Transcript of "Rainwater Harvesting - Catalyst for Human Development"
CatalystA PLATFORM FOR PEOPLE, PROJECTS & PROGRESSFOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MARCH 2007 WATER Safe Drinking Water Rain Water Harvesting Facing the Water Crisis Waste Water Management India Water Portal Water Bond
compiled by Ms. Shivangini Tandon, Ashoka: Innovators for the Public, USA.’
TEAM 03 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Catalyst EDITORIAL TEAM Dr. Bhamy V. Shenoy Chief Editor firstname.lastname@example.org FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Ms. Bharati Kalasapudi — An insight into the complex Mr. Nasy Sankagiri problems of development and an Ms. Aarti Iyer Mr. Lakshman Kalasapudi attempt to provide solutions. Ms. Padmaja Ayyagari Mr. Rajesh Satyavolu Published by: Dr. Srinivasa Rao (Editor) Dr. Vasundhara D. Kalasapudi email@example.com Bharati Seva Sadan Advisory Board Srinivasanagar Colony Dr. Thomas Abraham Saluru- 535 591 Dr. Nirupam Bajpai Vizianagaram District, A.P. India Dr. Suri Sehgal Mr. M. Chittaranjan Dr. Rao V.B.J. Chelikani Contact: Editorial Board INDIA Dr. Abraham George Dr. Rao V.B.J. Chelikani firstname.lastname@example.org INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (IFHD) Dr. Ratnam Chitturi Balaji Residency, 12-13-705/10/AB email@example.com Gokulnagar, Tarnaka Hyderabad - 500 017, A.P. India Mr. Anil Chug firstname.lastname@example.org Mr. Ram Krishnan email@example.com USA Dr. Srinivasa Rao Mr. Balbir Mathur Balbir@TreesforLife.org ASSOCIATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (AFHD) 208 Parkway Drive, Roslyn Heights Mr. Yogi Patel New York,11577, USA firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Dr. Raj Rajaram firstname.lastname@example.org For all communication please contact: email@example.com Dr. Viral Acharya firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Volga MISSION email@example.com Disclaimer To present people, ideas, news and views periodically to The views and opinions expressed readers to promote networking among NGOs. herein by authors are not necessarily those of Catalyst for HumanTo publish peer reviewed professional articles on NGO movement Development magazine, its Staff or that can promote sustainable development and best practices. Editor, and they assume no responsibility for them. Catalyst To disseminate information on NGO movement to improve accepts no responsibility, directly orcommunication that in turn can catalyze human development. indirectly, for the views and opinions expressed by the authors as well as for the pictures used in the articles. To provide a platform for all concerned with sustainable Any omission of reference to development to catalyze the process of human development. materialfrom web or other sources is unintentional.
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TITLE PAGES OF FIRST FOUR ISSUES OF CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HIGHLIGHTS OF JANUARY 06 ISSUE u Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural India u Healthcare in India u Water Management in 21st Century - Policy and Planning u Food and Nutrition Through Value Addition to Agri Resources u Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural India u Cross-Fertilization Needed Between Universities & Scientific Labs u Balasakhi - A Village Voice u NRI Pioneers - Catalytic Agents for Development HIGHLIGHTS OF APRIL 06 ISSUE u Agenda For the Nation: An Approach u Economic Reforms in India - The Unfinished Agenda u A Villagers Agenda For a Healthy India u Consumer Movement - An Agenda u Indias Development - Agenda for NRIs u Stop Child Poverty u Could Our Classrooms Shape Indias Destiny u Unscrupulous NGOs are Denting Movement HIGHLIGHTS OF OCTOBER 06 ISSUE u Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural India u Healthcare in India u Water Management in 21st Century - Policy and Planning u Food and Nutrition Through Value Addition to Agri Resources u Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural India u Cross-Fertilization Needed Between Universities & Scientific Labs u Balasakhi - A Village Voice u NRI Pioneers - Catalytic Agents for Development HIGHLIGHTS OF JANUARY 07 ISSUE u Non Resident Indians contributions - Answering a Call to Ation u Eliminating Elephantiasis and Waterborne Diseases u Association for Indias Development - Improving Literacy in Rural India u Leading India toward Millennium Development Goals u How Can NRIs Help in Poverty Alleviation u Is Mega Philanthropy Going to Make a Difference? u Nobel Peace Prize 2006 - Muhammad Yunus u Indian National Development Congress
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CONTENTS 07 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTPREFACE08 h Preface by Dr. Bhamy V. Shenoy WATER 18 h Water Wars:WATER National Problems10 h Case Study of Bhavani River Basin from a Regional12 h Safe Drinking Water in Villages: A Step Perspective towards Rural Transformation15 h Rain Barrels Catalyze Water Harvesting17 h Empowering Indian Communities to Face the Water Crisis 21 h Rain Centre in19 h WaterHealth International Partners with Chennai, India Community Leaders and NGOs to Bring Clean Water to Indias Underserved23 h Rainwater Harvesting in India25 h The India Water Portal28 h Odyssey of an NGO: Lessons to Be Learnt WATER RIGHTS30 h Oorani- Rain Water Harvesting for Villages 40 h Get Real, Coke:32 h Pala Thulli - Community Wide Rain Water Water Rights Harvesting Protest33 h Integrated Water Systems Management in South Asia - A Framework for Research34 h The Benefits of WaterPartners Internationals Water Credit Initiative SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS36 h Innovative Approaches to Water Projects 44 h Examples of in India Social Contribution38 h IIM Kozhikode Runs on Rainwater from IIT Madras39 h Chinas Water Crisis AlumniWASTE MANAGEMENT41h Benefits of Using Wastewater in the CASE STUDY Production of Agricultural Products42 h Promoting Effective Waste M anagement: 45 h Gravity Head Ensures The Clean Himalaya Initiative a Green Plant and Sustainability: ANGO ACTIVITY Case Study of54 h Meeting Reports Gangtok CityPORTRAIT57 h Portrait of Dr. K.L. Rao 47 h Sustainable Rural WaterESSAY58 h Water Bond for Safe Drinking water, Essay Management - A Replicable by Dr. Srinivasa Rao Case Study
08 PREFACE CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT W hile several aspects of Indias multi dimensional water crisis have been discussed in this issue of Catalyst, there are many which remain conspicuous by their absence. Because of the interest of the President Abdul Kalam, the Supreme Court and the political class, interlinking of rivers has been put on the national agenda. Privatization or corporatization of water distribution system versus status quo under the inefficient and often corrupt administrative set up of local bodies is another critical issue. Productivity of using water for growing different crops and optimum way of allocating water for growing different crops, supplying water as free good versus collecting full or partial cost of supplying, supplying at least 50 liters per person per day of clean water to all and resolving interstate water conflicts are some of the other water related issues remain uncovered in this issue. Thousands of NGOs are involved with water issues. But most are involved often in the non controversial projects like water harvesting or development of low cost technology to reuse waste water. It is because of this, most of our articles may be dealing with this aspect of water crisis. No substance is more valuable than water, but none is likely to be more free. In Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith has referred to this phenomenon as "Diamond-water paradox". We all know that any good that is available for free is likely to be misused. Still it is difficult to find NGOs who have the courage to convince the government to price water either in residential sector for drinking purpose or agricultural sector for producing food crops. In the case of power sector, at least the central government having realized the folly of giving free power to farmers are asking the state government to change their policy. But in the case of water, no political party has dared to take this up. Because of free power, farmers are depleting ground water at frightening rate. Bore wells are going deeper. As wells go deeper, arsenic and saltwater can begin to seep in. Already in Punjab brackish water has infiltrated in several places. There can be no two opinions on the need to support farmers and so also the poor who are below the poverty line. At