Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in Los Angeles California
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Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in Los Angeles California

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Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in Los Angeles California

Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in Los Angeles California

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Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in Los Angeles California Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in Los Angeles California Document Transcript

  • A Guide A Guide to toEstimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in California The Landscape Coefficient Method The Landscape Coefficient Method and and WUCOLS III WUCOLS III University of California Cooperative Extension University of California Cooperative Extension California Department of Water Resources California Department of Water Resources
  • Cover photo: The Garden at Heather Farms, Walnut Creek, CAThis Guide is a free publication. Additional copies maybe obtained from: Department of Water Resources Bulletins and Reports P. O. Box 942836 Sacramento, California 94236-0001 (916) 653-1097Photography: L.R. Costello and K.S. Jones, University of California Cooperative ExtensionPublication Design: A.S. Dyer, California Department of Water Resources
  • A Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in California The Landscape Coefficient Method and WUCOLS III**WUCOLS is the acronym for Water Use Classifications of Landscape Species. University of California Cooperative Extension California Department of Water Resources August 2000 View slide
  • PrefaceThis Guide consists of two parts, each formerly a ter needs for individual species. Used together, theyseparate publication: provide the information needed to estimate irriga- tion water needs of landscape plantings.Part 1—Estimating the Irrigation Water Needs ofLandscape Plantings in California: The Land- Part 1 is a revision of Estimating Water Require-scape Coefficient Method ments of Landscape Plants: The Landscape Co-• L.R. Costello, University of California Coopera- efficient Method, 1991 (University of California tive Extension ANR Leaflet No. 21493). Information presented in• N.P. Matheny, HortScience, Inc., Pleasanton, CA the original publication has been updated and ex-• J.R. Clark, HortScience Inc., Pleasanton, CA panded.Part 2—WUCOLS III (Water Use Classification Part 2 represents the work of many individuals andof Landscape Species) was initiated and supported by the California De-• L.R. Costello, University of California Coopera- partment of Water Resources. This third revision tive Extension (WUCOLS III) includes many species not previ-• K.S. Jones, University of California Cooperative ously evaluated, as well as an update and reorgani- Extension zation of support information.Part 1 describes a method for calculating landscape These two publications are companion documentswater needs, while Part 2 gives evaluations of wa- and are intended to be used together. First-time readers are encour- aged to carefully review both parts of this Guide before mak- ing estimates of landscape wa- ter needs.Eschscholzia california, California poppy iii View slide
  • ContentsPart 1—The Landscape Coefficient Part 2—WUCOLS III ..................................... 45Method ............................................................ 1 Project Participants ........................................... 46Introduction ...................................................... 3 Introduction ...................................................... 49Chapter 1—Estimating WaterRequirements for Crops and Turf ..................... 5 Getting Started .................................................. 51 Categories of Water Needs ......................... 52Chapter 2—Estimating Water Needs for Standard Conditions ................................... 53Landscape Plantings ......................................... 9 Plant Types ................................................. 55 Regions ....................................................... 56Chapter 3—Using the LandscapeCoefficient Formula .......................................... 23 Other Important Information About the Guide ............................................................. 59Chapter 4—Using the Landscape Species Evaluations ................................ 62Coefficient to Estimate Landscape Key to Symbols ....................................... 62Evapotranspiration ........................................... 27 Species Evaluation List—1999 .................. 63 Common Names Index ........................... 101Chapter 5—Irrigation Efficiency and Turfgrasses .............................................. 137Calculating the Total Amount of Water toApply ................................................................ 29 AppendicesChapter 6—Putting it all Together: A A—Reference Evapotranspiration Values forWorksheet for Calculations .............................. 33 Selected Locations in California ............ 139 B—Invasive Species ...................................... 143Chapter 7—Using Water Estimates in C—Glossary .................................................. 145Landscape Planning and Management ............. 37 D—Additional Resources .............................. 147Chapter 8—Special Planting Situations .......... 39 v
  • Part 1 The Landscape Coefficient MethodThe Landscape Coefficient Method (LCM) describes a method of estimating irrigation needs oflandscape plantings in California. It is intended as a guide for landscape professionals. It includesinformation that is based on research and on field experience (observation). Readers are advised thatLCM calculations give estimates of water needs, not exact values, and adjustments to irrigationamounts may be needed in the field. L. R. Costello, Environmental Horticulture Advisor University of California Cooperative Extension N. P. Matheny, Horticultural Consultant HortScience, Inc. J. R. Clark, Horticultural Consultant HortScience, Inc. 1
  • IntroductionPart 1 leads you through the concepts, terms, and agers, gardeners, consultants, water suppliers, au-formulas needed to estimate irrigation water needs. ditors, and students.You will learn: Importance• the key formulas needed for calculations, Estimates of landscape water needs are important• the principal concepts that serve as a basis for cal- for at least three reasons: culations,• how to use the methods in the field, 1. Water Conservation. Water is a limited natural• how to use estimates in irrigation planning and resource. Efficient water use in urban landscapes management, contributes substantially to the conservation of• where to find important numbers in reference this resource. Water use efficiency can be tables, and achieved by supplying only the amount of wa-• considerations for special landscape situations. ter sufficient to meet plant needs.ChaptersAfter providing background information on estimat-ing water needs for agricultural crops and turf inChapter 1, landscape needs are addressed in Chap-ter 2. The landscape coefficient, a key factor inthe formula for estimating landscape water require-ments, is introduced in Chapter 2. Subsequent chap-ters give examples of how to calculate and use thelandscape coefficient. Chapter 5 addresses irriga-tion efficiency and gives examples of how it is usedto determine total water needs. As a way of “put-ting it all together,” a worksheet which summarizesthe process is provided in Chapter 6. Special topicsare discussed in Chapters 7 and 8. The appendicesprovide further information.AudienceAll landscape professionals involved in the plan-ning, installation, and maintenance of irrigated land-scapes should find this information of value. Thisincludes architects, planners, contractors, park man- Applying only the amount of water landscape plants need to remain healthy and attractive is an efficient use of a natural resource. 3
  • 2. Economics. Water costs continue to increase. By applying only that amount of water needed by landscapes, and avoiding excess use, money can be saved.3. Landscape Quality. The potential for plant in- jury caused by water deficits or excess can be minimized by identifying and meeting plant needs.Getting StartedFirst-time readers are encouraged to review the en-tire Guide prior to making water needs estimates.Field examples and a practice worksheet in Chapter6 show how to use the information presented in pre-vious chapters. Be sure to review the appendices;they contain important numbers for calculations.Formulas and NumbersFormulas and numbers are needed to calculate irri-gation water requirements. Fortunately, the calcu-lations needed here are simple and straightforward.They require only a basic understanding of math-ematics. Once you have reviewed the examples andmade some calculations on your own, you shouldhave no difficulty. A worksheet with all the formu-las and sample calculations is included in Chapter 6. 4
  • Chapter 1—Estimating WaterRequirementsfor Crops and TurfIn agriculture, irrigation water requirements are wellestablished for many crops. In urban landscapes,irrigation requirements have been determined for Water requirements of many agricultural crops have been estab-turfgrasses, but not for most landscape species. This lished (see Table1).chapter discusses the method used to estimate wa-ter requirements for agricultural crops and lated. This formula (referred to as the ETc formula)turfgrasses. Chapter 2 adapts this method for appli- is written as follows:cation to landscape plantings. ETc = Kc x ETo Crop Evapotranspiration =Water requirements for agricultural crops and Crop Coefficient x Reference Evapotranspirationturfgrasses have been established in laboratory andfield studies by measuring plant water loss (evapo- This formula states that water loss from a crop (croptranspiration). The total amount of water lost dur- evapotranspiration, ETc) equals the amount of wa-ing a specific period of time gives an estimate of ter that evaporates from a 4- to 7-inch tall cool sea-the amount needed to be replaced by irrigation. son grass growing in an open-field condition (refer-Since growers and turf managers are not equipped ence evapotranspiration, ETo) multiplied by a fac-to measure plant water loss in the field, a formula tor determined for the crop (crop coefficient, Kc).was developed which allows water loss to be calcu- Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is estimated from a Class A evaporation pan or from a special- ized weather station. Normal year (historical) av- erage values for many locations in California are found in Appendix A. Current daily ETo values are available from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and can be accessed via the Internet (www.cimis.water.ca.gov) or by con- tacting the California Department of Water Re- sources (see Appendix D).Water requirements of both cool and warm season turfgrasses havebeen established (see Table 1). 5
  • less than 1.0. For example, if water loss from corn was measured to be 4 inches in a month, and refer- ence evapotranspiration for the same month was 8 inches, then the crop coefficient would be 0.5. Crop coefficients have been established for many crops and for turfgrasses. A sample of values is given in Table 1. Table 1— Crop Coefficients for Various Crops and Turfgrasses Kc values for agricultural crops typically change during the seasons: low values are for early season (March/April) or late season (Sep- tember/October) and high values for midseason (May/June/July). Kc values Low High Deciduous orchard* 0.50 0.97 Deciduous orchard with cover crop** 0.98 1.27 Grape 0.06 0.80 Olive 0.58 0.80 Pistachio 0.04 1.12 Citrus 0.65 year-round TurfgrassA specialized weather station (CIMIS station) or a Class A evapora- Cool season species 0.8 year-roundtion pan (background) can be used to determine reference evapo- Warm season species 0.6 year-roundtranspiration (ETo) for a site. Daily CIMIS data is available online atwww.cimis. water.ca.gov. Source: UC Leaflet Nos. 21427 and 21428 (see references) * Deciduous orchard includes apples, cherries, and walnuts ** When an active cover crop is present, Kc may increase by 25 to 80%.The crop coefficient (Kc) is determined from fieldresearch. Water loss from a crop is measured over In summary, an estimate of crop evapotranspirationan extended period of time. Water loss and esti- is made from reference evapotranspiration and cropmated reference evapotranspiration are used to cal- coefficient values. Estimates can be made for anyculate Kc as follows: location where reference evapotranspiration data Kc = ETc exists and for any crop (or turfgrass) that has a crop ETo coefficient.As seen in the above equation, the crop coefficient(Kc) is simply the fraction of water lost from the Example: A grape grower in Monterey Countycrop relative to reference evapotranspiration. Typi- wants to estimate how much water the vineyard maycally, crop water loss is less than reference evapo- lose in the month of July. Using the ETc formula,transpiration and, therefore, the crop coefficient is two numbers are needed: reference evapotranspi- 6
  • ration (ETo) for July in Monterey and the crop coef-ficient (Kc) for grapes. July ETo for Monterey canbe found in Appendix A, and the Kc for grapes islisted in Table 1 (above). With the two values, thefollowing computation is made: ETo = 0.18 inches per day x 31 days = 5.58 inches (average for July in Monterey) Kc = 0.8 (midseason value for grapes) ETc = Kc x ETo ETc = 0.8 x 5.58 = 4.46 inchesThe grower has estimated that 4.46 inches of waterwill be lost from the vineyard (via evapotranspira-tion) in the month of July. By using this ETc esti-mate, the grower can calculate irrigation water re-quirements for the vineyard. (For an estimate ofthe total amount of water to apply, see Chapter 5).The ETc formula is the key formula for estimatingwater loss from crops and turfgrasses. A version ofthis formula will be used in Chapter 2 to estimatewater loss for landscape plantings. It is recom-mended that you become familiar with the ETc for-mula before continuing. 7
  • Chapter 2— evapotranspiration, ETL) is calculated by multiply- ing the landscape coefficient (KL) and the referenceEstimating Water evapotranspiration (ETo).Needs for Landscape As mentioned above, the ETL formula is basicallyPlantings the same as the ETc formula from Chapter 1, except that a landscape coefficient (KL) has been substi- tuted for the crop coefficient (Kc). This change isTwo formulas are used to estimate water needs for necessary because of important differences whichlandscape plantings: exist between crop or turfgrass systems and land- scape plantings (see “Why a Landscape Coeffi-• the landscape evapotranspiration formula and cient”).• the landscape coefficient formula. The following is an example of a simple calcula-Both formulas are introduced here and then used in tion using the landscape coefficient in the landscapesubsequent chapters to estimate water needs. The evapotranspiration (ETL) formula.landscape coefficient was developed specifically forestimating landscape water needs and is the princi- Example: A landscape architect wants to estimatepal focus of Chapter 2. water loss for the month of August from a large groundcover area being considered for a new com-The method used for estimating water needs for land- mercial office park in Fresno. The architect lookedscape plantings is basically the same as that used up the reference evapotranspiration for August infor crops and turfgrasses. The ETc formula discussed Fresno (Appendix A) and found it to be 7.1 inches.in Chapter 1 is simply modified for application to The architect assigned a landscape coefficient valuelandscapes. One key change, however, has been of 0.2. Using this information and the landscapemade: instead of using the crop coefficient (Kc), a evapotranspiration formula (ETL formula), the ar-landscape coefficient (KL) has been substituted. chitect makes the following calculations:The Landscape Evapotranspiration KL = 0.2 ETo = 7.1 inches for August in FresnoFormulaWater needs of landscape plantings can be estimated ETL = KL x ETo ETL = 0.2 x 7.1 = 1.42 inchesusing the landscape evapotranspiration formula: ETL = KL x ETo The architect estimates that the groundcover will need 1.4 inches in the month of August. (This is Landscape Evapotranspiration = Landscape Coefficient x Reference Evapotranspiration not the total amount of irrigation water needed, how- ever, as irrigation efficiency needs to be considered.This formula (called the ETL formula) states that This topic is addressed in Chapter 5.)water needs of a landscape planting (landscape 9
