and evaluation of projects. Seminars on researchto: methodology and current trends in research would also1. Enlarge the organisations area of operations, creating be organized. The Department will also develop a synergies and networking. Resource and Documentation Centre for the benefit of2. Achieve economies of scale, reducing expenses on NGOs working in the Krishna, Guntur and Prakasam both sides, and improving efficiency by avoiding districts. overlapping and duplication of services. Contact:3. Enrich and increase sophistication of the services Head of the Department : provided to the society, increasing general welfare. Prof. M. Lakshmipathi Raju Phone Numbers : 0863 - 2293189Setting up University - NGO ForumRecent experiences in undertaking methodological Acharya Nagarjuna University wasresearch and other academic activities suggest that it is established in 1976. It started in 1967, as part of the Andhra University as Post-Graduatenecessary for all NGO functionaries working with Centre in Nallapadu, Guntur. Since then, itvarious groups, such as women, children, youth, aged, has achieved tremendous progress throughscheduled castes, scheduled tribes and backward classes quantitative expansion and qualitativeon a variety of subjects, including human rights, health improvements. Professor Raju is Head of theeducation and nutrition, to undertake training Department of Sociology, Social Work and IRPM, where Dr.programmes. Such training should be designed to suit the Venkateswarlu is Assistant Professor. "A person can live about a month without food, but only about a week without water. If a human does not absorb enough water dehydration is the result. "
PORTRAIT 57 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Dr. K. L. Rao SATHIRAJU SANKARA NARAYANA was born in 1936 at Narsapur, in Andhra Pradesh, India, completed his Masters Degree in Economics from Loyola College, Chennai and joined the services of All India Radio in 1963. After working in various capacities for 32 years, he retired in 1995 as Station Director, Chennai. Sankara Narayana hails from a family of artists. His father was a very creative person and his elder brother, Bapu is one of the most eminent artists of India and a well known Film Director. Sankara Narayana currently lives in Chennai, pursuing his passion for drawing portraits. Madras State PWD and was entrusted with the design of Ramapadasagar project across Godavari River near Polavaram. He was sent to USA for finalizing designs for this project. At the invitation of Dr. A. N. Khosla, Chairman, he joined as Director in Central Water, Irrigation and Navigation Commission in Delhi in 1950. He worked in different capacities as Director, Chief Engineer and member design and research of the commission. During this period, he was responsible for designs of major multipurpose projects in the country like Nagarjuna Sagar, Srisailam, Hirakud, Kosi, Gandak, Farakka and Kota, etc. The pinnacle of Dr. Raos achievements was the design and construction of gigantic Nagarjuna Sagar masonry dam, the highest dam of its kind. In this project,S RI KANURU Lakshmana Rao popularly known as Dr. he was responsible for the choice of using stone quarried K. L. Rao was born on June 06,1902 in the village of locally and the resultant deployment of indigenous skilled Kankipadu, Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh. He labor and technical know-how.was the youngest among four sons and a daughter of hisfather Sri Kanuru Mallikharjuna Rao, who was Karnam After retiring from Govt service in 1961, he was(village officer) of Punadipadu village of Krishna district. appointed as Minister for Irrigation and Power by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1963. Dr.Rao had the After passing Secondary School Leaving Certificate distinction of serving three Prime Ministers - Nehru,exam in Vijayawada, he studied Intermediate in Shastri and Indira Gandhi. Interestingly, he held samePresidency College in Madras and later graduated from position as Irrigation and Power Minister from 1963 tillGuindy Engineering College in Madras. He worked for a 1973. During this time, most of the irrigation and powervery short time as Engineer of Vizag Municipality and projects were designed and executed. He held manymoved to Burma to earn money for higher studies in distinguished positions like the Chairman of UnitedEngland. Later, he joined Madras PWD as Junior Nations committee on Natural Resources, President ofEngineer, Mettur Dam. After completion of the dam, he the Institute of Engineers in India, President of Indianjoined as Lecturer in Madras Engineering College. He was Institute of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineeringthe first person to get Master of Science degree in and Vice President of International Water ResourcesEngineering from Madras University. He left for England Association.in 1939 and obtained Ph.d in Engineering from A-3, Kothari Karuna, 71, Anna Street,Birmingham University. Later, he served as senior lecturer Tiruvanmiyur, Chennai - 41 Indiain Lou Borough College in England. Ph: 91-44-2442 4256 / 98403 72415 He returned to India at the request of Chief Engineer, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