the same time, studies after studies have shown that subsidies do not reach the intended beneficiaries. In this case these subsidies have created huge problems. Free power along with free water has given rise to water shortage sometimes on a semi permanent basis. Unlike energy security which is a well recognized issue by the government, water security has not yet got the attention it deserves in India. Contamination of water is causing havoc throughout India causing totally avoidable illness like diarrhoea and sometimes even killing people. Indias NGO movement need to take this problem on a war footing since the government machinery is totally incapable of solving it despite having many laws and regulations. History has shown that from the time of Sumeria water has been a principle source of conflicts between nations. We in India have started to see the first signs of water conflict between states in recent years. These can result in constitutional crisis. At this issue goes to press, Karnataka is in turmoil because of the Kaveri Tribunals award going against it. We are likely to see more such conflicts in the future. We need to develop a sound methodology to settle such interstate water problems in a more objective and scientific way keeping aside the political and emotional factors. Dr. Bhamy V. Shenoy
10 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Case Study of Bhavani River Basin Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is the need of the hour and River Basin Organisations (RBOs) are using this for better water management and sustainable development of natural resources. This article highlights lessons learnt from the Bhavani River Basin Action Research Project.I N INDIA, like in many other developing countries in South Asia, water scarcity and deterioration in water DR. A. RAJAGOPAL is a Development Economist with a Ph.d from Centre For quality threaten the basics of food security and the Development studies, Trivandrum affiliatedfoundation of society. Increase in population, escalated to Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.competition from urbanization, growing urban-rural Since 1991 he has been working on a numberconflicts over water, over-exploitation of ground water, of policy issues in water resourcesfrequent droughts and floods are the major water management. Presently he is Executivemanagement issues that the country faces. Managing Director of SaciWATERs (South Asiancompeting demands from irrigation, urban and rural Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies),drinking, industrial sectors and minimum flows for Hyderabad.environmental purpose, has become a major challenge in21st century. The existing system of sectoral The National Water Policy, 2002 also emphasized thearrangements for water management is no longer importance of river basin management. It left the scopeadequate, and there is an urgent need for an integrated and power of the basin organisations to be decided byapproach to deal with these challenges. Integrated Water the states themselves. Most of the rivers in India areResources Management (IWRM), through River Basin inter-state in nature, and hence, there is a need for aOrganisations (RBOs), is the main strategy advocated for comprehensive approach to address the many issues ofachieving better water management and sustainable river basin management. However, in practical terms, thedevelopment of natural resources. It is also emphasized experience in RBM is very limited and the country has toas one of the means of achieving the Millennium go a long way in realizing the benefits of IWRM throughDevelopment Goal (MDG) of reducing poverty. RBM. India has few RBOs and all of them are managed byIWRM and River Basin Management (RBM) in India - the State. They are not functioning well due to excessivePolicy Issues control by the State, and the interests of stakeholders,India accepted IWRM and RBM as a strategy for water especially the poor, are hardly represented in theresources development in 1992 following the Dublin management. Given this, it is necessary to explore theconference. However, the progress on this was dismal scope for an alternative bottom-up approach thatuntil 1998, when the Government of India appointed a involves stakeholders. This article analyses thecommittee to recommend ways and means for opportunities and constraints for such an approach in theIntegrated Water Resources Planning and Development. Bhavani river basin in South India.The committee recommended the river basin as a unit forIntegrated Water Resources Planning and Development. Case Study of Bhavani River Basin Bhavani is an important tributary of the Cauvery River in Map 1 Location of the Bhavani river its mid-reach in Tamilnadu. The river originates from the basin in the Indian sub continent Silent Valley forest of Kerala, and flows in the south- eastern direction for 217 kms. The total area of the Bhavani river basin is 6000 sq km, a major portion (87%) of which is situated in Tamilnadu (See Map 1). The Lower Bhavani Project (LBP) is a multi-purpose reservoir project, constructed mainly for water storage and distribution to canal systems in the basin. The reservoir is also used for hydel power generation and fishing. Apart from this, water diversion dams, viz. Kodiveri and Kalingarayan, divert water into different canal systems that have existed for centuries. The Upper part of the basin is not well developed and depends mostly upon ground water and rain for agriculture. The
WATER WATER 11 11 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT mostly upon ground water and rainfor agriculture. The river plays animportant role in the economy ofCoimbatore and Erode districts byproviding water for agriculture, drinking,industrial purposes and for over alleconomic development. Due to anincrease in population, unplannedexpansion in the command area, andincrease in the demand for domestic andindustrial water supply, the basin isalready closing and stressed. There isintense competition among water usersand a sizeable gap between demand andsupply in the agriculture and domestic Map 2;Bhavani basin map withsectors. rivers and tributaries There are conflicts between the oldsettlers and the new command farmersregarding water use in the basin. Under the riparian Approachprinciples, the old ayacutdars- command farmers - were The basin water management situation has becomeentitled to 11 months water supply for growing two or precarious due to the uncoordinated actions ofthree paddy crops or annual crops like sugarcane, banana stakeholders. Based on our studies and meetings withetc, whereas the new ayacut farmers could only grow a different stakeholders (organized by SaciWATERs andsingle paddy crop or a dry crop like maize in a year. As Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore), welong as water supply in the dam was adequate, the realized the need for involving the stakeholders in theconflict was not pronounced. However, in 2002 the efforts of the State in addressing the issues of watersupply was at an all time low and water was not released resources management in an integrated manner.to the new command areas at all. This prompted the new Consequently, we organized a Multi-Stakeholdersayacutdars to file a case in the High Court seeking water Dialogue meeting in 2005 wherein farmers, NGOs,supply for at least one crop. The court asked the government departments, industrialists, social activists,Government to prepare a compromise formula for etc. discussed various issues. In that meeting, thesharing water among farmers, but this was rejected by stakeholders agreed to establish a forum to discuss thesethem, Negotiations organized by local politicians also issues further rather than resorting to court cases andfailed. The court, in its interim order, has asked the State agitations. The work of the forum, which is likely toto obtain its permission before opening the dam each become an RBO in the future, continues.season. Thus, the conflict situation led to the intervention Lessons from the experience: The action research inof the court in the operation of the reservoir, instead of the Bhavani basin has brought out the following lessons:the normal procedure of operation by the Irrigation l There is a need for coordinated action by the State inDepartment. planning for the development of water resources in an There is also a conflict between upstream and down area and the river basin offers the scope for suchstream users of the water in the basin. Many upstream planning as a logical -hydrological unit.users have resorted to direct pumping from the river and l Stakeholders increasingly resort to legal courses (whenthis has resulted in a court case by the down stream they lack faith in the existing mechanism) that are costlyfarmers. Thus, it is seen that farmers have increasingly and time consuming.resorted to legal remedies rather than their own l The role of an external party, as an unbiased facilitator,negotiated efforts. There are also other issues in basin is important in building confidence among differentwater management such as increase in demand for water stakeholders in undertaking stakeholders dialogues.for domestic and industrial uses, and the problem of l Stakeholders gain faith in the process of dialogues andpollution of the water by industries. Farmers affected by negotiated settlement of problems only when thepollution have sought legal remedies and have got closed participation of the State is assured.some of the polluting textile and chemical units, which l The bottom-up approach needs to be built up as a parthas affected employment opportunities in the area. of the State programme on a large scale. Dr. A. RajagopalImportance of Multi-Stakeholders Dialogue (MSD) Email: email@example.com