  • In this example, a landscape coefficient was as- This formula (called the KL formula) states that thesigned. In actual practice, KL needs to be calcu- landscape coefficient is the product of a species fac-lated. The formula needed to calculate KL is the tor multiplied by a density factor and a microcli-heart of the landscape coefficient method and is the mate factor. By assigning numeric values to eachsubject of the next discussion. factor, a value for KL can be determined. The land- scape coefficient is then used in the ETL formula,The Landscape Coefficient Formula just as the crop coefficient is used in the ETc for-As the name implies, the landscape coefficient was mula.derived specifically to estimate water loss from land-scape plantings. It has the same function as the crop Why a Landscape Coefficient?coefficient, but is not determined in the same way. Crop coefficients are used for agricultural crops andLandscape coefficients are calculated from three fac- turfgrasses, so why not for landscape plantings?tors: species, density, and microclimate. These fac- There are three key reasons why landscape coeffi-tors are used in the landscape coefficient formula as cients are needed instead.follows: 1. Unlike a crop or turfgrass, landscape plantings KL = ks x kd x kmc are typically composed of more than one spe- Landscape Coefficient = cies. Collections of species are commonly irri- species factor x density factor x microclimate factor gated within a single irrigation zone, and the dif- ET Rates and Plant Water Needs Soil water availability plays a major role in controlling the rate of water loss from plants (ET rate). Many plants will lose water at a maximum rate as long as it is available. For example, some desert species have been found to maintain ET rates equivalent to temperate zone species when water is available. When soil mois- ture levels decrease, however, ET rates in desert species decline rapidly. In landscape management, it is not the objective to supply all the water needed to maintain maxi- mum ET rates. Rather, it is the intent to supply only a sufficient amount of water to maintain health, appearance and reasonable growth. Maxi- mum ET rates are not required to do this. The ETL formula calculates the amount of water needed for health, appearance and growth, not Some desert species, such as mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa torreyana), have been found to maintain ET rates equivalent to the maximum amount that can be lost via evapo- temperate zone species when water is available (Levitt et al 1995). transpiration. When soil moisture levels decrease, however, ET rates in desert species decline rapidly. 10
  • greater amount of water than a sparse planting. To produce a reliable estimate of water loss, a coefficient for landscapes needs to account for such varia- tion in vegetation density. 3. Many landscapes include a range of microclimates, from cool, shaded, protected areas to hot, sunny, windy areas. These variations in climate signifi- cantly affect plant water loss.Unlike agricultural crops or turfgrass, landscape plantings are typically composed of manyspecies. Collections of species are commonly irrigated within a single irrigation zone, and the Experiments in Seattle, Wash-different species within the irrigation zone may have widely different water needs. Using a cropcoefficient for one species may not be appropriate for the other species. ington, found that a planting in a paved area can have 50% ferent species within the irrigation zone may greater water loss than a planting of the same have widely different water needs. For example, species in a park setting. Other studies in Cali- a zone may be composed of hydrangea, rhodo- fornia found that plants in shaded areas lost 50% dendron, alder, juniper, oleander, and olive. less water than plants of the same species in an These species are commonly regarded as hav- open field condition. This variation in water loss ing quite different water needs and the selection caused by microclimate needs to be accounted of a crop coefficient appropriate for one species for in a coefficient used for landscape plantings. may not be appropriate for the other species. Crop coefficients suitable for landscapes need Collectively, these factors make landscape plantings to include some consideration of the mixtures quite different from agricultural crops and of species which occur in many plantings. turfgrasses, and they need to be taken into account when making water loss estimates for landscapes.2. Vegetation density varies considerably in land- The landscape coefficient was developed specifi- scapes. Some plantings have many times more cally to account for these differences. leaf area than others. For example, a landscape with trees, shrubs, and groundcover plants closely grouped into a small area will have much more leaf area than one with only widely spaced shrubs in the same-sized area. More leaf area typically means an increase in evapotranspira- tion (water loss) for the planting. As a result, a dense planting would be expected to lose a 11
  • The Landscape Coefficient Factors: This range in water needs is accounted for in theSpecies, Density, and Microclimate species factor.Three factors are used to determine the landscapecoefficient: Species factors range from 0.1 to 0.9 and are di- • Species vided into four categories: • Density • Microclimate Very low < 0.1 Low 0.1 - 0.3 Moderate 0.4 - 0.6These factors are key elements of the landscape co- High 0.7 - 0.9efficient method and need to be understood fullybefore KL and ETL calculations are made. As well These species factor ranges apply regardless of veg-as describing each factor, the following sections give etation type (tree, shrub, groundcover, vine, or her-information on how to assign values to each. baceous) and are based on water use studies for land- scape species (Table 2) and applicable data from Species Factor (ks) agricultural crops (Table 1).The species factor (ks) is used to account for differ-ences in species’ water needs. In established land- An evaluation of plant water needs (based on fieldscapes, certain species are known to require rela- observations) has been completed for over 1,800tively large amounts of water to maintain health and species. These values are presented in Part 2appearance (e.g., cherry, birch, alder, hydrangea, (WUCOLS III). Species factor values can be foundrhododendron), while others are known to need very by looking up the species under consideration, andlittle water (e.g., olive, oleander, hopseed, juniper). selecting an appropriate value from the category Water: Needed for What? In agricultural systems, water is applied to pro- duce a crop. Whether it be tomatoes, beans, or apples, growers apply water to optimize yield and quality. In landscape systems, health, appear- ance, and growth are of greatest interest. Irriga- tion is managed to sustain plant defense systems, achieve desired canopy densities and color, gen- erate desired growth, and produce flowers and fruit (in some species). Irrigation is not used to produce a harvestable crop in landscapes. Be- cause of this difference between landscape and agricultural systems, landscapes typically can be managed at a level of irrigation lower than that needed for crop production. 12
  • range. The following is an ex-ample of using the WUCOLSlist to select an appropriate ksvalue.Example: A landscape man-ager in Pasadena is attemptingto determine the water require-ments of a large planting of Al-gerian ivy. In using the ETL for-mula, the manager realizes avalue for the species factor (ks)is needed in order to calculatethe landscape coefficient (KL). Certain species, such as tree ferns (Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea cooperi), require relatively large amounts of water to maintain health and appearance.Using the WUCOLS list(Part 2), the manager looks upAlgerian ivy (Hedera canariensis) and finds it clas- Although the above example is straightforward, thesified as “moderate” for the Pasadena area, which assignment of species factors to plantings can bemeans that the value ranges from 0.4 to 0.6. Based difficult. Refer to “Assigning Species Factors toon previous experience irrigating this species, a low Plantings” for guidance in making ks assignments.range value of 0.4 for ks is chosen and entered in theKL formula. (If the manager had little or no experi-ence with the species, a middle range value of 0.5would be selected.) Some species, such as flannel bush (Fremontodendron spp.), need very little irrigation water to maintain health and appearance. 13
  • Table 2— species are assigned and choose the appropriate Irrigation Needs of Well-Established Landscape Species Determined from Field Research value. For example, if all the species are in theValues are given as the minimum fraction of reference evapotranspi- moderate category, then a value from 0.4 to 0.6ration needed to maintain acceptable appearance, health, and rea-sonable growth for the species. See Appendix D for complete refer- is selected.ences. Plant Species Fraction of ETo b. When species water needs are not similar: In cases where species with different water needs Potentilla tabernaemontani 0.5 - 0.75 are planted in the same irrigation zone, then the Sedum acre 0.25 species in the highest water-need category de- Cerastium tomentosum 0.25 termine the ks value. This assignment is required Liquidambar styraciflua 0.20 if all plants are to be retained without water stress Quercus ilex 0.20 injury. For example, if species in low, moder- Ficus microcarpa nitida 0.20 ate, and high categories are planted in the same Hedera helix ‘Neddlepoint’ 0.20 irrigation zone, then to avoid water stress injury Drosanthemum hispidum 0.20 to species in the high category, a ks value from Gazania hybrida 0.25-0.50 0.7 to 0.9 would need to be selected. Unfortu- Vinca major 0.30 nately, this means that species in the moderate Baccharis pilularis 0.20 and low categories will receive more water thanReference: Staats and Klett; Hartin, et al; Pittenger, et al needed, which may result in injury.Assigning Species Factors to Plantings Considering that plantings with mixed water1. For single-species plantings— needs are not water-efficient in most cases and When only one species occurs in the irrigation zone, use the ks value assigned in the WUCOLS list. For example, coyote brush is assigned to the “low” cat- egory and has a ks value from 0.1 to 0.3.2. For multiple-species plantings— a. When species have similar water needs: In well-planned hydrozones where species of similar water requirements are used, the selection of a ks value Plant injury may occur when species with different water needs are planted in a single irrigation zone. During a drought, irrrigation was withdrawn from this planting of star is straightforward: simply se- jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminioides) and cotoneaster (Cotoneaster sp). Subsequently, star jasmine was severely injured, while cotoneaster was not visibly affected. lect the category to which all 14
  • the incidence of plant injury mayincrease, some management op-tions are worth considering:• If only a small number or per- centage of plants are in the high category, then the replacement of such plants with species with lower water needs would allow for the selection of a ks in a lower range.• If all plants are to be retained, Certain species, such as these coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), can maintain health and but a level of appearance some- appearance without irrigation (after they become established). Such species are grouped in the “very low” category and are assigned a species factor of less than 0.1. Many what less than optimal is ac- California native species are in this category. ceptable, then a ks value from a lower range may be selected. For example, 3. For species in the “very low” category— in the case where plants in the low, moderate, It is important to remember that certain species and high categories are in the same irrigation can maintain health and appearance without ir- zone, a ks value from the moderate range may rigation after they become established. Such be selected with the understanding that some species are grouped in the “very low” category injury to species in the high category may re- and are assigned a ks of less than 0.1. Essen- sult. tially this classification means that species in this group do not need to be irrigated unless winter• In cases where all plants are to be retained and rainfall is abnormally low. Accordingly, if no no water stress injury is acceptable, then irrigation is supplied, then there is no need to supplemental irrigation for species in the high calculate a landscape coefficient and a ks value category should be considered. Again using is not assigned. In low rainfall years, some irri- the case where species in low, moderate, and gation may be needed, however, and a ks value high categories are planted in the same irriga- of 0.1 should be sufficient to maintain health tion zone, a ks value from the moderate range and appearance in these species. may be selected for the planting, provided ad- ditional water is supplied to individual plants Density Factor (kd) with higher water needs. This approach re- The density factor is used in the landscape coeffi- quires an adjustment to the irrigation system cient formula to account for differences in vegeta- whereby additional sprinklers or emitters are tion density among landscape plantings. Vegeta- used to deliver supplemental water to species tion density is used here to refer to the collective with higher water requirements. leaf area of all plants in the landscape. Differences 15
  • in vegetation density, or leaf area, lead to differences and distribution is not uniform and where a mixturein water loss. of vegetation types exist.The density factor ranges in value from 0.5 to 1.3. Unfortunately, a standardized system of evaluatingThis range is separated into three categories: vegetation density for landscapes does not exist. Nonetheless, limited information from agricultural Low 0.5 - 0.9 Average 1.0 systems (principally orchards) can be applied to High 1.1 - 1.3 landscapes. The following sections describe two terms, canopy cover and vegetation tiers, whichImmature and sparsely planted landscapes typically when applied to landscape plantings provide somehave less leaf area than mature or densely planted guidance in assessing vegetation density.landscapes, and thus lose less water. These plantingsare assigned a kd value in the low category. Plantings Canopy Coverwith mixtures of vegetation types (trees, shrubs, and Canopy cover is defined as the percentage of groundgroundcovers) typically have greater collective leaf surface within a planting which is shaded by theareas than plantings with a single vegetation type, plant canopy (or, simply, percent ground shading).and thus will lose more water. These plantings are A planting with full canopy cover will shade 100%assigned a density factor value in the high category. of the ground surface, while a 50% canopy coverPlantings which are full but are predominantly of will cast a shadow on 50% of the ground area. Theone vegetation type, are assigned to the average cat- higher the canopy cover the greater the density ofegory. vegetation on a surface area basis.Example: The grounds manager of a college cam- Most mature landscape plantings have a completepus in San Diego wants to determine the landscape canopy cover, i.e., the trees, shrubs, and ground-coefficient for a planting consisting of gazania covers shade 100% of the ground surface. Newgroundcover and a few widely-spaced escallonia plantings, immature plantings, and widely-spacedshrubs. Since the plants cover the ground surface plantings are examples of cases where the canopycompletely, the planting is considered to be full. cover is less than 100%.Based on these vegetation density characteristics(i.e., full and predominantly of one vegetation type), Orchard data gives an indication of how canopythe manager determines that this is an average den- cover affects water loss. Studies show that watersity planting and assigns a kd value of 1.0. loss from orchards does not increase as canopy cover increases from 70% to 100%. Below 70% cover,Although this example might infer that the selec- however, orchard water loss declines.tion of the density factor is fairly simple, it can bedifficult to determine. Vegetation density varies Applying this information to landscapes, plantingsconsiderably and assigning density factors can be of trees with a canopy cover of 70% to 100% con-confusing. Many cases exist where plant spacing stitutes a complete canopy cover condition, and 16