58 ESSAY CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Water Bond For Safe Drinking Water DR. SRINIVASA RAO Water use is increasing by more than twice the rate of population growth. Improper management of water resources and industrial pollution are placing great barriers against access to safe drinking water in developing countries. Thus, drinking water can no longer be available for free; one has to pay a price. This trend was first seen in respect of land, according to United Nations reports, then food and now water. The poor often pay the price with their lives. Every day, 3,800 children die of and millions suffer from diseases associated with the lack of safe drinking water and proper water sanitation. Water is the cornerstone for human activity - agriculture and industry. Therefore, the development of a nation is dependent on how well water resources are managed. Rapid economic growth cannot be sustained without attention to water. "Among Chinas 600 cities, 400 have water shortage," according to Mr Ma Jun, the author of a major study on Chinas water resources. He says, "that water shortages could be the bottleneck to Chinas economic and social development." 1 Providing drinking water to all is possible. Only 5% of the 40 liters of minimum water required for human activity is needed as drinking water. The Government of Indias Department of Drinking Water Supply, under ministry of Rural Development , had a project layout of over $1.1 Billion USD for rural and other water supply schemes and US $2.347 Billion for sanitation last year. Of this fund, approximately 50% was released and only 25% was spent on projects.2 Fortunately, several foundations are trying to provide safe drinking water. (Visit India waterportal see page 25). For example, Naandi in Hyderabad offers a liter of water for Rs. 0.08 (US $0.018). The Byrraju Foundation model of water purification system (see page 12) can serve, if scaled up, 8,000 people per day with safe drinking water. India has 600,000 villages in 250,000 graam panchayats - village administrative units - responsible for civic amenities for about 800 million people. Approximately 100,000 safe drinking water units are needed to provide water to all of them. The cost per plant, at this scale of operation, can be $10,000 USD. The total amount needed for setting up the plants will be $1.0 Billion or less as all the plants need not require reverse osmosis technology. These plants can generate money and be self-sustaining through payments made by the users. Also, these plants can create some 2 million jobs for rural youth. Mr. Mani Shankar Iyer, Minister of the Panchayat Raj, Government of India, proposes a Public, Private and Panchayat Raj Partnership (PPPP). Providing safe drinking water should be the partnerships most important task. It is achievable. The technology and the money needed is available. Mr. P. Chidambaram, Finance minister of India, proposes to enhance the allocation for Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission to Rs. 5, 850 crore ($1.3 Billion USD) in 2007-08. As for scale and implementation, one can learn from the Akshaya Patra Foundation, which provides 535,557 hygienic and nutritious mid-day meals to underprivileged school children everyday in cooperation with governments in four Indian states and will be extending to others. This is an excellent example of public private partnership. Similarly, India can develop a large scale safe drinking water program that can be used by the other countries as well. The important task is to raise the $100 million USD through PPPP to leverage resources that are already availble. This will ensure supply of safe drinking water for all of rural India. The money collected from users @ Rs.0.10 per liter as well as the sale of the excess water produced can repay the money rasied and have enough to set up all the needed 100,000 plants in 4 years.This money can be raised as an investment from individuals, corporations and institutions interested in seeing a developed India. A water bond should be established. Bonds are a financing method by which money is raised through a promise to repay at a fixed maturity date with interest. Chancellor Gordon Brown, London, UK has launched, in November 2006, a £2.1 Billion bond scheme aimed at saving 10 million children in the developing world from deadly diseases. Reputed financial institutions and a team of dedicated NGOs should tap the 200,000 Non-Resident Indian and 83,000 Indian millionaires and other philanthropists. Foreign remittances to India now stand at $23 Billion a year. Raising $100 million, in a year, for such an important goal should be possible.3 Email : email@example.com 1. www.chinadialogue.net/ 2. http://ddws.nic.in/ 3. http://www.pr-inside.com/india-s-foreign-exchange-reserves-are-r51952.htm
Water: Scarce or Plenty? Accompanied by her children, a woman treks across a dried-out lake in search of water in the western Indian state of Gujarat. More than 75 percent of Indias rural population does not have access to public water supplies, the World Bank reports. Instead, groundwater fills the needs. But when rain stops and temperatures soar, villagers -- as in this photo -- go without.Its an all too common sightfor India. Summer monsoonshowers pour down, settingin motion floods that destroyhomes, ruin roads anddevastate lives. In Gujarat,nearly half of the statesirrigation dams overflows insummer, isolating entirecommunities. Here, a girlwaits for help in a floodedvillage in the western Indianstate of Gujarat. Photo: Amit Dave / Reuters http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/shows/dammed/photo.html