12 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Safe Drinking Water in Villages: A Step Towards Rural Transformation This article highlights the system adopted by Byrraju Foundation to provide safe drinking water in villages. The Foundation set up Sujala water treatment plants in over 45 villages through public-private partnerships.W ATER, ONE of natures most important gifts to sanitation, agri-advisory services and livelihoods. The mankind, is an essential element to good vision for the water programme is to provide safe health. Though 70% of the earths drinking water, as per WHO standards, in all thegeographical area is covered by water, only 1% of it is participant villages.potable, the rest being unsafe for consumption. Naturalwater sources, especially rivers, canals, ponds, wells, etc. Supply of Drinking Water in Villagesare being exploited, mistreated and contaminated, Improvement in the quality of drinking water significantlymaking drinking from them unsafe. Unlike in the inland benefits the health and well being of people. 63% ofareas, in delta regions, an adequate quantity of water is villages the Foundation is working in are dependent onmade available for drinking purposes, often through irrigation canals, while the remaining 37% are dependentirrigation canals and sometimes through subsurface on ground water. Under RWS Scheme, most of thesources. Over the years, however, the canal water has villages, especially in delta region, have a pond, fed bybecome highly polluted with presence of physical and the irrigation canal at regular intervals, and storing thechemical impurities, as well as harmful bacteria. required quantity of water. The water in the pond is The World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that passed through slow sand filters (SSF) followed bymore than 1.1 billion people across the globe draw water chlorination and pumping into an overhead tank forfrom unsafe sources, causing widely spread diseases like distribution through a system of pipes.diarrhoea. Nearly 70% and 80% of these people live in The quality of raw water in the pond is extremelyrural areas. It is difficult to control the quality of drinking poor, resulting in frequent clogging of SSFs, which arewater even in the most developed countries, and small designed for the raw water turbidity up to 30 NTU.community water supplies frequently fail on basic However, the actual turbidity is much higher, especiallymicrobiological quality and other physical impurities, like, during the monsoons, going up to 130 NTU. The SSFssuspended solids in case of surface water, and total are designed for 16 hours operation, with 3-phasedissolved solids (TDS) mostly in ground water. power, so as to supply 40 litres of treated water per The Byrraju Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation capita per day. The 3-phase power is only available for 6-dedicated to rural transformation, has embarked upon 7 hours a day in most of the villages, making it necessaryproviding safe drinking water, conforming to WHOs to pump untreated water as well. Furthermore, lack ofstandards, and improving the quality of life in 156 adequate funds does not allow proper maintenancevillages. In most of these villages, tests conducted on the of the SSFs.available water indicated failure in meeting the drinkingstandards, even after filtration and chlorination. To DANDU RADHA PRASADA RAJU holds doctoral degree in Mechanical Engineeringaddress this issue, the Foundation concluded that one joined the Government of India two decadesviable option was to separate the drinking water from the ago. Presently, while holding the position ofrest of the water supplied through Rural Water Supply Adviser in Department of Science and(RWS) scheme in villages. Technology, he is on sabbatical for over 3 years with Byrraju Foundation, an NGOFoundations Efforts Towards Provision Of Safe dedicated to rural transformation, workingDrinking Water in the Villages in 172 villages across 6 districts of Andhra Pradesh, impactingThe Foundation is presently working across East a million people. His association with Byrraju FoundationGodavari, Guntur, Krishna, Ranga Reddy, Visakhapatnam resulted in setting up of a number of community based waterand West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, directly plants, in public private partnerships, providing safe drinkingimpacting over million people, and over double that water in 130 villages on sustainable basis. Byrraju Foundation has been awarded Best Water NGO-Water Quality in Indianumber indirectly. Its interventions are in the fields of during 2006-07 by Water Digest and UNESCO.healthcare, education, adult literacy, water environment,
WATER 13 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (In case of conventional treatment, membranes, high pressure pump and softner are not needed) Tests on water samples from 153 villages of West the idea of setting up one plant for every three villagesGodavari, East Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Ranga producing 1000-2000 litres of pure water an hour, to beReddy districts, supplied through RWS scheme, after operated by trained youth from the villages, who ensurefiltration and chlorination, indicated the presence of sustainability by collecting user charges. The quality ofcoliform, turbidity, chlorides and other physical and the produced water is strictly monitored and local Sciencechemical impurities. It was observed that 78% of the Colleges are involved in regular testing and controls.samples did not meet the safe requirements on account A pilot plant, named Sujala, was set up in July 2004 inof the above parameters. If the need for 0.2 ppm of a village called Gollalakoderu (near Bhimavaram in Westresidual chlorine is also considered, 96% villages failed in Godavari district), jointly supported by Gram Panchayat,meeting such norms. In case of upland areas, which Village Community and Byrraju Foundation. Based on itsdepend on ground water, high levels of TDS, including success and the responses from other villages, 45 plantsfluorides, in excess of WHO norms, were observed. have been set up (as on March 2007) in as many villages on Public-Private Partnership model.Foundations Initiatives in Supply of Pure Drinking A schematic diagram outlining the purification systemWater is given above with a period.In order to reduce the levels of pollution in the irrigationcanals, various initiatives like treating and diverting liquid Operation and Maintenance of Sujala plantswaste into the drainage canals, converting solid waste In order to ensure 100% satisfactory performance of theinto compost manure, burying dead animals, and so on, Sujala plants, the quality of input water is checkedmust be followed. Addressing these issues is a gigantic thoroughly for various parameters like turbidity, physicaltask, requiring a lot of resources, time and effort. When and chemical impurities, and bacteria, on a continuousthe Foundation highlighted the bad condition of SSFs, the basis. Based on the levels of impurities and bacteria, theGovernment made a one-time intervention, taking very process parameters are set for effective removal of thelimited measures in terms of repair and maintenance. same. To overcome the power-cuts, the plant is operatedHowever, realising the problems, the Foundation on single-phase for 12-16 hours a day on flexible timings,developed a strategy to address the situation. using voltage stabilisers for maintaining quality of the power. 100% standby for all the critical components, likeStrategy for the Supply of Pure Water pumps, motors, UV lamps, voltage stabilisers, multi-portOut of 40 litres per capita per day supplied by RWS, valves and adequate stocks of consumables are ensured.about 2 litres - 5% of the total - are used for drinking and Annual maintenance contract is entered into, initially forneed to be supplied to the villages. Since it is much easier 5 years, with the suppliers of the plant to ensure troubleto raise 5% of the water to drinking standards rather free operation. For every 5 Sujala water plants, athan the entire quantity, the Foundation came up with maintenance team, deployed within close vicinity of the