  • would be considered as average for density factor In landscapes, groundcovers and/or shrubs plantedassessments. A tree planting with less than 70% in the understory of trees are likely to have a simi-canopy cover would be in the low category. lar effect on water loss as found in orchard settings. Additionally, by adding trees to a groundcover plant-For plantings of shrubs and groundcovers, a canopy ing or shrubs to a tree-groundcover planting, an in-cover of 90% to 100% constitutes complete cover. crease in water loss would be expected.This represents an average condition for density fac-tor assessments, while less than 90% cover would In most cases, the presence of vegetation tiers inbe in the low category. landscapes constitutes a high density condition. For example, a planting with two or three tiers and com-Vegetation Tiers plete canopy cover would be considered to be in theCanopy cover gives an assessment of vegetation high kd category .density on an area basis, i.e., the percent ground areacovered by vegetation de-scribes the closeness or sparse-ness of plants in a planting.Another dimension needs to beconsidered for landscapes: thevertical dimension. Land-scapes are frequently com-posed of plants of variousheights: tall trees, low ground-covers, and shrubs somewherein between. Due to the typicalgrowth form of each vegetationtype, “tiers” of vegetation re-sult. Landscapes are frequently composed of plants of various heights: trees, groundcovers, and shrubs. Due to the typical growth form of each vegetation type, “tiers” of vegetation result. Plantings with more than one tier are likely to lose more water than a planting with a single tier .When combinations of these Here, the trees and shrubs in the groundcover represent a higher water loss condition than if the groundcover occurred alone. The density factor accounts for differences in vegetation density.vegetation types occur in aplanting they add a height ele-ment which will have an affect on water loss. In Plantings with multiple tiers which do not have aorchard plantings, for example, field research has complete canopy cover, however, may not consti-shown that the addition of a cover crop increases tute a high density condition. A new planting withevapotranspiration from 25% to 80% above a bare trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, for example, hassoil condition. In other words, adding a three vegetation tiers but canopy density is low. Al-groundcover-like planting beneath orchard trees re- though three tiers are present, this planting wouldsults in a substantial increase in water loss. be classified as low density. 17
  • Assigning Density Factor ValuesCanopy cover and vegetation tiers are used to as-sess vegetation density for density factor assign-ments. Since it is very difficult to account for allthe variation in vegetation density which occursin landscapes, the following assignments aremade simply as a guide to making reasonable as-sessments.Average Density: kd = 1.0Plantings of one vegetation type: for trees, This mixed planting of Wheeler’s pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira ‘Wheeler’s Dwarf’), Indian hawthorne (Rhaphiolepis indica), Americancanopy cover of 70% to 100% constitutes an av- sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and coast redwood (Sequoiaerage condition. For shrubs or groundcovers, a sempervirens) is considered to be average density (kd = 1.0). Trees are widely spaced through the sub-shrub/groundcover planting area.canopy cover of 90% to 100% is considered to bean average condition. Plantings of more than one vegetation type: for mixed vegetation types, an average density condi- tion occurs when one vegetation type is predomi- nant while another type occurs occasionally in the planting, and canopy cover for the predominant veg- etation type is within the average density specifica- tions outlined above. For example, a mature groundcover planting (greater than 90% canopy cover) which contains trees and/or shrubs that are widely spaced would be considered to be average density. Additionally, a grove of trees (greater than 70% canopy cover) which contains shrubs and/or groundcover plants which are widely spaced would constitute an average condition. Low Density: kd = 0.5 - 0.9 Low density plantings are characterized largely by canopy covers less than those specified for the av- erage density condition. For instance, a tree plant- ing with less than 70% canopy cover would be as- signed a kd value less than 1.0. The precise value assigned (between 0.5 and 0.9) would be based onPlantings of a single species, such as this iceplant groundcover the canopy cover assessment: a lower kd value for(Drosanthemum sp), are considered to have average density (kd =1.0) when full (90 - 100% cover). a thinner canopy cover. 18
  • For shrubs and groundcovers, canopy cover less than Microclimate Factor (kmc)90% constitutes a density less than average and a kd Microclimates exist in every landscape and need tovalue less than 1.0 would be assigned. be considered in estimates of plant water loss. Fea- tures typical of urban landscapes (such as buildingsPlantings with mixed vegetation types generally and paving) influence temperature, wind speed, lighthave greater canopy covers than those of a single intensity and humidity. These features vary con-type. For instance, a groundcover planting with siderably among landscapes, resulting in differencescanopy cover of 50% constitutes a low density con- in microclimate. To account for these differences,dition and a kd of 0.7 might be assigned. If an occa- a microclimate factor (kmc) is used.sional tree occurs in the planting, then the principaleffect is one of increasing canopy cover, and an The microclimate factor ranges from 0.5 to 1.4, andupward adjustment in kd to 0.8 or 0.9 would be war- is divided into three categories:ranted. Low 0.5 - 0.9 Average 1.0High Density: kd = 1.1 - 1.3 High 1.1 - 1.4When canopy cover is full for any vegetation type, The microclimate factor is relatively easy to set. Anthen increases in density result from increases in “average” microclimate condition is equivalent tothe number of plants of other vegetation types. For reference evapotranspiration conditions, i.e.., anexample, by adding trees to a mature groundcover open-field setting without extraordinary winds orplanting (groundcover canopy cover = 100%), an heat inputs atypical for the location. This microcli-increase in vegetation density occurs. The addition mate is not substantially affected by nearby build-of shrubs to the planting further increases the den- ings, structures, pavements, slopes, or reflective sur-sity. This mix of vegetation types creates a layering faces. For example, plantings in a well-vegetatedor tiering of vegetation which represents potential park which are not exposed to winds atypical of theincreases in water loss. Upward adjustments of kd area, would be assigned to the average microclimatecan be made to account for vegetation tiering. The category.highest density condition, where all three veg-etation types occur in substantial numbers in aplanting, would be assigned a kd of 1.3. Inplantings where lesser degrees of vegetation tier-ing occurs (e.g., a two-tiered planting), then a kdvalue of 1.1 or 1.2 is appropriate. For shrubs and groundcovers, canopy cover less than 90% constitutes a density less than average (kd < 1.0). This mixed planting would be assigned a low density value (0.5 - 0.9). 19
  • “Low” microclimate condi- tions are as common as high microclimate conditions. Plantings that are shaded for a substantial part of the day or are protected from winds typical to the area would be assigned low val- ues. These include the north side of buildings, courtyards, under buildingPlantings in a well-vegetated park, which are not exposed to winds atypical for the area, would be overhangs, and on the northassigned to the average microclimate category (kmc = 1.0). These conditions are similar to those usedfor reference evapotranspiration measurements (CIMIS stations). side of slopes.In a “high” microclimate condition, site features in- The high and low microclimate categories havecrease evaporative conditions. Plantings surrounded ranges of values. For example, the low categoryby heat-absorbing surfaces, reflective surfaces, or ranges from 0.5 to 0.9. The specific value assignedexposed to particularly windy conditions would be within a category will depend on an assessment ofassigned high values. For example, plantings in the degree to which the microclimate will affect plantstreet medians, parking lots, next to southwest-fac- water loss. For example, trees in a parking lot whiching walls of a building, or in “wind tunnel” areas are exposed to constant winds (atypical for the gen-would be assigned to the high category. eral area) will be assigned a higher value in the high category than if the loca- tion was not windy. Con- versely, a courtyard plant- ing in afternoon shade and protected from winds will be assigned a kmc value in the low category, but less than that for a planting without afternoon shading. Example: An irrigation consultant is estimating landscape water require- ments for a large residen- tial development. ThePlantings surrounded by heat-absorbing surfaces, reflective surfaces, or exposed to particularly windyconditions would be assigned a high microclimate value (1.1 - 1.4). buildings, parking lots, 20
  • walkways, and open areas atthe site create substantiallydifferent microclimateswithin plantings. Startingwith the open areas, he de-termines that conditions arequite similar to reference ETmeasurement sites and as-signs them to the average cat-egory (kmc = 1.0). Trees inthe parking lot are exposedto heat from the asphalt pave-ment and reflected lightfrom cars and are assigned Plantings that are shaded for a substantial part of the day, or are protected from winds typical to theto the high category. Since area, are assigned low microclimatehours each day. This planting on the northeast side of the office building is shaded for several values (0.5 - 0.9).the parking lot is not ex-posed to extraordinary winds, however, he chooses eas represent examples of an average microclimatea midrange value of 1.2. Shrub and groundcover condition. Small parks with adjacent buildings, ex-plantings on the northeast side of buildings are tensive hardscapes, or exposed to extraordinaryshaded for most of the day and are assigned to the winds would not be included in the average category.low category. Being protected from winds typicalof the area as well, they are given a kmc value of 0.6, Low Microclimate: kmc = 0.5 - 0.9in the lower end of the range. Sites which are shaded or protected from winds typi- cal to the area are considered to be in the low mi-Assigning Microclimate Factor Values croclimate category (Costello et al. 1996). FeaturesAverage Microclimate: kmc = 1.0 of the site modify the microclimate such that evapo-Site conditions equivalent to those used for refer- rative conditions are less than those found in theence ET measurements represent an average micro- average microclimate. Plantings located on the northclimate. Reference ET is measured in an open-field side or northeast side of buildings, shaded by over-setting which is not exposed to extraordinary winds head structures, or within courtyard settings are typi-or heat inputs from nearby buildings, structures, or cally assigned a kmc value in the low range. Plantingsvehicles. Plantings in similar conditions would be protected from winds by buildings, structures, orconsidered to be in an average microclimate. other vegetation also would be assigned to the lowPlantings in park settings are most typically assigned category. The specific value assigned for the mi-to this category. Although some hardscape may croclimate factor will depend on the specific siteexist, vegetation dominates the landscape. Large conditions. For example, a planting in a courtyardplantings of groundcover, groves of trees, and mix- which is shaded most of the day and protected fromtures of shrubs, turf, and trees in relatively open ar- winds may be assigned a value of 0.6, while a simi- 21
  • lar planting which is located on the northeast sideof a building may be assigned a value of 0.8.High Microclimate: kmc = 1.1 - 1.4Sites which are exposed to direct winds atypical forthe area, heat inputs from nearby sources, and/orreflected light would be considered to be in the highmicroclimate category. These features of the siteincrease evaporative conditions above those foundin an average microclimate condition. Plantings lo-cated in medians, parking lots, or adjacent to southor southwest facing walls which are exposed tohigher canopy temperatures than those found in awell-vegetated setting would be in the high category.Plantings in wind tunnel locations and those receiv-ing reflected light from nearby windows, cars, orother reflective surfaces are also in high microcli-mate conditions. The specific value assigned willdepend on the specific conditions. For example, ashrub planting located next to a southwest facingwall may be assigned a kmc value of 1.2, while asimilar planting next to a southwest wall which iscomposed of reflective glass and is exposed to ex-traordinary winds may be assigned a value of 1.4. Table 3— Summary Table Values for Landscape Coefficient Factors High Moderate Low Very LowSpecies Factor* (ks) 0.7-0.9 0.4-0.6 0.1-0.3 <0.1Density (kd) 1.1-1.3 1.0 0.5-0.9Microclimate (kmc) 1.1-1.4 1.0 0.5-0.9* Species factor values may change during the year, particularly fordeciduous species. See Table 1 for seasonal changes in cropcoefficients for agricultural crops. 22
  • Chapter 3— Analysis: Star jasmine is classified as moderate in the WUCOLS list (moderate range = 0.4 to 0.6) andUsing the Landscape a midrange ks value of 0.5 is assigned. Since the planting is mature it will be considered full (i.e.,Coefficient Formula canopy cover = 100%), and being of one vegetation type, it is classified as an average density and kd isThe landscape coefficient formula was introduced 1.0. The microclimate is similar to reference evapo-in Chapter 2, and the three factors which determine transpiration conditions (full sun, open area, no ex-its value were discussed. Now these factors are used traordinary winds) and, therefore, is classified asto calculate values for the landscape coefficient. A average and kmc is 1.0.series of field cases show the range of values thatcan be determined for KL. In Chapter 4, calcula- Case 2—A mixed planting of dwarf coyote brush,tions using the landscape coefficient in the ETL for- Pfitzer juniper, oleander, purple hopseed, and olivemula are presented. in an office park in Los Angeles. The planting is full, exposed to sun all day, but not to extraordinaryUsing the information presented in Chapter 2, val- winds.ues for the landscape coefficient can be calculated. ks = 0.2The following cases show how the landscape coef- kd = 1.2ficient is used for a variety of species, density, and kmc = 1.0 KL = 0.2 x 1.2 x 1.0 = 0.24microclimate conditions. Species factor values willbe taken from the WUCOLS list, while density and Analysis: All species are classified as low in themicroclimate values are based on the planting and WUCOLS list and are assigned a midrange valuesite conditions described. For quick reference, the of 0.2. Canopy cover is 100%, and since all threefollowing table gives values for each factor. vegetation types occur, this is classified as a high density planting and a kd value of 1.2 is assigned.Landscape Coefficient Factors The microclimate is average and a value of 1.0 is assigned. Species Density MicroclimateHigh 0.7 - 0.9 1.1 - 1.3 1.1 - 1.4Mod./Ave. 0.4 - 0.6 1.0 1.0 Case 3—A mature planting of rockrose, star jasmine,Low 0.1 - 0.3 0.5 - 0.9 0.5 - 0.9Very Low < 0.1 and dichondra in an amusement park in Sacramento. The planting is in full sun and atypical winds areCase 1—A large, mature planting of star jasmine in infrequent.a park in San Jose. It is in full sun and has little ks = 0.8wind exposure. kd = 1.0 kmc = 1.0 ks = 0.5 KL = 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.0 = 0.8 kd = 1.0 kmc = 1.0 Analysis: Species in this planting are in three dif- KL = 0.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 = 0.5 ferent WUCOLS categories: low (rockrose), mod- 23