14 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTW ATER, ONE of natures most important gifts to microbiological quality and other physical impurities, like, mankind, is an essential element to good suspended solids in case of surface water, and total health. Though 70% of the earths dissolved solids (TDS) mostly in ground water.geographical area is covered by water, only 1% of it is The Byrraju Foundation, a not-for-profit organisationpotable, the rest being unsafe for consumption. Natural dedicated to rural transformation, has embarked uponwater sources, especially rivers, canals, ponds, wells, etc. providing safe drinking water, conforming to WHOsare being exploited, mistreated and contaminated, standards, and improving the quality of life in 156making drinking from them unsafe. Unlike in the inland villages. In most of these villages, tests conducted on theareas, in delta regions, an adequate quantity of water is available water indicated failure in meeting the drinkingmade available for drinking purposes, often through standards, even after filtration and chlorination. Toirrigation canals and sometimes through subsurface address this issue, the Foundation concluded that onesources. Over the years, however, the canal water has viable option was to separate the drinking water from thebecome highly polluted with presence of physical and rest of the water supplied through Rural Water Supplychemical impurities, as well as harmful bacteria. (RWS) scheme in villages. The World Health Organisation (WHO) reported thatmore than 1.1 billion people across the globe draw water Foundations Efforts Towards Provision Of Safefrom unsafe sources, causing widely spread diseases like Drinking Water in the Villagesdiarrhoea. Nearly 70% and 80% of these people live in The Foundation is presently working across Eastrural areas. It is difficult to control the quality of drinking Godavari, Guntur, Krishna, Ranga Reddy, Visakhapatnamwater even in the most developed countries, and small and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, directlycommunity water supplies frequently fail on basic impacting over million people, and over double thatCost of Sujala Plant: number indirectly. Its interventions are in the fields of1. Cost of building(civil construction) 500 sq feet : Rs 300,000 healthcare, education, adult literacy, water environment,2. Plant and machinery : sanitation, agri-advisory services and livelihoods. The a.Conventional UV process vision for the water programme is to provide safe(TDS in raw water <500 ppm) : Rs 400,000 drinking water, as per WHO standards, in all the b.Reverse osmosis process participant villages.(TDS in raw water >500 ppm) : Rs 500,000Requirement of Infrastructure: Supply of Drinking Water in VillagesConnected load (single-phase): 5 KW (for RO plant), 3 KW Improvement in the quality of drinking water significantly (non-RO plant) benefits the health and well being of people. 63% ofLand (for building) : 1500 sq ft (near main water villages the Foundation is working in are dependent on source of Gram Panchayat) irrigation canals, while the remaining 37% are dependent on ground water. Under RWS Scheme, most of theEcomomics of Operation: villages, especially in delta region, have a pond, fed by a. Rated capacity of plant : 1000 litres per hour (output-RO process) the irrigation canal at regular intervals, and storing the b. Number of hours of operation : 7 hours required quantity of water. The water in the pond is c. Production of pure water : 6500 litres a day passed through slow sand filters (SSF) followed by (minimum/average) chlorination and pumping into an overhead tank for d. Distribution of water : 6000 litres a day distribution through a system of pipes. (minimum/average) The quality of raw water in the pond is extremely e. Expenditure (per month): : Rs 17500 poor, resulting in frequent clogging of SSFs, which are - Emoluments/wages : Rs 7500 (operator/helper- 3 persons @ Rs 2500 pm) designed for the raw water turbidity up to 30 NTU. - Power (Rs 4 per unit, 20 units a day) : Rs 2500 However, the actual turbidity is much higher, especially - Consumables : Rs 2000 during the monsoons, going up to 130 NTU. The SSFs (alum, chlorine, detergent, filters, etc) are designed for 16 hours operation, with 3-phase - Annual maintenance charges : Rs 2000 power, so as to supply 40 litres of treated water per - Depreciation : Rs 2000 Prasada Raju - Incidental expenses : Rs 1500 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org f. Collection of user charges(@ 12.5 paise a litre): Rs 22500 References: g.Surplus : Rs 5000 Statistics on water:‘The facility of levying concessional tariff for consumption of power, as WaterPartners International http://www.water.org/resources/waterfacts.htmallowed to Public water Schemes in villages, usually 10% of normal rate Aquastat http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/main/index.stmas mentioned above, reduces the charges for running of plant making the Byrraju Foundation: http://www.byrrajufoundation.org/villagesfaq.htmunit break-even at 5300 litres of water distributed a day’. Statistics: http://www.unicef.org/wes/index_statistics.html
WATER 15 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Rain Barrels Catalyze Water Harvesting Rainwater harvesting through the rain barrel generates water for productive use that would otherwise go waste. This article shows how the Rainwater Club of Bangalore has used this approach effectively.T he potential of rainwater harvesting has been much talked about in recent times. But that an ordinary plastic water storage drum, connected to the roof SHREE PADRE is a journalist with manythrough a pipe, can harvest water is a fact that many years of experience in agricultural reporting.citizens in the Bangalore-Mysore region of India find He is the author of several books, includingsurprising. one on rainwater harvesting, published by The Rainwater Club of Bangalore is an organization Altermedia.intent on disseminating information on rainwaterharvesting. It is run by S.Vishwanath, a water activist ofinternational repute. When Vishwanath showed a small water by a bucket or by using a hosepipe.plastic drum that collects rainwater to a team of women A gate valve is fitted at the end of the down pipe toslum dwellers of Chamarajpet, Bangalore, they allow the water from the first rains of the season to runexclaimed, "Ishtena, ishtena?" (Is it this simple, this out. After 2-3 rains, the valve is closed and the rainwatersimple?). flows into the barrel. On top of the drum is a filter to These women will now install rainwater tanks in at improve the quality of the collected rainwater. This is aleast 200 houses with the help of a local NGO, small-perforated aluminium/stainless steel basin with twoRayapuram Development Society. layers of sponge on it. Regarding the thickness of the On another occasion, a Gram Panchayat member sponge, Vishwanath says, "Oh! Dont worry much onfrom Anekal was so moved by this simple idea that he this. If sponge is not easy available, you can place aimmediately decided to build a 10,000 litre Rainwater three-fold layer of ordinary dhoti."Storage tank in his village. The sponge filter can be seen from the outside, and This system, presented to the slum women and Gram when it is visibly clogged, it is cleaned by washing in aPanchayat member, is called a Rain Barrel, "A simple way bucket of water. Cleaning 3 or 4 times in a year may befor people to start harvesting rainwater", according to enough and thereVishwanath. is no need to Most people are not aware of how much rainwater replace the spongepours on their house-site or campus, and are not sheet.psychologically prepared to accept such water as potable. A rain barrel"It is this entry barrier that is most difficult to break", can collect aopines Vishwanath. Here the rain barrel comes in handy, substantial amounteasing away the mental block, and serving as a catalyst of water, given it is The rain barrels filter is sponge.for rainwater harvesting. emptied every time The rain barrel system is based on an ordinary plastic it rains. Assuming that the user empties the barrel once rainwater storage drum everyday (during the rainy season), a 50 sqm roof, A rain barrel connected available anywhere. The connected to a 500 litre rain barrel, can collect nearly to the roof through a PVC pipe. capturing area (roof or 23,000 litres of rainwater in a year, under Bangalore terrace) is cleaned once conditions. Similarly, a 1000 litre rain barrel can collect at the beginning of the nearly 35,000 litres of water in a year. In many parts of monsoon. Due to the Kerala, with over 100 days of rain annually, a 500 litre gravitational pull, the can collect around 40,000 litres! rain that falls on the The space required for a 500 litre rain barrel is four roof reaches the drum cubic feet and has an installation cost of about Rs 2500, through a PVC down while a 1000 litre rain barrel would cost approximately pipe. For convenience, Rs 4300. the rain barrel is placed Every rain barrel has a tap and an overflow outlet. The on a platform 18 inches water collected can be used to recharge open wells or above the ground to bore wells. Using a hosepipe and a Zero-B type filter, facilitate the drawl of which costs about Rs 60, the tap can be connected to the
16 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTT he potential of rainwater harvesting has psychologically prepared to accept such water as been much talked about in recent times. potable. "It is this entry barrier that is most But that an ordinary plastic water storage difficult to break", opines Vishwanath. Here thedrum, connected to the roof through a pipe, can rain barrel comes in handy, easing away theharvest water is a fact that many citizens in the mental block, and serving as a catalyst forBangalore-Mysore region of India find surprising. rainwater harvesting. The Rainwater Club of Bangalore is an S.VISHWANATH The rain barrel system is based on an ordinaryorganization intent on disseminating information of Bangalores plastic rainwater storage drum availableon rainwater harvesting. It is run by Rainwater Club anywhere. The capturing area (roof or terrace) isS.Vishwanath, a water activist of international cleaned once at the beginning of the monsoon.repute. When Vishwanath showed a small plastic drum Due to the gravitational pull, the rain that falls on thethat collects rainwater to a team of women slum dwellers roof reaches the drum through a PVC down pipe. Forof Chamarajpet, Bangalore, they exclaimed, "Ishtena, convenience, the rain barrel is placed on a platform 18ishtena?" (Is it this simple, this simple?). inches above the ground to facilitate the drawl of water These women will now install rainwater tanks in at by a bucket or by using a hosepipe.least 200 houses with the help of a local NGO, A gate valve is fitted at the end of the down pipe toRayapuram Development Society. allow the water from the first rains of the season to run On another occasion, a Gram Panchayat member out. After 2-3 rains, the valve is closed and the rainwaterfrom Anekal was so moved by this simple idea that he flows into the barrel. On top of the drum is a filter toimmediately decided to build a 10,000 litre Rainwater improve the quality of the collected rainwater. This is aStorage tank in his village. small-perforated aluminium/stainless steel basin with two This system, presented to the slum women and Gram Shree PadrePanchayat member, is called a Rain Barrel, "A simple way Email: email@example.com people to start harvesting rainwater", according to Rainwater ClubVishwanath. #264, 6TH Main, 6th Block, Vidyaranyapura, BEL Layout, Most people are not aware of how much rainwater Bangalore 560097. Phone: +91-80-23641690pours on their house-site or campus, and are not http://www.rainwaterclub.org Water Conservation at Motor Industries Company in India Water is everywhere. Yet about 97% of it is salty sea water and 2% is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps, which makes the remaining 1% a precious commodity, indispensable for our survival. This lifeline is today - contaminated and polluted. So water and other natural resource conservation are regarded seriously in the Bosch Environmental Management System. Environmental protection plays a significant role in stimulating and guiding product innovation. The pollution control measures we practice at Motor Industries Co. include automated effluent treatment plants, prevention of soil and ground water contamination, and minimized usage of hazardous chemicals. Water treatment At Motor Industries, we employ technologies like Extended Aeration, Reverse Osmosis and Ion Exchange for treatment and reuse of domestic and process waste water. This has resulted in 40% reduction of fresh water usage. Treated effluent About 800,000 litres of treated effluent per day are reused for secondary purposes like gardening and toilet flushing. More than 10,000 trees of different species, in addition to a garden of medicinal plants, are nurtured with the treated effluent. Rain water harvesting At our Jaipur Plant (Jaipur receives less than 300 mm of rainfall annually), the entire rain water runoff from the premises is recharged into the ground, thereby improving the quality and quantity of available ground water. In the last three years, more than 12 Million litres of rain water have been recharged in to the ground. by K.P. Murthy, Mico Bosch, India
WATER 17 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Empowering Indian Communities to Face the Water Crisis Water quality testing infrastructure in India is still weak. This article recommends decentralized system of water testing alongwith community-based quality monitoring and the use of field test kits.F RESH WATER, that was once considered to be an SS MEENAKSHI SUNDARAM has had 36 infinitely renewable natural resource, is no longer years of experience as officer of the Indian available in plenty. Several countries are now Administrative Service. Besides working inexperiencing serious fresh water supply problems on the Prime Ministers Office with threeaccount of increasing demand due to population different Prime Ministers, he was Secretary topressure, over exploitation, rapid growth in agriculture, Government of India in the Ministries ofindustry and urbanization. In India, the per capita water Rural Development, Disinvestment, Spaceavailability, which was over 5,000 cubic meters per and Atomic Energy. After retiring from the IAS, he is currently a Visiting Professor at the National Instituteannum in 1950, has now come down to less than 2,000 of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.cubic meters*. Though the country has made significantprogress with regard to drinking water, thanks to thesustained efforts of the Central and State Governments, testing has to be introduced. Adoption of communityheavy dependence on ground water, coupled with based water quality monitoring, and involvement ofinadequate recharging efforts and the neglect of health department in water quality surveillance, mighttraditional practices like rain water harvesting, have also mitigate the quality problems. A "catchment arearesulted in the depletion of ground water levels. This has approach", involving locally available infrastructure andbrought about water quality problems in several parts of institutions for water quality testing at the habitationthe country. This article will examine the quality level, with the help of village panchayats and the districtproblems, which, so far, have not received adequate labs, needs to be advocated.attention in the Indian context. To implement the community based catchment area Despite improved coverage and access to water approach on a large scale, user friendly and reliable watersupply, nearly 400,000** children, under the age of five, quality field test kits should be made available. Althoughdie in India due to diarrhoeal diseases attributable to some test kits are now seen in the Indian market, it iscontaminated water and poor hygiene practices. Apart necessary to closely scrutinize their efficacy on the twofrom this, other major water quality problems include counts - user-friendliness and reliability - so that theirhigh salinity and high fluoride, arsenic, iron and nitrate potential for large scale use can be determined. Secondly,concentrations. While some water quality problems are standardization of these kits may be necessary toof geological origin, others are man-made. Unlike iron facilitate local manufacture, training communityand salinity, the presence of arsenic, fluoride