  • erate (star jasmine), and high (dichondra). To main- ing and protects it from wind, the microclimate istain the dichondra in good condition, a ks value of low and a kmc value of 0.6 is assigned.0.8 is needed. This means, however, that both therockrose and star jasmine will receive more water Case 6—A mixed planting of sweetgum, Rhaphiolepisthan they need. Obviously this is not a water-effi- sp., Wheelers dwarf pittosporum, Raywood ash, andcient planting. Both the density and microclimate English ivy at a zoo in San Diego. The planting isconditions are average and were assigned values of mature (canopy cover is 100%), in full sun, and ex-1.0. posed to continual strong winds not typical for the area (i.e., windier than the reference ET location).Case 4—A widely-spaced planting of camellia on a ks = 0.5university campus in San Francisco. Canopy cover kd = 1.2of the planting is 40% to 50%. A 4-inch mulch cov- kmc = 1.3 KL = 0.5 x 1.2 x 1.3 = 0.78ers the ground throughout the planting. It is in fullsun and no extraordinary winds occur. Analysis: All species in this planting are classified as moderate in the WUCOLS list and are assigned a ks = 0.5 kd = 0.5 midrange value of 0.5. Since the canopy cover is kmc = 1.0 100% and all three vegetation types occur, this is a KL = 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.0 = 0.25 high density planting and a kd of 1.2 is assigned.Analysis: Camellia is classified as moderate in the Since the site is atypically windy for the area, theWUCOLS list and is assigned a midrange value of microclimate is classified as high and a kmc of 1.3 is0.5. This is a low density planting of a single spe- assigned.cies and a kd value of 0.5 is assigned. The microcli-mate is average and given a value of 1.0. Case 7—A new planting of rockrose, manzanita, pink melaleuca, and bushy yate along a freeway inCase 5—A planting of leatherleaf mahonia and Monterey County. All plants are 5-gallon containerBurford holly in an office park in Pasadena. The stock, planted in full sun, and are not exposed toplanting is full, but shaded in the afternoon by an extraordinary winds. Canopy cover is 20 to 30%.adjacent building. The building also blocks after- A 4-inch layer of mulch covers the ground through-noon winds typical for the area. out the planting. ks = 0.5 ks = 0.2 kd = 1.0 kd = 0.5 kmc = 0.6 kmc = 1.0 KL = 0.5 x 1.0 x 0.6 = 0.30 KL = 0.2 x 0.5 x 1.0 = 0.1Analysis: Both species are classified as moderate Analysis: All species in this planting are classifiedin the WUCOLS list and are assigned a midrange as low in the WUCOLS list and a midrange valuevalue of 0.5. The canopy cover is full and since of 0.2 is given. Since this is a new planting andonly one vegetation type occurs, it is classified as canopy cover is not full, it is placed in a low densityaverage density. Since the building shades the plant- category and assigned a kd value of 0.5. The micro- 24
  • climate is average and assigned a value of 1.0. (SeeChapter 8 for information on irrigating newplantings.)These field examples should provide an understand-ing of how values for each of the landscape coeffi-cient factors are assigned and used. In addition, anappreciation for the diversity of species, differencesin vegetation density, and variation in microclimateswhich exist in landscapes should be realized. Inmany cases, there will be a different landscape co-efficient for each irrigation zone.For discussions of the following special plantingcases, refer to Chapter 8: • New Plantings • Trees in Turf • Individual Specimens • Vines • Herbaceous PlantsLandscapes vary considerablyin species composition,vegetation density andmicroclimates. 25
  • Case 1— KL = 0.5Chapter 4— ETo for San Jose = 7.44 inchesUsing the Landscape ETL = 0.5 x 7.44 = 3.72 inchesCoefficient to Estimate Case 2— KL = 0.24 ETo for Los Angeles = 6.5 inchesLandscape ETL = 0.24 x 6.5 = 1.56 inchesEvapotranspiration Case 3— KL = 0.8 ETo for Sacramento = 8.6 inches ETL = 0.8 x 8.6 = 6.88 inchesThe landscape coefficient and reference evapotrans-piration now are used to estimate landscape evapo- Case 4— KL = 0.25 ETo for San Francisco = 4.9 inchestranspiration for the plantings described inChapter 3. This chapter completes the process used ETL = 0.25 x 4.9 = 1.22 inchesto produce estimates of landscape water loss. Sub- Case 5— KL = 0.30sequent chapters discuss how to use estimates of ETo for Pasadena = 7.4 inchesETL to calculate total irrigation water needs and how ETL = 0.30 x 7.4 = 2.22 inchesto apply this information in landscape management Case 6— KL = 0.78programs. ETo for San Diego = 5.8 inches ETL = 0.78 x 5.8 = 4.59 inchesIn Chapter 3, seven landscape planting cases weredescribed and used for landscape coefficient calcu- Case 7— KL = 0.1 ETo for Monterey = 5.5 incheslations. These cases will be used here to calculatelandscape evapotranspiration with the ETL formula. ETL = 0.1 x 5.5 = 0.55 inchesThe ETL formula was described in Chapter 2 and is These calculations show that landscape irrigationpresented here for quick reference: water needs vary substantially. Estimates range from ETL = KL x ETo 0.55 inches to 6.88 inches—more than a 12-fold dif- Landscape Evapotranspiration = ference.Landscape Coefficient x Reference Evapotranspiration The two factors used to determine ETL, the land-For each case, reference evapotranspiration (ETo) scape coefficient and reference evapotranspiration,values will be taken from Appendix A. All are nor- are solely responsible for producing these differ-mal year average values for the month of July for ences in water loss estimates. For plantings in thethe respective locations. same location (i.e., where the same ETo values will be used), the differences will arise solely from the landscape coefficient. To produce useful estimates of water loss, therefore, it is important to carefully determine the value of KL. 27
  • Even though the ETL formula has given an estimateof water loss from a landscape, the total amount ofirrigation water needed has not been determined.The total amount is calculated from two factors: ETLand irrigation efficiency. The following chapter dis-cusses irrigation efficiency and shows how it is usedto determine the total amount of water to apply. 28
  • Chapter 5—Irrigation Efficiencyand Calculating theTotal Amount of Waterto ApplyThe first four chapters have described the processfor estimating plant water needs. To calculate thetotal amount of water to apply, irrigation efficiencyneeds to be addressed. This chapter introduces theformula for calculating total water needs and dis-cusses the irrigation efficiency factor. How thisinformation applies to irrigation management is dis-cussed in Chapter 6.The ETL formula calculates the amount of irriga-tion water needed to meet the needs of plants. This Not all water applied to landscapes is used by plants. Some is lostis not the total amount of water needed to apply, due to runoff, windspray, or deep percolation. Irrigation efficiency losses need to be included in water budget calculations.however. Since every irrigation system is ineffi-cient to some degree, the landscape will requirewater in excess of that estimated by ETL. In this in virtually all cases and additional water should bechapter, irrigation efficiency will be discussed and applied to account for efficiency losses.then used to calculate the total amount of water toapply. A determination of irrigation efficiency (IE) for landscape plantings is challenging. As yet, a stan-Irrigation Efficiency dard method has not been established. The approachEfficiency can be defined as the beneficial use of used for turf irrigation, distribution uniformity (DU),applied water (by plants). The following formula is not appropriate for most landscape plantings.is used to calculate irrigation efficiency: Three approaches are considered here: calculation,Irrigation Efficiency (%) = Beneficially Used Water x 100 Total Water Applied estimation, and goal setting. Each method has sig- nificant limitations, and are presented here only asAn efficiency of 100% would mean that all applied possible options to consider.water was used by the planting. This rarely occurs.Consequently, irrigation efficiency is less than 100% 29
  • Calculation EstimationTo calculate irrigation efficiency, values for ETL and In cases where the total water applied cannot beTWA are needed. In landscapes, beneficially used measured, then irrigation efficiency may be esti-water is the equivalent of ETL (the amount of water mated. Estimates are based on an assessment of theestimated to be needed by a planting). This is cal- design and performance of the irrigation system. Aculated as described in Chapter 4. The total water system which is well designed and operated can haveapplied can be determined by operating an irriga- an efficiency range of 80% to 90%. Poorly designedtion system for a scheduled cycle and measuring and operated systems may have efficiencies of lessthe total water used (usually read from a water than 50%. A representative range of efficienciesmeter). The following example shows a typical for landscape systems is proposed here to be fromcalculation: 65% to 90%.ETL = 4 inches (calculated using the ETL formula)TWA = 5 inches (measured) Estimating is a subjective process where two assess- ments of the same system can vary widely. TheIE = ETL x 100 = 80% TWA utility of an estimate will be related to the knowl- edge and experience of the estimator.In the above example, the system has an 80% effi-ciency, or 8 out of every 10 gallons of applied water Goal Settingis used beneficially by the planting. Two gallons Irrigation efficiency values may also be based on aare lost, perhaps to runoff, evaporation, leakage, or design and/or management goal. For instance, a newwind spray. To supply 8 gallons of water means landscape may be designed to achieve an irrigationthat a total of 10 gallons needs to be applied. efficiency of 90%. Or, an existing landscape may be managed to achieve an irrigation efficiency ofThis approach has limited application for two rea- 85%. Both values represent efficiency goals. Thesesons: efficiency values are then used to estimate the total water needed to achieve the goal. This approach is1. it requires a water meter to measure the amount useful for water budgeting purposes, but does not of water applied, and provide a useful estimate of actual system perfor-2. it may include efficiency losses associated with mance. poor scheduling. All three of these methods are highly approximate.It assumes that applied water is close to optimum Until a standard method of measuring landscape ir-for the landscape plants and the system operating rigation efficiency is determined, however, they pro-capabilities. It may be, however, that inefficiencies vide some guidance.are linked to the operating schedule. For example,the irrigation duration may be too long for the plant-ing. 30
  • Total Water Applied The magnitude of this effect can be seen in the fol-Regardless of the method used to determine irriga- lowing calculations where IE values from 30% totion efficiency, the total amount of water needed for 90% are used. The ETL value from the first samplea landscape planting is calculated using the follow- calculation (3.72 inches) is used in each case.ing formula: @ 30% IE, TWA = 3.72 = 12.4 inches 0.3TWA = ETL IE @ 60% IE, TWA = 3.72 = 6.2 inches 0.6Total Water Applied = Landscape Evapotranspiration Irrigation Efficiency @ 90% IE, TWA = 3.72 = 4.1 inches 0.9The following are examples of calculations usingirrigation efficiency and landscape evapotranspira- These calculations indicate that for the same land-tion to determine the total water to apply. The first scape plants, at the same location, and under identi-three cases presented in Chapters 3 and 4 will be cal environmental conditions, the total amount ofused. An irrigation efficiency value of 70% is as- water applied varies from 4.1 inches to 12.4 inches,signed for each case. due solely to irrigation efficiency differences. Clearly, the IE factor needs to be addressed veryCase 1— ETL = 3.72 inches carefully when planning and managing landscapes. IE = 70% or 0.7 TWA = 3.72 = 5.31 inches 0.7 (see Case 1 in Chapter 4)Case 2— ETL = 1.56 inches IE = 70% or 0.7 TWA = 1.56 = 2.22 inches 0.7Case 3— ETL = 6.88 inches IE = 70% or 0.7 TWA = 6.88 = 9.8 inches 0.7It is clear from these calculations that irrigation ef-ficiency plays a very large role in determining thetotal amount of water to apply. Water added to ac-count for efficiency losses ranges from 0.67 inchesto 2.88 inches.If the efficiency of the system is greater or less than70%, the total water applied will vary accordingly. 31
  • Chapter 6—Putting It AllTogether: A Worksheet Converting Inches to Gallonsfor Calculations Landscape evapotranspiration (ETL) and total water applied (TWA) values have been given inChapters 1 through 5 have introduced a number of units of inches. Frequently, it is of interest to knowformulas and numbers that are used to estimate land- how many gallons of water are needed. Inches ofscape water needs. This chapter puts all the equa- water can be converted to gallons by using: 1) a conversion factor, and 2) a measure of the area totions together to show the calculation process. Sub- be irrigated.sequent chapters discuss considerations for apply-ing estimates and special planting situations. 1) The conversion factor, 0.62, can be used to convert inches-of-water-per-square-foot to gal-Three steps are needed to estimate irrigation water lons. A volume that is one-foot long, one-foot wide, and one-inch deep contains 0.62 gallonsneeds of a planting: of water. This means that there are 0.62 gal- lons of water in a square-foot-inch. (There are1. calculate the landscape coefficient, 325,851 gallons in an acre-foot of water.)2. calculate landscape evapotranspiration, and 2) The area to be irrigated needs to be measured. To use the conversion factor, units of square- feet are required.3. calculate the total water applied. With the area and the conversion factor, gallonsThese steps are combined in a worksheet format on of water can be calculated using the following for-the following page. After the worksheet, an example mula:is given to show how it is used, followed by a dis- Estimated water in gallons = estimated water incussion of converting units from inches of water to inches x area (square feet) x 0.62gallons. Example: It was determined that 2.11 inches of water was needed for a groundcover planting. Let’s say the planting covers 5,000 square feet. To convert inches to gallons: Gallons = 2.11 inches x 5,000 sq. ft. x 0.62 = 6,541 It is estimated that 6,541 gallons of water are needed to maintain the 5,000 square feet of groundcover. 33