or representatives, as well as for decentralized marketing ofbacteriological pollution does not result in an easily these kits in district/block level shops. There is also aidentifiable change in colour or taste. As a result, a large need for an institutional arrangement for assuring quality,number of people unknowingly drink contaminated receiving feedback from the users, and periodical designwater. refinement of these kits. There is a substantial scope for Water quality testing infrastructure in India is still private-public participation in designing, producing andweak. Some districts do not have qualified labs, while marketing these kits. Empowering the communities inothers do not have qualified staff or adequate transport testing water quality of their own sources is the only wayfacilities. The dispersed nature of water sources poses for users to know if their water sources are safe. Onlyimmense logistics problems in transporting samples to then they can initiate timely remedial action.the district labs and conveying results to the community, S.S. Meenakshi Sundaramas frequently as is necessary. Although regular sanitary Email: firstname.lastname@example.org are prescribed to prevent bacteriological References:pollution, these are seldom conducted. * Centre for Science and Environment: http://www.cseindia.org/dte What then is the solution? Provision of safe water supplement/industry20040215/ agriculture.htmsources and treatment units should get the highest ** UNICEFpriority. In addition, a decentralized system of water UK:www.unicef.org.uk/fundraising/resources/unicef_interfaith_action_hindus.pdf
18 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Water Wars: National Problems from a Regional Perspective Shortage of water and inefficient management of water resources have led to several inter-state water disputes in India.This article points out the necessity of adopting a regional focus iin the resolution of water problems at the national level.T here have been inter-state water disputes ever since PROF. RAMAMURTHI RALLAPALLI India gained independence. Inter state disputes (Ph.D., D.Sc) is a former Vice-Chancellor of include the disputes between Punjab, Haryana and S,V.University in Tirupati, and is GeneralRajasthan over Sutlej-Yamuna,Tamilnadu and Karnataka President of the 2008 Indian Scienceover Cauveri waters, and Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka Congress. He is an Environmental andover Krishna waters. Tribunals were constituted to Biomedical Scientist of internationaldevelop a formula but political undertones pushed these reputation. He is a fellow of Indian Nationaltribunals into inaction. The most glaring example is the Science Academy (F.N.A.Sc)., NationalCauveri water tribunal to sort out the claims of Academy of Sciences,India (F.N.A), Received ISCAKarnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. The award declared Millennium Plaque of Honor award from Honble Prime Minister of India, Jan, 2006after an inexplicably protracted delay of seventeen yearsin February 2007 received more criticism than awareness and implementation of water saving practices,appreciation. As the river flows through several states, an the problems of water shortage are actually accentuated.ideal apportionment has been a challenging task and has While interlinking of rivers advocated by Late K.L.Raoeluded a universally acceptable verdict. The announced who was dreaming of National water grid has beenverdict is not acceptable to Karanataka and the state is discussed and debated several times, regional andpreparing for long verbal, legal and social wars through within the state water resources could be linked. Forlife paralyzing bandhs and an all party delegation of example linking of Godavari - Krishna, Galeru - Nagari,politicians taking the matter to courts and to the Central and Handri - Neva in Andhra Pradesh may provide muchGovernment. What goes beyond the imagination of sane needed access to water for irrigation and drinking inthinking citizens is the lack of realization that gone are several districts. This is what is being done in Andhrathe days of easy availability of surface and ground water. Pradesh.Due to the lack of control over sinking of bore wells and If a concerted proactive approach is made, many water problems could be solved. Success stories such as Krishna water being sent to Chennai through the Telugu Ganga project is solving to a great extent the drinking water problems of Chennai. This should act as a model for social political vision for State leaders. Public /private partnerships and industry involvement should lead the way for quenching thirst of millions whose basic access to clean drinking water is denied. The Olavanna experiment in Kerala, the Byrraju Foundation projects in Andhra Pradesh and Sri Satya Sai water projects have shown the way for public/private partnerships and Ramamurthi Rallapalli Email: email@example.com
WATER 19 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT WaterHealth International Partners with Community Leaders and NGOs to Bring Clean Water to Indias Underserved This article presents the experience of WaterHealth International in catering to the water needs of rural communities. It uses a partnership approach to extend ongoing outreach and education programs that effectively communicate the relationship between clean water, improved hygiene and good health.A PPROXIMATELY 70 percent of Indias citizens live TRALANCE ADDY earned BA and BS in rural communities, with poor, if any, access to degrees in chemistry and mechanical potable water*. Addressing this need has been a engineering simultaneously fromdaunting challenge for governments, private industry and Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, in 1969, and subsequently earned MS and PhDNGOs alike. In response to the crisis, WaterHealth degrees in engineering from the University ofInternational (WHI) is redefining the way potable water Massachusetts at Amherst. Prior to joiningis provided to the worlds underserved populations. WaterHealth, Dr. Addy was an international vice president of Johnson & Johnson, and a member of theBreakthrough Technology Global Management Committee of Johnson & Johnson Medical,The foundation of the companys products is a versatile, Inc. He is a recipient of several corporate awards for innovationinnovative technology platform. The patented, award- and entrepreneurship, and the holder of 13 US andwinning technology, UV Waterworks™, employs a international patents.unique air-suspended ultra-violet process that is gravitydriven, and features a contoured flow channel instead of sizes. Non-proprietary components that are coupled witha cylindrical pipe. UV disinfection is an extremely safe, UVW in WHIs installations are readily available in mostreliable and environmentally superior method of parts of the world. Ease-of-use and low maintenancedisinfecting water. UVW delivers a high dose of this requirements mean that the systems can be deployedradiation that inactivates micro organisms through even in the most remote locations.disruption of their DNA processes. The technology wasinvented at the, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories A Unique Approach to Sustainabilityin California by Dr. Ashok Gadgil, a Staff Scientist, who WaterHealth Internationals unique business approach toalso holds the position of VP of Scientific Affairs of WHI. reaching the underserved includes financing for theHe has received wide international acclaim for his purchase and installation of the systems. This makes itinvention and its ability to deliver high-quality water at possible to deliver comprehensive and integratedvery low cost. The high quality of water meets the products for safe, clean water, even to communities oncepotable water standards of the World Health considered "unreachable".Organization. User fees for treated water are used to service the In both its operational characteristics and application financing costs and to cover the expenses of operatingpotential, the UV Waterworks process and system design and maintaining the equipment and facility. Therepresent a significant departure from the existing company hires and trains local residents of thepurification processes. For deployment in rugged communities it serves to operate and perform the day-to-environments and locations with little technology day maintenance of these "micro-utilities". This createsinfrastructure it has significant advantages over employment and builds capacity, as well as spawnstechnologies such as conventional UV systems, reverse entrepreneurial opportunities for local residents toosmosis, ozonation and chlorination, among others. provide related services, such as delivery of the purifiedBenefits of the technology include high efficacy water to outlying areas.combined with high throughput, a small footprint, and Because the facilities are owned by the communities inlong-term reliability. The modular design means that which they are installed, the user fee becomes ansystems can be scaled to serve communities of various important source of revenue for communities after the
20 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENTA PPROXIMATELY 70 percent of Indias citizens live systems can be scaled to serve communities of various in rural communities, with poor, if any, access to sizes. Non-proprietary components that are coupled with potable water*. Addressing this need has been a UVW in WHIs installations are readily available in mostdaunting challenge for governments, private industry parts of the world. Ease-of-use and low maintenanceand NGOs alike. In response to the crisis, WaterHealth requirements mean that the systems can be deployedInternational (WHI) is redefining the way potable water even in the most remote locations.is provided to the worlds underserved populations. A Unique Approach to SustainabilityBreakthrough Technology WaterHealth Internationals unique business approach toThe foundation of the companys products is a versatile, reaching the underserved includes financing for theinnovative technology platform. The patented, award- purchase and installation of the systems. This makes itwinning technology, UV Waterworks™, employs a possible to deliver comprehensive and integratedunique air-suspended ultra-violet process that is gravity products for safe, clean water, even to communities oncedriven, and features a contoured flow channel instead of considered "unreachable".a cylindrical pipe. UV disinfection is an extremely safe, User fees for treated water are used to service thereliable and environmentally superior method of financing costs and to cover the expenses of operatingdisinfecting water. UVW delivers a high dose of this and maintaining the equipment and facility. Theradiation that inactivates micro organisms through company hires and trains local residents of thedisruption of their DNA processes. The technology was communities it serves to operate and perform the day-to-invented at the, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories day maintenance of these "micro-utilities". This createsin California by Dr. Ashok Gadgil, a Staff Scientist, who employment and builds capacity, as well as spawnsalso holds the position of VP of Scientific Affairs of WHI. entrepreneurial opportunities for local residents toHe has received wide international acclaim for his provide related services, such as delivery of the purifiedinvention and its ability to deliver high-quality water at water to outlying areas.very low cost. The high quality of water meets the Because the facilities are owned by the communities inpotable water standards of the World Health which they are installed, the user fee becomes anOrganization. important source of revenue for communities after the In both its operational characteristics and application loans are repaid.potential, the UV Waterworks process and system designrepresent a significant departure from the existing Partnering for Effective Public Outreach andpurification processes. For deployment in rugged Educationenvironments and locations with little technology Community involvement and knowledge are vital factorsinfrastructure it has significant advantages over in the widespread and lasting adoption of practices totechnologies such as conventional UV systems, reverse win the fight against waterborne diseases. In theosmosis, ozonation and chlorination, among others. communities it serves, WaterHealth developsBenefits of the technology include high efficacy partnerships with healthcare professionals andcombined with high throughput, a small footprint, and Dr. Tralance Addylong-term reliability. The modular design means that Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Water-Related Disease Facts 1. The leading cause of child death in the world is Diarrhea. 2. Of the 37 major diseases in developing countries, 21 are water and sanitation related. 3. Each year, children under five suffer 1.5 billion episodes of diarrhea, four million of which are fatal. 4. No intervention has greater overall impact upon national development and public health than does the provision of safe drinking water and proper disposal of human excreta. 5. At any given time, half the people in developing countries are suffering from water-related diseases Reference: WaterPartners International Fact Sheet from www.water.org, Email: email@example.com
WATER 21 11 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Rain Centre in Chennai, India This article showcases the activities of the Rain Centre, the first Indian organisation to provide assistance and information on rainwater harvesting. Situated in Chennai, the rain Centre also serves as a one-stop information centre.A FEW like-minded people formed the Akash Ganga SHEKAR RAGHAVAN is a Physicist by Trust in January 2001. On August 21, 2002, the Trust education and training. He received his Ph.D. launched Chennais Rain Centre, the first of its kind in in 1976 from Madras University in the area ofthe country, is a one-stop information and assistance center High Energy Physics. For the past ten years,on rainwater harvesting. This Centre was inaugurated by the he has been involved in a door to doorHonorable Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. campaign in the city of Chennai trying to The initial seed money for the Center came from a few create awareness about the importance ofnon-resident Indians living in the U.S. Further support, in the RWH in urban areas. It all started in Besantform of resource material, was provided by the Centre for Nagar. For the past four years, he has been with the Rain Centre as its Director. Before that he was with Centre for Policy studiesScience and Environment, an NGO headquartered in New for about eight years where he met Mukundan.Delhi. The State Government of Tamil Nadu is also one of theco-sponsors. The Rain Centre, which is open to all, charges no fee for cisterns equipped with sand filters to enable immediateits services. Its activities, carried out with the funds received use of the water, and with overflow directed to traditionalby the Akash Ganga Trust through donations, are dug wells for use and recharge purposes;summarized below. The Centre has been involved in the c. Trapping of surface runoff on individual properties throughpromotion of urban Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) since its shallow trenches dug and directed in such a way as tolaunch three years ago. direct the trapped water into a recharge well. 4. Video film shows on RWH are presented periodically forEducation the general public.1. A number of large sized colorful poster panels, 5. Resource materials like booklets, posters etc. have been highlighting the value of water and the importance of prepared in English and Tamil and are provided at a RWH, are on permanent exhibition in the Rain Centre. nominal cost. The posters have also been pasted in public2. Working models in the Centre demonstrate RWH both places, where people tend to assemble, like the Divisional from flat and sloping roofs and from ground surface and Zonal offices of the Municipal Corporation and runoff. Chennai Metrowater, post offices, marriage halls, bank3. Different types of actual RWH systems have been installed branches, and school and college notice boards. in the Centres premises, e.g.: 6. A publicity button was prepared and worn by Trusta. Diversion of rooftop rainwater into plastic tanks above members in order to publicize RWH. A sign saying ground, for immediate use; "RAINWATER HARVESTING DONE IN THIS PLOT",b. Diversion of rainwater into below-ground masonry distributed to people who have implemented harvesting in their respective premises, also generates publicity when it is fixed on the gates so as to attract the curiosity of passersby. 7. During the last couple of years, students from several schools and colleges have visited the rain centre and learnt about RWH. Key persons from the centre have also visited several institutions, both within and outside the city and the state, to give talks, make video presentations and organize exhibitions about RWH. 8. Several NGOs, working in both water sector and other areas, have visited the rain centre. 9. Seminars and workshops have also been organized in the centre.