  • Worksheet for Estimating Landscape Water NeedsStep 1: Calculate the Landscape Coefficient (KL) KL formula: KL = ks x kd x kmc ........................ ks = species factor kd = density factor kmc = microclimate factor ks = ______ (range = 0.1-0.9) (see WUCOLS list for values) kd = ______ (range = 0.5-1.3) (see Chapter 2) kmc = _____ (range = 0.5-1.4) (see Chapter 2) KL = _____ x _____ x _____ = _____ . (ks) (kd) (kmc)Step 2. Calculate Landscape Evapotranspiration (ETL) ETL formula: ETL = KL x ETo ........................... KL = landscape coefficient ETo = reference evapotranspiration KL = ______ (calculated in Step 1) ETo = _____ inches (listed in Appendix A for month and location) ETL = _____ x _____ = _____ inches. (KL) (ETo)Step 3. Calculate the Total Water to Apply (TWA) TWA formula: TWA = ETL ................................. ETL = landscape evapotranspiration IE .................................. IE = irrigation efficiency ETL = ______ (calculated in Step 2) IE = _______ (measured, estimated, or set) (see Chapter 5) TWA = ETL = ______ inches IE 34
  • Worksheet ExampleA landscape manager in San Bernardino is inter-ested in estimating water requirements for a largeplanting of African daisy (Osteospermumfruticosum) for the month of July. The planting isin an open area and is not exposed to extraordinarywinds for the area. The manager estimates that irri-gation efficiency is 70% and, using the work-sheet,follows the three steps (see below). Step 1. KL = ks x kd x kmc ks = 0.2 (from WUCOLS list) kd = 1.0 (complete canopy cover and one vegetation type) kmc = 1.0 (open area, no extraordinary winds) KL = 0.2 x 1.0 x 1.0 = 0.2 Step 2. ETL = KL x ETo KL = 0.2 (from Step 1) ETo = 7.4 inches (for July in San Bernardino) (see Appendix A) ETL = 0.2 x 7.4 = 1.48 inches Step 3. TWA = ETL IE ETL = 1.48 inches (from Step 2) IE = 0.7 (70% irrigation efficiency estimated by landscape manager) TWA = 1.48 inches = 2.11 inches 0.7 (To convert 2.11 inches of water to gallons, see "Inches to Gallons".)The landscape manager has estimated that thegroundcover will need 2.11 inches of water for themonth of July. Using this estimate, the managercan develop an irrigation schedule. Other factorsmay need to be considered before deciding if thisestimate is appropriate for the planting. Chapter 7addresses these considerations. 35
  • Chapter 7— tant to note. These are discussed briefly under the following special topics headings.Using Water Estimates Field Adjustmentsin Landscape Planning The landscape coefficient method provides esti-and Management mates of water needs, not exact values. Conse- quently, adjustments likely are needed in the field. If plants are showing signs of water stress, then anBefore water needs estimates are used for landscape upward adjustment will be needed. Conversely,planning and management purposes, a few points when it appears that too much water is being ap-need to be considered. In Chapter 7, five special plied, then a downward adjustment is warranted. Ittopics which are relevant to using estimates are ad- is strongly recommended that when irrigation wa-dressed. The following chapter discusses some spe- ter estimates are implemented in the field that theycial planting situations. be followed by careful monitoring.The previous chapters have described how to esti- Irrigation Schedulesmate irrigation water needs for landscape plantings. An estimate of water needs is the first step in devel-These estimates can be used in landscape planning oping an irrigation schedule. Irrigation frequency,and management to: duration, and cycles also need to be determined to create a schedule. These are determined from the• develop water budgets for planned or existing soil infiltration rate, rooting depth, sprinkler appli- landscapes, cation rate, allowable depletion amounts, and soil water holding capacity. Each of these factors needs• assist in the design of landscapes to meet irriga- to be evaluated to determine how frequently to irri- tion goals, gate, how long to irrigate at any one time, and how many irrigation cycles are needed.• assist in designing and managing effective hydrozones, Soil Evaporation Water loss may occur from the soil as well as from• help in the determination of irrigation system ef- plants. This is most common when ground shading ficiency (i.e., along with measurements of total is less than 100% and a mulch is not present. The water use), and rate of evaporative water loss from soils depends on soil wetness, texture, structure, and density.• serve as an auditing tool by providing assessments When soil evaporation contributes to landscape of the amount of water landscapes need compared water losses, water estimates should be increased to that actually being used. by 10% to 20%. With sufficient mulching, how- ever, bare soil surfaces will not be a source of waterWhen using landscape water estimates for these loss.purposes, however, a few considerations are impor- 37
  • Salts and Leaching Fractions Reclaimed WaterWhen soil salt concentrations are sufficiently high The use of reclaimed water in landscape irrigationto cause plant injury, the application of water in is becoming more common. Reclaimed water var-excess of that needed to meet plant needs is neces- ies in quality, however, depending on the sourcesary. This process is called “leaching” and the per- and treatment process. Some reclaimed water is ofcentage of applied water used to move salts below high quality with little potential to injure plants. Inthe root zone is called the “leaching fraction”. For other cases, reclaimed water may be of low quality,example, if 100 gallons of water is applied, and containing injurious levels of salts or specific ele-25 gallons percolated below the root zone to remove ments. When irrigating with reclaimed water, plan-salts, this would be a 25% leaching fraction. The ners and managers will need to assess and monitorleaching fraction needed for a landscape will de- water quality. Some upward adjustments in waterpend on soil salt concentrations, tolerable levels, estimates may be needed to reduce plant injury po-depth of the root zone, and soil physical properties. tential with low quality water. Consult a qualifiedTo determine an appropriate leaching fraction, it is laboratory when making such adjustments.recommended that managers consult with a quali-fied soil laboratory. The leaching fraction will addwater to that needed for plants (ETL), and the totalwater applied (TWA) will increase. When irrigating with reclaimed water, planners and managers will need to monitor water quality. When irrigating with low quality reclaimed water, upward adjust- ments in water budgets may be needed to reduce the potential of plant injury. 38
  • Chapter 8— A landscape coefficient (KL) calculation for a new planting was made in “Using the Landscape Coef-Special Planting ficient Formula” (Chapter 3, example 7). In the ex- ample, a kd value of 0.5 was used which produced aSituations KL of 0.1 (ks = 0.2, kmc = 1.0).Although the application of the landscape coeffi- Based on experience, it may be thought that irrigat-cient method has been described for many landscape ing a new planting at one tenth of reference evapo-cases, there are some special planting situations that transpiration is insufficient. Generally, landscaperequire further consideration. These cases are de- managers believe that new plantings need even morescribed in Chapter 8. This concludes the process of water than mature plantings. When irrigation effi-making water needs estimates for landscape ciency (IE) is considered, however, the amount ofplantings. Remember, the appendices contain im- water needed increases substantially. Indeed, it isportant reference informa-tion to use in calculations.New plantings, trees inturf, individual plants,vines, and herbaceousplants represent specialcases which require furtherconsideration in makingwater needs estimates. Allare common elements oflandscapes.New PlantingsIn terms of irrigation wa- New landscape plantings require special consideration. The actual amount of water needed toter needs, the key differ- maintain health and appearance in new plants is lower than that needed for established plantings (mainly because the density factor is low). However, irrigation efficiency losses are usually very high inences between new and new plantings, and the total amount of water needed may be equivalent to that of establishedmature plantings are in plantings.density factor assignments because of very low efficiencies when irrigating newand irrigation efficiency. Typically, canopy cover plantings that the total amount of water is muchis substantially less in a new planting and the low- greater than that needed solely for the plants.est kd value, 0.5, is appropriate. Irrigation efficiencyis also typically low for new plantings. A sample calculation helps to show the role of irri- gation efficiency in new planting irrigation. Using example 7, ETL = 0.1 for a new planting in Monterey 39
  • County in July. The total amount of water needed has some root mass, then water landing on half theis calculated using the TWA formula: area potentially may be absorbed by plants. In this case, irrigation efficiency has increased 5-fold to TWA = ETL 50% (assuming no loss from runoff, evaporation, IE etc.).Selecting an irrigation efficiency of 10%, It should be recognized that sprinkler irrigation of TWA = 0.1 = 1.0 inch 0.1 new plantings (i.e., of container grown plants) is not efficient. Other methods should be consideredTen times more water needs to be applied than that for water conservation purposes. Drip systems de-actually needed for the plants. This is based on a liver water directly to rootballs and, therefore, have10% irrigation efficiency for a new planting which higher efficiency. Potentially, hand watering is alsois sprinkler irrigated. An IE of 10% is reasonable more water efficient than sprinkler irrigation, pro-because most of the root mass of new plantings is vided it is done carefully.confined to the rootball, with available water con-sisting of only that held in the rootball and, in somecases, a small volume of adjacent soil. Sprinklersdeliver water to the entire planted area, not just therootballs, so much of the water falls outside the us-able area.For instance, in a planting area of 100 sq. ft., only10 sq. ft. may be occupied by rootball. Thus, if wa-ter is distributed uniformly, only 10% of the waterapplied falls in the root zone, which produces a 10%irrigation efficiency.Irrigation efficiencies for some new plantings maybe even less than 10%. If a planting is sparse androot zone occupies less than 10% of the irrigatedarea, and/or some of the water that lands on therootball is lost to evaporation, percolation, or run-off, then IE may be less than 10%.As roots develop into the adjacent soil, however,irrigation efficiency increases rapidly. For instance,if after one year, roots have developed into the ad- The water needs of most tree species planted in turf are generally met by the relatively high water needs of turf. Trees with relativelyjacent soil to the point that half the planting area high water needs, such as these white alder (Alnus rhombifolia), should be used in turf areas. 40
  • As root development increases into the adjacent soil, some cases, but there will be a greater potentialsprinkler irrigation efficiency increases, while drip for injury.irrigation efficiency may actually decrease if emit-ters are not moved or supplemented to supply the 2. New Turf Around Established Trees. Whenlarger root zone. Dual systems of both drip emit- new turf (and associated irrigation) is installedters and sprinklers may have the greatest potential around established trees, precautions are neededfor maximizing efficiency for new and developing to avoid injury to the trees. This is particularlyplantings: the drip system being used for the new the case for trees that were not formerly irri-planting and the sprinklers employed once the root gated. By supplying water to the root zone ofsystem has developed. established trees the potential for injury from disease or poor aeration increases substantially.Trees in Turf Certain species (e.g., oaks) are more sensitiveThe water needs of most tree species planted in turf to such changes than other species. The rootare generally met by the relatively high water needs crown area is particularly sensitive and needsof turf. Turf crop coefficients range from 0.6 (warmseason species) to 0.8 (cool season species). Thisrange is sufficient to satisfy the needs of all trees inthe moderate, low, and very low WUCOLS catego-ries. Trees in the high category may need supple-mental water, particularly if they are planted in warmseason turf. Trees in cool season turf are not likelyto need supplemental water.Aside from meeting total water needs, some otherfactors need to be considered regarding trees in turf:1. Species Selection. Not all tree species can be expected to perform well in turf. Species in the low and very low WUCOLS categories may be injured or killed by turf irrigation. Many spe- cies are adapted to dry summer conditions (e.g., oak species) and frequent irrigations associated with turf may result in root injury, typically from disease or poor aeration. Species selection is very important. When specifying trees in turf, species should be limited largely to those clas- In times when the water supply for turf becomes restricted (e.g., drought years), the water needs of trees in turf may not be met. sified as “high” on the WUCOLS list. Species These white birch (Betula pendula) died when water was withdrawn from the turf during a drought year. Notice that the juniper from the “moderate” category may be used in (Juniperus sp.) were not injured. 41
  • special consideration. To help ensure the sur- terials from its roots. Turf species are recog- vival of both the turf and trees in this situation, nized as having allelopathic effects on young it is recommended that a certified arborist be trees and, therefore, an area (2 ft. radius) around consulted. newly planted trees should be kept turf-free. Ideally mulch is applied to the soil surface in3. Drought Years. In times when the water supply the turf-free zone to reduce evaporation and for turf becomes restricted (e.g., drought years), minimize the potential for mower or trimmer in- the water needs of trees in turf may not be met. jury. During previous droughts in California, many trees in turf areas were severely injured or killed 5. Shallow Rooting and Windthrow. Turf irriga- when water was withheld from turf. Frequently, tion typically supplies water to the surface 3 to the turf recovers when irrigation resumes, but 6 inches of soil, the active root zone for most the trees do not. It is very important to provide turf species. Consequently, turf irrigations are water directly to trees during such times. relatively shallow and frequent (i.e., when com- pared to tree irrigation depths of 1 to 3 ft.). As a4. Newly-Planted Trees. Water supplied to meet result, tree roots in turf areas tend to develop turf needs is often not sufficient for newly close to the soil surface. There has been some planted trees in turf. Although turf irrigation is concern regarding the potential for reduced an- likely sufficient for most species once estab- chorage associated with shallow root systems lished, newly planted trees have special require- of trees in turf. It is thought that large trees may ments. In most cases after planting, the roots of have a higher potential for windthrow. Although new trees are confined to the rootball, or a rela- this occurrence has been observed, there is no tively small volume of soil. Much of the water documentation to show that the potential for tree supplied in turf irrigation (typically via sprin- windthrow is higher in turf than elsewhere. Nev- klers) does not rewet the rootball sufficiently. ertheless, it is generally held that deep irriga- It is only the water that lands on the rootball tions for trees in turf are beneficial. They not that can be absorbed, and in most cases this is only increase the potential for root development not adequate to meet the needs of the tree. As a deeper in the soil profile, but they also increase result, many trees are very slow to develop in the size of the soil volume from which roots can turf, and some are injured or killed. Supple- extract water. mental water (delivered manually or by drip sys- tems) are strongly recommended for trees in turf. Individual Plants To this point, the landscape coefficient method has In addition to special water needs, newly planted been used to estimate water needs of plantings (i.e., trees in turf also may be inhibited biologically groups of plants). It also can be used to estimate by the turf. This is an effect known as “allel- water needs of individual plants. The three factors opathy,” where one plant inhibits the develop- (species, density, and microclimate) are used to de- ment of another by the release of phytotoxic ma- termine a landscape coefficient as before. A few 42
  • considerations apply for individual plants, however,and they are discussed for shrubs and trees sepa-rately.Shrubsks: Species factor values are found in the WUCOLS list.kd: For most shrubs, an average density factor of 1.0 will be appropriate. For very large shrubs, an upward adjustment to 1.1 may be warranted.kmc: In most cases, the microclimate factor would be assigned as discussed in Chapter 2.Treesks: Species factor values are found in the WUCOLS list.kd: For small trees (< 15 feet tall), an average Water needs for individual trees or shcubs can be estimated using density factor of 1.0 would be appropriate. the landscape coefficient method. Species, density and microcli- mate factors all need to be considered. For larger trees, an upward adjustment to 1.1 or 1.2 accounts for the increase in leaf area found in many canopies. First, the forester needs to assign values for each of the landscape coefficient factors. In the WUCOLSkmc: In most cases, the microclimate factor would list Fraxinus velutina ‘Modesto’ is classified as be assigned as discussed in Chapter 2. For “moderate” with a ks value of 0.4. Since this is a large trees, however, an upward adjustment large, dense tree, the forester uses a density factor to 1.2 or 1.3 to account for wind flow through value of 1.1. The microclimate in the plaza war- the canopy may be appropriate. rants a “high” microclimate factor value. In addi- tion, the forester wants to adjust for wind flowExample: The urban forester for the city of Modesto through the canopy since no trees or buildings areis interested in estimating water needs for a large nearby to attenuate the wind. The forester selects aModesto ash tree located in a downtown city plaza kmc value of 1.5. Using these values, a calculationfor the month of July. of the landscape coefficient can be made. KL = ks x kd x kmc KL = 0.4 x 1.1 x 1.5 = 0.66 43
  • occur on walls, trellises, ar- bors, poles, or on the ground. Water needs evalu- ations for many vine species are included in the WUCOLS list. Although the microclimate factor (kmc) will not be affected by the presence of vines, the density factor (k d) is af- fected. Vines add another vegetation type or tier (in some cases) to a landscape and, therefore, increase theA species factor range of 0.4 to 0.8 is suggested to be appropriate for most annual species. vegetation density. They also may contribute toWith the landscape coefficient calculated, the land- canopy cover. Upward adjustments in kd are likelyscape evapotranspiration formula is used to calcu- needed when vines are present. These can rangelate ETL: from small increases (0.1) to large (0.3) depending on the amount of vegetation (leaf area) added. ETL = KL x ETo KL = 0.66 ETo = 8.0 inches (for July in Modesto) Annuals ETL = 0.66 x 8.0 inches = 5.28 inches Estimates of water needs for plantings of annualThe urban forester has estimated that the tree needs species can be made using the landscape coefficient5.28 inches of water for the month of July to main- formula. As for woody plantings, values for KL andtain good appearance, health, and growth. A fur- ETo are needed. ETo values are obtained as de-ther adjustment to this value is needed to account scribed previously, while KL needs to be calculatedfor irrigation efficiency (see Chapter 5). from the three factors, ks, kd, and kmc. The micro- climate factor, kmc, is determined as before, and kdAn alternative method for estimating water loss from will range from 0.5 to 1.0 depending on the fullnessan individual tree is described in Lindsey and Bassuk of the plantings. The species factor, ks, is more dif-(1991). This method uses leaf area index (LAI) to ficult to determine as many species are not includedaccount for density differences in tree canopies. in the WUCOLS list. Generally, the water require- ments of annual plants are relatively high and a ksVines range of 0.4 to 0.8 is suggested for most species.Vines occur in many landscapes and need to be con- By assigning values for ks, kd, and kmc, the land-sidered in water loss estimates. Vines can contrib- scape coefficient, KL, can be calculated and an esti-ute substantial leaf area to a planting whether they mate of water needs (ETL) is determined. 44
  • Part 2 WUCOLS III* 1999 Edition L. R. Costello University of California Cooperative Extension K.S. Jones University of California Cooperative Extension *WUCOLS is the acronym for Water Use Classification of Landscape Species.The WUCOLS list is intended solely as a guide to help landscape professionals identify irrigationwater needs of landscape species. It can be used either for the selection of species or to assist indeveloping irrigation schedules for existing landscapes. It is not intended to be used as a “required,”“mandatory,” “approved,” or “master” list by local, regional, or statewide governments, govern-ment agencies, or water authorities for the selection of plant species. This list should not be used inpart or in entirety to restrict species selection only to those species listed here.In addition, the evaluations of irrigation water requirements presented here should not be consideredabsolute and are not intended to be used as such, i.e., the user is not “required” to use these evalua-tions. This is a guide to species water needs. 45
  • PROJECT PARTICIPANTSProject LeaderL. R. Costello, Environmental Horticulture AdvisorUniversity of California Cooperative ExtensionSan Mateo and San Francisco CountiesProject CoordinatorK. S. Jones, Horticulture AssociateUniversity of California Cooperative ExtensionSan Mateo and San Francisco CountiesREGIONAL COMMITTEESNorth-Central CoastBarrie D. Coate, Horticultural Consultant—Barrie D. Coate & Associates, Los Gatos, 1992, 1994,1999*Laurence R. Costello, Horticulture Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, San Mateo and San Francisco Counties 1992, 1994, 1999Katherine S. Jones, Horticulture Associate—UC Cooperative Extension, San Mateo and San Francisco Counties 1992, 1994, 1999James MacNair, Horticultural Consultant—MacNair & Associates, Glen Ellen, 1992, 1994, 1999Nelda Matheny, Horticultural Consultant—Hort Science, Inc., Pleasanton 1992John Meserve, Horticultural Consultant—Santa Rosa, 1999Tony Norris, Parks and Landscaping Superintendant—City of Richmond, 1999Linda Novy, President & C.E.O.—Gardeners Guild, Inc., San Rafael, 1992Richard Sealana, Land Management Consultant—Sealana Associates, Fremont, 1992, 1994, 1999Dan Sheehy, Area Manager—Cagwin & Dorward, Inc., Novato 1992, 1994, 1999M. Nevin Smith—Suncrest Nurseries, Watsonville, 1999Central ValleyFred Allen, Landscape Architect—City of Modesto, 1992Ralph Carhart, Landscape Architect—CalTrans, Division of Maintenance, Sacramento 1992Ann Chandler, Owner—Cornflower Farms Nursery, Elk Grove 1992Pam Elam Geisel, Farm Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County,1992, 1994, 1999Larry Fitzgerald, former Container Production Manager—Oki Nursery, Sacramento, 1992Gary Hickman, Farm Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County, 1992, 1999Martin Hildebrandt—Scenic Nursery, Modesto, 1999Ed Perry, Farm Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, Stanislaus County, 1992, 1994, 1999Lance Walheim, Horticultural Consultant—Exeter, 1992South CoastalRandy Baldwin, General Manager—San Marcos Growers, Santa Barbara, 1992, 1994Jeff Cope—City of Santa Barbara, 1999Cynthia Drake, Horticultural Consultant—San Diego, 1999Scott Molentin, Landscape Architect—Estrada Land Planning, San Diego, 1992, 1994 ,1995Wesley A. Humphrey, Horticultural Consultant—Fallbrook, 1992, 1994, 1999Frederick M. Lang, Landscape Architect—South Laguna,1992Lynn Ocone, Garden Writer—Sunset Magazine, Los Angeles 1992Rick Mosbaugh, President—Statice Landscape Inc., Los Angeles 1992, 1994Ray Sodomka, Owner—Turk Hesselund Nursery, Montecito, 1992, 1994, 1999Tom Larson—Integrated Urban Forestry, Laguna Hills, 1992, 1994, 1999South InlandMike Evans, Partner—Tree of Life Nursery, San Juan Capistrano 1992, 1994Michael MacCaskey, Garden Writer—Sunset Magazine, Los Angeles, 1992L. K. Smith, Landscape Architect—Newbury Park, 1992, 1994, 1995Kenneth K. Kammeyer, Landscape Architect—Kammeyer & Associates, Corona ,1992, 1994, 1999High & Low DesertRonald L. Baetz, Administrative Services Officer—Desert Water Agency, Palm Springs, 1992Jerry Clark, Landscape Architect—City of Palm Desert ,1999William Deady, Horticultural Consultant—Morongo Valley, 1992, 1994David Harbison, Water Management Specialist—Coachella Valley Water District, Coachella, 1992, 1994, 1999Eric Johnson, Desert Landscape Consultant—Palm Desert, 1992, 1994Bob Perry, Landscape Architect—Claremont ,1992, 1994, 1999Ruth Watling, Horticultural Consultant—Mountain Center, 1999* Year(s) of participation on WUCOLS Committee 46
  • REGIONAL COMMITTEES1992Front: B. Coate, R. Sealana Front and kneeling: F. Lang, K. Smith, T. Larson, R. Perry, L.Back: R. Carhart, G. Hickman, J. MacNair, K. Jones, D. Sheehy, Ocone, L. CostelloN. Matheny, L. Walheim, P. Geisel, E. Perry, F. Allen, A. Chandler, Back: W. Humphrey, S. Molentin, R. Sodomka, K. Smith,L. Novy, L. Fitzgerald, L. Costello M. MacCaskey, M. Evans, R. Baldwin Left to right: R. Perry, E. Johnson, W. Deady, K. Jones, R. Baetz, D. Harbison1998Front: R. Sealana, K. Jones Left to right: R. Watling, K. Jones, W. Humphrey, C. Drake,Back: L. Costello, J. MacNair, J. Meserve, M. Hildebrandt, R. Perry, J. Cope, K. Smith, D. Harbison, R. Sodomka, J. Clark, L.G. Hickman, N. Smith, P. Geisel, E. Perry Costello, S. Molentin, K. KammeyerAbsent from photo: B. Coate, T. Norris, D. Sheehy 47
  • IntroductionWater conservation is an essential consideration inthe design and management of California land-scapes. Effective strategies that increase water useefficiency need to be identified and implemented.One key strategy to increase efficiency is that ofmatching water supply to plant needs. By supply-ing only the amount of water needed to maintainlandscape health and appearance, unnecessary ap-plications that exceed plant needs can be avoided.To do so, however, requires some knowledge ofspecies needs.This Guide provides irrigation water needs evalua-tions for over 1,900 species used in California land-scapes. It is based on the observations and fieldexperience of 41 knowledgeable landscape horti-culturists in California (see list of Regional Com-mittees). It was developed to provide guidance in The WUCOLS guide provides water needs evaluations for overthe selection and maintenance of plants based on 1900 species. Plants can be selected according to their water needs and grouped into water conserving hydrozones.irrigation water needs. Specifically, it can be usedto: • provide a basis for estimating water needs for new landscapes.• assist landscape architects, designers, and plan- ners in selecting plants for water efficient land- The project was initiated and funded by the Water scapes, Use Efficiency Office of the California Department of Water Resources. Work was directed by the Uni-• assist landscape managers in evaluating water versity of California Cooperative Extension (San needs of existing plantings and in creating irriga- Francisco and San Mateo County office). The first tion schedules that match species needs, edition of the Guide was completed in 1992. A sec- ond edition was published in 1994, and this third• provide options for landscape managers who wish edition was completed in 1999. In each edition, ad- to create hydrozones, i.e., to change species com- ditional species evaluations have been included. The position to reduce wide variations in water needs third edition was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Rec- within plantings, and lamation. 49
  • Getting StartedIf you are using the Guide for the first time, we sug- How do I calculate the right amount of irrigationgest you begin by reading the following sections on water to apply?“Categories of Water Needs”, “Standard Condi- See “Part 1” of this guide.tions”, “Plant Types”, and “Regions”. These sec-tions contain background information which is Is there more to know?needed to use the Guide effectively. See “Other Important Information About the Guide,” page 59 and “Appendix B, Invasive Species,”If you have used the Guide before, and are familiar page 143.with the terms and the evaluation process, proceeddirectly to “Species Evaluations,” page 62. Be ad-vised, however, that new information has been in-troduced in WUCOLS III.The following will help you locate information onimportant topics. Cotinus coggygria, smoke tree, LowWhat does High, Moderate, Low and Very Lowmean?See “Categories of Water Needs,” page 52.What are Standard Conditions?See “Standard Conditions,” page 53.What is meant by Plant Types ?See “Plant Types,” page 55.What is meant by Regions?See “Regions,” page 56. 51
  • Categories of Water Needs assigned. This does not imply that a species shouldThe key question addressed by WUCOLS commit- not be tried.tee members was the following: If the species was considered inappropriate for theIn order to be maintained in good condition, in region, a forward slash ( / ) was assigned.the region of California being considered, andunder the standard conditions outlined, does the Using ETo percentages, calculations of irrigationspecies need high, moderate, low, or very low water requirements can be made. For example, aamounts of irrigation water? species assigned to the moderate (M) category is evaluated as needing between 40% and 60% of ref-This question served as the starting point for the erence evapotranspiration to be maintained in goodevaluation process. After defining the terms “Re- condition. Say, for the month of July, ETo is 6 inches,gions” and “Standard Conditions” (see following then the species needs between 2.4 inches andsections), species were evaluated as needing High, 3.6 inches of irrigation water for the month. ForModerate, Low, and Very Low amounts of irriga- more information on calculating water requirementstion water. Expressed as a percentage of reference for landscapes, see Part 1.evapotranspiration (ETo), these categories werequantitatively defined as follows: The following examples show how Categories of Water Needs are used. High (H) = 70 - 90% ETo Moderate (M) = 40 - 60% ETo Low (L) = 10 - 30% ETo Evaluations for Acer macrophyllum: Very Low (VL) = <10% EToWater needs categories assigned for each species • Regions 1 and 3.....M (moderate)…....irrigate atwere determined by consensus of the committee. 40-60% of EToAssignments were made for each of six regions. • Regions 2 and 4.......H (high).…………irrigate atWhen disagreements occurred, the higher water need 70-90% of ETocategory was assigned. For example, if some evalu- • Regions 5 and 6...... / (not appropriate)ators thought the species needed a “moderate” rank-ing, while others thought “low” was appropriate, Evaluations for Acacia smallii:then the “moderate” assignment was used. • Regions 1, 2 and 5…. / (not appropriate)Species assigned to the Very Low (VL) category • Region 3.........…....VL (very low)…. little or nowere considered to need little or no irrigation dur- irrigation neededing years of average rainfall. • Regions 4 and 6.….L (low).……........irrigate at 10-30% of EToIf the committee did not have experience growingthe species in the region, a question mark (?) was 52