22 WATER CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Collect roof water First flush Filter Sump WellA FEW like-minded people formed the Akash Ganga 1. A number of large sized colorful poster panels, Trust in January 2001. On August 21, 2002, the Trust highlighting the value of water and the importance of launched Chennais Rain Centre, the first of its kind in RWH, are on permanent exhibition in the Rain Centre.the country, is a one-stop information and assistance center 2. Working models in the Centre demonstrate RWH bothon rainwater harvesting. This Centre was inaugurated by the from flat and sloping roofs and from ground surfaceHonorable Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. runoff. The initial seed money for the Center came from a few 3. Different types of actual RWH systems have been installednon-resident Indians living in the U.S. Further support, in the in the Centres premises, e.g.:form of resource material, was provided by the Centre for a. Diversion of rooftop rainwater into plastic tanks aboveScience and Environment, an NGO headquartered in New ground, for immediate use;Delhi. The State Government of Tamil Nadu is also one of the b. Diversion of rainwater into below-ground masonryco-sponsors. cisterns equipped with sand filters to enable immediate The Rain Centre, which is open to all, charges no fee for use of the water, and with overflow directed to traditionalits services. Its activities, carried out with the funds received dug wells for use and recharge purposes;by the Akash Ganga Trust through donations, are c. Trapping of surface runoff on individual properties throughsummarized below. The Centre has been involved in the shallow trenches dug and directed in such a way as topromotion of urban Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) since its direct the trapped water into a recharge well.launch three years ago. 4. Video film shows on RWH are presented periodically for the general public.Education 5. Resource materials like booklets, posters etc. have been prepared in English and Tamil and are provided at a nominal cost. The posters have also been pasted in public places, where people tend to assemble, like the Divisional and Zonal offices of the Municipal Corporation and Chennai Metrowater, post offices, marriage halls, bank branches, and school and college notice boards. 6. A publicity button was prepared and worn by Trust members in order to publicize RWH. A sign saying "RAINWATER HARVESTING DONE IN THIS PLOT", distributed to people who have implemented harvesting Shekar Raghavan Executive Director, Rain Centre Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Rain Centre is located at 4, Third Trust Link Road in Mandavallipakkam. It is located off Santhome High Road near the Registrars office. The telephone number at the centre is (044) 2461-6134. The website is http://www.raincentre.org.
WATER 23 CATALYST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Rainwater Harvesting in IndiaRainwater Harvesting (RWH) is known to India from the past few centuries. With increasing water crisis, there is an urgent need for practising and popularising rainwater harvesting. The article provides an insight into the prevalent practices.C APTURE RAIN water, store it and use it - it is as RAM KRISHNAN was born in Trivandrum, simple as that". Collect the rain water falling on schooled in Madras, Delhi and Bombay. Ram house tops, collection ponds, lakes, open areas is an alumnus of IIT Madras. He graduated inwith natural grading. Rain water is naturally pure 1967 with a B.Tech and M.Tech. He founded(excepting where it becomes acid rain due to industrial and operated a Logistics Consultingpollution); ground water could be brackish or polluted company for 15 years in the US. Afterwith various contaminants. working in the Minnesota, US for 30 years, Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) was practiced in India Ram Krishnan, for the past few years, spendseven before the British installed municipal pipelines. As 3 months in India every year, learning, working andthe population of India rose from 100 million in the advocating for the poor in Indias villages.1900s to 1,027 million in 2005, the demand for drinkingwater increased many fold. The population increase also highest rainfall country in the world and almost 90% ofsaw many water bodies in both urban and rural areas this rainfall reaches the ocean.covered by buildings and other structures. RWH in Urban Locations Rain falling on the roof and the sides of the building is collected, filtered and charged. For a single family house in a metro city, the only additional investment (about Rs 2000) is the installation of PVC pipes. Installing a RWH unit in a multiple tenant flat complex with 25 families will cost about Rs 50,000. In the picture on the left, a metro home owner needs to install only items 2, 3, 4 and 9. All other items - sump, electric pump, overhead storage - already exist to receive and distribute the city delivered water. RWH Unit Costs - Starting Estimates (2001 Costs) The actual costs depend upon specific RWH design, size of the facility/ house, and percent of rain waterWater Everywhere Starts as Rain harvested and stored. Given below are a few unit costs: Rain is the source of all water in the world. 97.5% of lSump: (only if required) 12,000 litre sumps costs aboutthe worlds supply of water is salt water in the oceans and Rs 50,000 (about Rs1.5% of water is in the arctic glaciers. The remaining 1% 3.50 per litre for largegoes through the water cycle. India receives the 6th sumps). lDrain pipes cost around Rs 15 to Rs 30 per running foot. lBends and elbows around Rs 20 to Rs 75 per piece. lFilter chamber 2x2x2 with pebbles and sand cost Rs 1,500. l10 deep percolation pit with sand, pebbles, air vent and a perforated slab on