  • assessment of species needs. If there is variation among regions for a species, looking at all evalua- tions for the species can help you select an irriga- tion level at the high or low end of the categorys range. Standard Conditions The following conditions were applied to all spe- cies evaluations. Established Plants Species irrigation water needs are assessed for plants that have become “established” in the landscape. “Established” meaning that substantial root devel- opment has occurred in the landscape soil adjacent to the rootball. The landscape soil becomes the prin- cipal source of water for established plants rather than the rootball soil. The time for establishment varies among species and with soil conditions, but generally occurs by the second or third year after planting. After establishment, roots of trees, shrubs,Cerastium tomentosum, snow in summer, Medium groundcovers, etc., become intertwined in the soil,Evaluations for Zexmenia hispida: creating a common rootzone.• Regions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6……? committee mem- bers did not know species water needs Reference Evapotranspiration Conditions (ETo)NOTES: ETo is defined as water loss from a large field of1. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is defined in 4-to-7-inch-tall, cool-season grass that is not water “Standard Conditions.” stressed. Although ETo can be measured directly, it is usually calculated from weather data. Daily ETo2. Cases where there are question marks in several information for many regions of the state is avail- regions usually indicate plants that are new to able through the California Irrigation Management the nursery trade in California. Consult horti- Information System (CIMIS). Evaluations are made cultural literature for more information about spe- for site conditions equivalent to those used for ETo cies water needs. measurements, i.e., full sun, no extraordinary winds, no shading from nearby structures or plants, and noIt is helpful to look at all the evaluations for each heat inputs from nearby sources such as buildings,species, (i.e., for all six regions) to get a general pavements, or reflective surfaces. As an exception, 53
  • shade-requiring species (e.g., Japanese aucuba) are Groundwater Not Availableevaluated for shade conditions. Shade species are Although some species of plants develop root sys-considered to be those plants which when exposed tems deep enough to extract groundwater (e.g.,to full sun for some part of the day will show vis- Quercus lobata), groundwater is not available in allible injury. Since species vary in their shade re- planting sites. A species capable of extractingquirements (for example, all day versus afternoon groundwater may not be able to do so because theshade), any species requiring some shade to avoid water is simply not available. Therefore, evalua-injury (in the region) is evaluated for shade. tions are made for conditions where the only sources of water were rainfall and irrigation. In areas whereSee “Appendix D, Additional Resources,” for in- groundwater is available and a species is known toformation on how to obtain CIMIS data. utilize ground water, then adjustments in irrigation scheduling should be made for that species (or groupGood Quality of species).Plant performance can vary substantially depend-ing on the amount of water supplied. Small amounts Plants Must Be Irrigatablemay simply prevent the dehydration of plant tissues, In some cases the soil surface may be sealed aroundbut appearance is likely to be affected. Increasing plants (particularly trees) by pavements or otheramounts may improve appearance (leaf color, surface barriers. This inhibits the infiltration of wa-canopy density or fullness), but may not be enough ter into the rootzone. In other cases the soil volumeto promote growth. More water may be sufficient capable of holding water may be so small and mayto maintain good appearance and support typical dry so rapidly that it may be difficult to maintain(average) growth for the species (and flower or fruit available water in the rootzone. In either case, theproduction if desired). Still more water may result amount of water identified as being needed to main-in excessive growth; while more water may cause tain good quality may not be sufficient simply be-decline (typically from root disease) in certain spe- cause the plant is not “irrigatable.” Evaluationscies. Since both appearance and some growth (not made here assume as a standard condition that theexcessive) are important in most landscapes, evalu- species can be irrigated, i.e., the water applied canations were made to provide sufficient water for the enter and be held in the rootzone sufficiently longspecies to be maintained as such, i.e., in good con- for uptake.dition. This is somewhat difficult to evaluate pre-cisely for some species, however, so whenever aquestion was raised as to whether a species requireda greater or lesser amount of water to maintain goodquality, the higher evaluation (more water) was as-signed. 54
  • Plant Types 1. Nandina domestica the cultivar ‘Purpurea’ wasThe species list includes over 1,900 species of land- included because it was thought to require morescape plants which are identified by botanical and water than the species in three regions,common names. The plants are listed alphabeticallyaccording to botanical names. An index of com- 2. Lonicera japonica ‘Halliana’ was included be-mon names follows the species list. cause the cultivar was thought to be more com- mon than the species,Each plant falls into one or more of the followingvegetation types: Trees, Shrubs, Groundcovers, 3. Illicium floridanum ‘Alba’ was included becauseVines, Perennials (includes ferns, grasses, and bulbs) it was the only example of the species listed.and Biennials. Plant types are entered on the listfor each plant under “Type” as: Turfgrasses Turfgrasses were not evaluated by the committee. T......... Tree S......... Shrub For your convenience, several turf species are listed V......... Vine in the “Species Evaluations” section. Water use re- Gc...... Groundcover P......... Perennial quirements listed are from University of California Bi….... Biennial Publication 21491, Turfgrass EvapotranspirationCultivars, with some exceptions, are not mentioned. Map, Central Coast of California. This publica-It is presumed that most cultivars will have the same tion also contains other important information re-water requirements as the species. Examples of ex- garding turfgrass irrigation such as regional ET vari-ceptions include the following: ability, correcting for rainfall, dew, and fog and cal- culating sprinkler run times.Rosa sp. climbing rose, High toMedium and Solanum jasminoides,potato vine, Medium 55
  • Regions Notes on Regions 1Since there are substantially different climate zones Within each region there is some variability in cli-in California, species are evaluated for six regions mate patterns among the cities listed. For example,which represent different climatic conditions. some cities may be considerably warmer than oth- ers during the summer months, yet they are withinRegion 1 the same region. This variability can only be re-North-Central Coastal (California Climate Zones 14, duced by increasing the number of regions, which15, 16, and 17) (CIMIS ETo Zones 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8)2 would cause the list to become enlarged and some- what more complicated.Region 2Central Valley (California Climate Zones 8, 9 and For certain locations (considered atypical for the14), (CIMIS ETo Zones 12, 14, 15, and 16) region), it may be useful to consider evaluations from another region that more closely characterizesRegion 3 the location of interest. For example, if a city inSouth Coastal (California Climate Zones 22, 23 and Region 1 has a climate more closely characterized24), (CIMIS ETo Zones 1, 2, 4 and 6) by Region 2, then Region 2 species evaluations should be considered for that location. Such assess-Region 4 ments will need to be based on the judgement of theSouth Inland Valleys and Foothills (California Cli- user.mate Zones 18, 19, 20 and 21), (CIMIS ETo Zone 9) If a city is not listed and is located in CaliforniaRegion 5 Climate Zone 14 which overlaps regions 1 and 2, itHigh and Intermediate Desert (California Climate will be necessary to decide if the city is more simi-Zone 11), (CIMIS ETo Zones 14 and 17) lar in climate to Petaluma (coastal influence) or Sacramento Valley.Region 6Low Desert (California Climate Zone13), (CIMIS If a city is located in a California Climate ZoneETo Zone 18) which was not evaluated (zones 1, 2, 3, and 7— mainly high elevation, cold winter areas) an esti- mate may be made by looking at all the evaluations___________________ for the species in question. Hardiness is typically1 California climate zones are described in University of Cali- the major factor in determining if a species is ap- fornia Publication 3328, Generalized Plant Climate Zones of California and Sunset Western Garden Book. propriate or not.2 ETo Zones are described in the California Irrigation Man- The main difference between the California high and agement Information System (CIMIS) Reference Evapo- intermediate desert regions is that the high desert is transpiration Map, 1999 (see map on page 141). colder in the winter; as the elevation increases so does the frequency of temperatures below freezing. 56
  • As a result, species which are listed as appropriatefor the low desert and inappropriate for the highdesert may be marginally hardy and appropriate totry in the intermediate desert. Some Cities that Characterize Each Region REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 REGION 4 REGION 5 REGION 6 North-Central Central Valley South Coastal South Inland Intermediate Low Desert Coastal Valley & High Desert Concord Auburn Anaheim Altadena Apple Valley Borrego Springs Cupertino Bakersfield Camarillo Azuza Barstow Blythe Healdsburg Chico Fallbrook Chino Bishop Brawley Livermore Coalinga Fullerton Corona Boulder City Coachella Los Altos Hills Fresno Irvine Covina China Lake Desert Center Napa Los Banos Laguna Beach El Monte Gorman Desert Hot Springs Novato Marysville La Mesa Escondido Independence Death Valley Oakland Merced Long Beach Hemet Joshua Tree El Centro Petaluma Modesto Los Angeles Ojai Lancaster Indian Wells Salinas Red Bluff Mission Viejo Pasadena Lone Pine Indio San Francisco Redding Oxnard Perris Mojave Jacumba San Jose Roseville Santa Ana Pomona Olancha Needles San Luis Obispo Sacramento Santa Barbara Ramona Palmdale Palm Desert Santa Cruz Stockton San Diego Riverside Pear Blossom Palm Springs Santa Rosa Tracy San Juan Capistrano San Bernardino Tehachapi Rancho Mirage Visalia Santa Monica San Fernando Victorville Thermal Ventura Santa Paula Vista Sun City Whittier Thousand Oaks Van Nuys Cistus purpureus, orchid rockrose, Low to Very Low 57
  • Other Important ences in observation and experience among regional committees.Information About Zauchneria spp., California fuchsiathe Guide 1 2 3 4 5 6Variation in Regional Evaluations L L VL L / MVariation in species evaluations among regions oc-curs in many cases. Two patterns of variation arefound: This example shows both cases. Sometimes, for certain California natives and other drought toler-1. where the variation ranges from less water ant species, there was agreement that the plant would needed in cooler climates to more in warmer grow with little or no irrigation, but opinions varied ones, and as to how well it would perform in a managed land- scape under those conditions.2. where less water is required in warmer climates than in cooler ones. Drought Stress/Insect Attack Relationships Although some species perform well with little orThe following examples are typical cases: no irrigation water, their susceptibility to insect at- tack and injury may increase with water stress. ForCase 1— Laurus nobilis, sweet bay example, many Eucalyptus species perform well in non-irrigated conditions in many parts of Califor- 1 2 3 4 5 6 nia. When drought stressed, however, they become L L L L M M susceptible to attack and injury from the Eucalyp- tus long-horned borer. This is the case as well for Monterey pine (California five-spined engraverThis is the most common variation. It merely indi- beetle) and white alder (Flatheaded borer). For thesecates that certain species were thought to require species, evaluations were made with considerationmore water in warmer climates. given to water stress and pest interactions. For ex- ample, although Eucalyptus globulus will performCase 2—Gleditsia tricanthos, honey locust well in Regions 3 and 4 with little summer water, it was assigned to the “moderate” category to mini- 1 2 3 4 5 6 mize its susceptibility to borer injury. L L M L L L ShadeA warmer region indicates a lower water require- Most species were evaluated for full sun conditions.ment than a cooler region. This case reflects differ- Light intensity and duration varies with seasons, microclimates and proximity to the coast. Many 59
  • species which can be grown in full sun in coastal Summer Deciduous Specieslocations require a measure of shade in inland ar- As a drought adaptation, certain species shed theireas. Others require some shade in all locations. Here, leaves when soil moisture level become low (e.g.each species was evaluated for the conditions which California buckeye). Usually, such species do notwould produce best appearance and flowering or require irrigation water and are designated Very Lowfruit production for the region. Because of the lack on the list. In cases of low spring rainfall, or whenof a standard method for identifying species shade retention of summer leaves is desired, irrigation mayrequirements, however, plants needing shade are not be needed. Special Conditions Special conditions such as new plantings or a need for rapid growth may require upward adjustments in spe- cies water needs. Revegetation Species Species selected for reveg- etation sites should be lim- ited to those which are well adapted to the location and do not require irrigation af- ter establishment. SpeciesRhus lancea, African sumac, Medium to Low used principally for reveg- etation (i.e., not typicallynoted on the list. Consult horticultural literature for used in irrigated landscape, such as mule fat andmore information on species light requirements. poison oak) are not included on the species list.Winter Irrigation Invasive SpeciesAlthough deciduous species are not typically irri- Certain species considered invasive both in wild-gated in the winter months, there may be some need land areas and managed landscapes are available into do so in desert regions. Warm, windy conditions California nurseries. Their inclusion on this list iscan dehydrate shoots and buds. In addition, some not meant to encourage their use, but to alert youevergreen species may need winter irrigation dur- that these species can be invasive. For detailed in-ing drought years or in desert climates. formation, see “Invasive Species” (Appendix B). 60
  • Using Field DataAlthough substantial information exists on the irri-gation water needs of agricultural species andturfgrasses, little information is available for woodyand herbaceous landscape species. Field studieshave quantified the irrigation requirements for sixgroundcover species (Pittenger, 1990) and three treespecies (Hartin, 1991). This information has beenused in these evaluations. Considering that over1,900 tree, shrub, groundcover, vine, and perennialspecies are available from California nurseries, how-ever, a considerable amount of work still needs tobe done before field data alone can be used to deter-mine species water needs.Limitations of the ListThis list is limited in a number of ways:1. It is subjective (i.e., it is based largely on field observations rather than scientific data). As such, evaluations are not definitive and may Astilbe hybrid, false spirea, High to Medium change as more research-based information be- comes available.2. It is a partial list—not all landscape species are included. It is a large list which includes most plants available from California nurseries, but it does not include all plants. Additions to the list are expected as new species are introduced or less common species are evaluated.3. Not all regions of California are included in the evaluations. Extrapolations may be needed from a region evaluated to one that is not. 61
  • Species EvaluationsThe three plant species listed below are examplesof entries on the Species Evaluation List. As a quickreference, a key to symbols is included below. Formore information on terms and the evaluation pro-cess, see previous sections. 1 2 3 4 5 6 T Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven VL VL L L L L S Brugmansia spp. angel’s trumpet M / M H / / Gc Dodonaea procumbens hopseed L L L ? ? ?Key to SymbolsCATEGORIES OF WATER NEEDS WUCOLS REGIONSH High 1 North Central CoastalM Moderate 2 Central ValleyL Low 3 South CoastalVL Very Low 4 South Inland Valley/ Inappropriate 5 High and Intermediate Desert? Unknown 6 Low DesertPLANT TYPES INVASIVE SPECIEST Tree Greater Statewide ConcernS Shrub Lesser Statewide ConcernV VineGc GroundcoverP Perennial (includes ferns, grasses and bulbs)Bi Biennial 62
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Abelia chinensis Chinese abelia M ? ? ? / /S Abelia floribunda Mexican abelia M ? M M / /S Gc Abelia X grandiflora glossy abelia M M M M / /S Abelia Sherwoodii Sherwood dwarf abelia M M M M / /T Abies spp. fir M / M M / /T Abies pinsapo Spanish fir L / L / / /S Abutilon X hybridum flowering maple M H H H / /S Abutilon palmeri indian mallow ? ? L ? ? ?ST Acacia abyssinica Abyssinian acacia / ? / ? / LT Acacia aneura mulga / ? ? ? / LT Acacia baileyana Bailey acacia L L L L / / LTS Acacia berlandieri guajillo ? ? ? M / LT Acacia boormanii Snowy River wattle ? ? L ? ? ?T Acacia cognata (A.subporosa) bower wattle L L M M / /TS Acacia constricta whitethorn acacia ? L L L L LTS Acacia craspedocarpa leatherleaf acacia ? ? ? ? L LT Acacia cultriformis knife acacia L L L L / /T Acacia dealbata silver wattle VL L L L / / LT Acacia decurrens green wattle VL L L L / / LT Acacia farnesiana sweet acacia ? ? L L / LS Acacia glaucoptera clay wattle L / L L / /TS Acacia greggii catclaw acacia L L L L L LTS Acacia longifolia Sydney golden wattle L L L L / / LT Acacia melanoxylon blackwood acacia VL L L L / / LT Acacia pendula weeping acacia L L M M / LT Acacia pennatula pennatula acacia ? ? VL ? L LTS Acacia podalyriifolia pearl acacia VL VL L M / /S Gc Acacia redolens prostrate acacia VL VL L L L LS Acacia rigens needleleaf acacia / / ? ? ? ?T Acacia rigidula rigidula acacia / / ? ? ? ?T Acacia salicina willow acacia L L L M / MTS Acacia saligna blue leaf wattle L L L L / MT Acacia schaffneri twisted acacia / / ? ? / LT Acacia smallii desert sweet acacia / / VL L / LT Acacia stenophyla eumong/shoestring acacia VL L L L / LTS Acacia subporosa subporosa acacia L / L ? ? ?S Acacia vestita hairy wattle ? ? L L ? ?T Acacia willardiana palo blanco / / ? L / LP Acanthus mollis bears breech M M M M / MTS Acca sellowiana (Feijoa sellowiana) pineapple guava L L L M / MT Acer buergerianum trident maple M M M / / /T Acer campestre hedge maple M M ? ? / /TS Acer circinatum vine maple M H / / / /T Acer X freemanii Freeman maple M M ? ? ? ?T Acer griseum paperbark maple M M ? ? ? ?T Acer macrophyllum big leaf maple M H M H / /T Acer negundo box elder M M M M / /T Acer oblongum evergreen maple (oblongum) M / M M / /T Acer palmatum Japanese maple M M H H / /T Acer paxii evergreen maple (paxii) M M M M / /T Acer platanoides Norway maple M M / H / /T Acer rubrum scarlet red maple M H H H / /T Acer saccharinum silver maple M M / M / /T Acer saccharum sugar maple M / / / / /T Acer tataricum ssp. ginnala amur maple M M ? ? ? ?T Acer truncatum Chinese maple M M / H / /P Achillea ageratifolia Greek yarrow L M M M M MP Achillea clavennae silvery yarrow L L L L / /P Achillea filipendulina fern leaf yarrow L L L L M MP Achillea X kellerii kellerii achillea M ? L ? ? ?P Achillea millefolium & hybrids common yarrow L L L L M M L 63
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEGc P Achillea tomentosa woolly yarrow L L L L M MP Aconitum napellus garden monkshood M M / / / /P Acorus gramineus sweet flag H H H H H HV Actinidia arguta kiwi/Tara M M M ? / /V Actinidia deliciosa kiwi H H H H / /S Adenanthos drummondii woolly bush ? ? L ? ? ?S Adenanthos sericea woolly bush L ? ? ? ? ?P Adenophora bulleyana ladybells H ? ? ? ? ?P Adenophora liliifolia lilyleaf ladybells H ? M ? ? ?S Adenostoma fasciculatum chamise VL VL VL VL / /TS Adenostoma sparsifolium red shanks/ribbonwood VL ? VL VL / /P Adiantum spp. maidenhair fern H H H H H HSP Aeonium spp. Canary Island rose L / L L / LT Aesculus californica California buckeye VL VL VL L / /T Aesculus X carnea red horsechestnut M M M M / /TS Aesculus pavia red buckeye M ? ? ? ? ?P Aethionema armenium Warley Rose Warley rose stone cress M ? ? ? ? ?T Afrocarpus gracilior (Podocarpus African fern pine M M M M ? M gracilior)S Agapetes Ludgvan Cross Ludgvan cross agapetes M ? M ? ? ?S Agapetes serpens (Pentapetpterygium) agapetes (serpens) M ? M ? ? ?P Agapanthus africanus lily-of-the-Nile M M M M / MP Agapanthus campanulatus M M M M / MP Agapanthus inapertus major L ? M M / MP Agapanthus praecox spp. orientalis & M M M M / M cvsP Agastache aurantica giant hyssop M M M M M MP Agastache cana mosquito plant M M M M M MP Agastache coccinea pink agastache M M M M M MP Agastache rugosa wrinkled agastache M M M M M MT Agathis australis Australian agathis/ kauri M / M / / /T Agathis robusta Queensland kauri M / M M / /SP Agave spp. agave L L L L / LT Agonis flexuosa peppermint tree L / L M / /P Agyranthemum Chelsea girl agyranthemum ? ? M M ? ?T Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven VL VL L L L L LGc Ajuga reptans carpet bugle M M M H H HV Akebia quinata fiveleaf akebia M M M M / /T Albizia distachya plume albizia L / L / / / LT Albizia julibrissin silk tree L L M M M MT Alectryon excelsus alectryon/titoki M / M / / /V Allamanda cathartica golden trumpet vine / / M / / /P Allium spp. allium M M M M ? ?T Allocasuarina torulosa forest oak L ? ? / ? ?T Allocasuarina verticillata (Casuarina coast beefwood L L L L M M stricta)T Alnus cordata Italian alder M M M M / /T Alnus glutinosa black alder M M M H / /T Alnus oregona Oregon alder H H / / / /T Alnus rhombifolia white alder H H H H H /P Alocasia spp. elephants ear H H H H / /TS Aloe spp. aloe L L L L / LP Alonsoa warscewiczii alonsoa M ? M ? ? ?P Alopecurus pratensis Aureus golden foxtail ? ? M ? ? ?S Aloysia machrostachya aloysia ? ? ? ? L LS Aloysia triphylla lemon verbena L L L L L LSP Alpinia zerumbet shell ginger H / H H / HP Alstroemeria spp. Peruvian lily M M M M ? MS Alyogyne hakeifolia red centered hibiscus / / L L / /S Alyogyne huegelii blue hibiscus L L L L / L 64
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Alyssum montanum mountain alyssum L L ? ? ? ?P Amaryllis belladona naked lady VL VL VL L L LS Ambrosia deltoidea triangleleaf bursage ? ? ? ? L LS Ambrosia dumosa white bursage ? ? / / L LS Amorpha fruiticosa false indigobush ? ? ? ? M ?V Ampelopis brevipedunculata blueberry creeper M M / M M MP Anaclycus pyrethrum var depressus Mount Atlas daisy ? ? ? ? ? ?P Anagallis monellii pimpernel ? ? M / / /S Gc Andromeda polifolia bog rosemary H H / / / /P Androsace lanuginosa rock jasmine M ? ? ? ? ?P Anemone X hybrida Japanese anemone M M M M M MP Anemone pulsatilla (see Pulsatilla vulgaris)P Anemone sylvestris snowdrop windflower ? ? M ? ? ?V Anemopaegma chamberlaynii yellow trumpet vine ? ? M M / /P Gc Anemopsis californica yerba mansa ? ? ? ? H HP Angelonia angustifolia angel flower ? ? M ? ? ?T Angophora cordifolia (Angophora gum myrtle L / L M / / costata)P Anigozanthos flavidus kangaroo paw L L L L / MP Anigozanthos viridis green kangaroo paw L L L L / MS Anisacanthus spp. desert honeysuckle ? ? L L L LS Anisodontea X hypomadarum South African mallow M M M M / MS Anisodontea scabrosa false mallow M M M M / MT Annona cherimola cherimoya M / M M / /P Antennaria rosea pussy toes L L ? ? ? ?P Anthoxanthum odoratum sweet vernal grass M ? ? ? ? ?Gc V Antigonon leptopus coral vine M / L L / LGc Aptenia cordifolia ice plant (Aptenia) L L L L / HGC Aptenia Red Apple ice plant (Red Apple) L L L L / H LP Aquilegia spp. columbine L L M M M MP Arabis spp. rockcress L M M ? ? ?V Araujia sericifera cruel vine ? ? L ? ? ?T Araucaria araucana monkey puzzle tree L M / M / /T Araucaria bidwilii bunya-bunya L M M M / /T Araucaria heterophyla Norfolk Island pine M M M / / /T Arbutus Marina Marina arbutus L L M M / /T Arbutus menziesii madrone L L / / / /TS Arbutus unedo strawberry tree L L L L M MT Archontophoenix cunninghamiana king palm M M M M / /S Gc Arctostaphylos cultivars manzanita cultivars L L L L / /ST Arctostaphylos diversiloba summer holly VL L VL L / L (Comarostaphylis diversiloba)S Gc Arctostaphylos spp. manzanita VL L L L / /Gc P Arctotheca calendula cape weed M M M M / M LP Arctotis hybrids African daisy M M L L / MGc Ardisia japonica Japanese ardesia, marlberry M / H / / /T Arecastrum romanzoffianum (See Syagrus romanzoffiana) Arenaria spp. (See Sagina) Irish, Scotch mossP Arenaria montana sandwort ? M M M ? ?S Arenga engleri Ryukyu Island palm ? ? M ? ? ?P Argyranthemum frutescens Marguerite daisy M M M M / MP Aristea ecklonii little Tyler/blue stars M ? M M / /P Aristea major tall aristea M ? ? ? ? ?V Aristolochia californica California Dutchmans pipe L L ? M / /V Aristolochia durior Dutchmans pipe M M ? M / /V Aristolochia elegans calico flower / / M M / /P Armeria alliacea sea pinkP Armeria caespitosa (A. juniperifolia) thrift ? ? M M M MGc P Armeria maritima sea pink M M M M M M 65
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Armeria setacea thrift ? ? M M M MP Arnica montana arnica M ? ? ? ? ?P Arrhenatherum elatius ssp bulbosum bulb oat grass ? ? M M M MS Gc Artemisia spp. (shrubby) sagebrush VL L L L L LGc P Artemisia spp. (herbaceous) tarragon/angels hair etc. L L L L M MP Arthropodium cirrhatum star lily M ? M ? / /P Arum italicum Italian Arum VL L VL ? ? ?P Arundo donax giant reed M M M M M M L L Arundinaria (See Chimonobambusa, Drepanostachyum, Pleioblastus, Semiarundinaria, Thamnocalamus & other genera)P Arundinaria gigantea cane reed L L M M / MV Asarina antirriniflora (Maurandya) snapdragon vine M ? M ? / MV Asarina barclaiana (Maurandya) climbing snapdragon M ? M ? ? ?V Asarina erubescens (Maurandya) creeping gloxinia M ? M ? ? ?Gc P Asarum caudadum wild ginger M M H ? / /P Asclepias tuberosa butterfly weed M M M M M MP Asclepias (wild species) milk/silk weed L L L L L LP Asparagus spp. ornamental asparagus M M M M / MP Asphodeline lutea Jacobs rod/kings spear L ? ? ? ? ?P Asphodeline taurica Asphodel L ? ? ? ? ?P Aspidistra elatior cast iron plant L L M M / MP Asplenium bulbiferum mother fern M M H H / /P Asplenium nidus birds nest fern M M H / / /P Asplenium scolopendrium (Phyllitis) Harts tongue fern L ? L ? ? ?P Astelia nervosa chathamica silver spear M / M ? ? ?P Astelia nivicola astelia M ? ? ? ? ?P Aster spp. aster M M M M M MP Asteriscus maritimus gold coin, Canary Island daisy M M L M / /P Asteriscus sericeus (See Naupilus sericecus)P Astilbe hybrids false spirea M H / / / /P Astrantia major rosea greater masterwort M M ? ? ? ?S Athanasia acerosa athanasia L ? ? ? ? ?P Athyrium filix-femina lady fern M H H H H /P Athyrium nipponicum Pictum painted lady fern M M ? ? ? ?S Gc Atriplex spp. saltbush VL VL VL VL L VL LP Aubrieta deltoidea rock cress L M ? ? ? ?S Aucuba japonica Japanese aucuba M M M M / MP Aurinia saxatilis hardy alyssum/basket of gold L L M M ? ?T Azadirachta indica neem M ? ? ? ? ?S Azaliadendron Hardjizers Beauty Hardijizers beauty M ? ? ? ? ?ST Azara dentata orono M / M ? / /ST Azara integrifolia azara M / M ? / /ST Azara microphylla box leaf azara M / M M M /P Babiana stricta hybrids baboon flower L L L ? / /S Baccharis pilularis consanguinea coyote brush L L L L / /S Gc Baccharis pilularis cvs. dwarf coyote brush L L L L / /S Baccharis sarothroides desert broom VL L VL L L LS Gc Baccharis Centennial bentennial baccharis VL L VL L L L Bacopa Snowflake (See Sutera spp.)ST Baeckea virgata tall baeckia L ? ? ? ? ?P Baileya multiradiata desert marigold ? ? ? L L LP Ballota pseudodictamnus Grecian horehound VL VL ? ? ? ?S Bambusa spp. bamboo (Bambusa) L L M M M MPS Banksia ericifolia heath-leafed banksia L ? ? ? ? ?TS Banksia integrifolia tree banksia L / M M / MTS Banksia praemorsa cut-leaf banksia ? ? ? ? ?TS Banksia speciosa showy banksia L / M ? / MP Baptista australis false indigo L L ? ? ? ? 66
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Barleria obtusa barleria ? ? M M / /T Bauhinia X blakeana Hong Kong orchid tree M / M M / MV Bauhinia corymbosa phanera ? ? M ? / MT Bauhinia forficata Brazilian butterfly tree M M M M / /TS Bauhinia galpinii red orchid bush L M M / / Bauhinia punctata (see galpinii)T Bauhinia variegata (purpurea) purple orchid tree M / M M / MP Baumea rubiginosa baumea ? ? H ? ? ?TS Beaucarnea recurvata (See Nolina recurvata)V Beaumontia grandiflora Easter lily vine M / M H / /P Begonia fuchoides rosea fuchsia begonia M M M M / /P Begonia grandis hardy begonia M M M M / /P Begonia Richmondensis Richmond begonia M M M M / MP Begonia semperflorens Wax begonia M M M M / MP Bellis perenis English daisy M M M M / /SV Berberidopsis corallina coral plant M ? ? ? ? ?S GC Berberis spp. barberry L L L L L MGc Berberis X stenophylla Irwinii barberry M M M ? M MP Bergenia cordifolia heartleaf bergenia M M M H H HP Bergenia crassifolia winter blooming bergenia M M M H H HP Berlandiera lyrata chocolate scented daisy ? M ? M M MP Beschorneria yuccoides Mexican lily / / M ? ? ?T Betula fontinalis (occidentalis) water birch H / H H / /T Betula utilis var. jaquemontii white barked Himalayan birch H H / / / /T Betula nigra river/red birch H H H H / /T Betula occidentalis (See B. fontinalis)T Betula pendula European white birch H H H H / /T Betula platyphyla japonica Japanese mountain birch H H ? ? ? ?P Bidens triplinervia tickseed VL ? ? ? ? ?V Bignonia capreolata cross vine M ? ? ? ? ?P Billbergia spp. queens tears etc. M / M M / MT Bischofia javanica toog / / M ? / /P Blechnum occidentale hammock fern H ? H ? ? ?P Blechnum penna-marina alpine water fern ? ? ? ? ? ?P Blechnum spicant deer fern L ? M ? ? ?P Bletilla striata hyacinth orchid M M M ? ? ?P Bolax gummifera (glebaria) bolax/glebaria M ? ? ? ? ?S Boronia spp. boronia M / M / / /P Bothriochloa barbinoides cane bluestem L ? ? ? ? ?S Gc Bougainvillea spp. bougainvillea L L L L / MP Bouteloua curtipendula sideoats gramma VL L ? ? ? ?P Bouteloua gracilis blue gramma L L ? ? M ?T Brachychiton acerifolius flame tree L / L M / /T Brachychiton discolor Queensland lace bark M / L M / /T Brachychiton X hybridus hybrid brachychiton M / M M / MT Brachychiton populneus bottle tree L L L L M MT Brachychiton rupestris Queensland bottle tree / / L L / MP Brachycome spp. Swan River daisy M M M M M MP Brachyglottis greyi (Senecio greyi) groundsel L ? M ? ? ?T Brahea armata blue hesper palm L L L L L LT Brahea brandegeei San Jose hesper palm L ? M ? ? ?T Brahea edulis Guadalupe palm L ? L L L L Brassaia actinophylla (See Schefflera actinophylla) Bravoa geminiflora (See Polyanthes geminiflora)S Breynia nivosa (distacha) Hawaiian snow bush ? ? H H / /P Briza media quaking grass L ? M M M M LP Brodiaea spp. brodiaea VL VL L L / / 67
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Brugmansia spp. angels trumpet M / M H / /S Brunfelsia pauciflora yesterday today and tomorrow M M M H / HP Brunnera macrophylla Siberian bugloss H H H ? ? ?S Buddleja alternifolia fountain butterfly bush L L M / M MS Buddleja davidii butterfly bush L L M M M MS Buddleja marrubiifolia woolly butterfly bush ? L ? L / LP Bulbine frutescens stalked bulbine L ? L L / LP Bulbinella robusta bulbinella L ? ? ? ? ?T Bursera hindsiana bursera ? ? / / / MT Butia capitata pindo palm L L L L L LS Buxus microphylla japonica Japanese boxwood M M M M M MS Buxus sempervirens English boxwood M M M / M MS Caesalpinea cacalaco cascalote ? ? ? ? / LS Caesalpinea gilliesii desert bird of paradise L L L L M MS Caesalpinea mexicana Mexican bird of paradise ? / ? L / LS Caesalpinea platyloba ? ? ? ? ? ?S Caesalpinea pulcherrima dwarf poinciana L L M M / MP Calamagrostis spp. feather reed L ? M M ? ?P Calamintha spp. calamint M M ? ? ? ?P Calceolaria spp. slipper flower/slipperwort M / M ? ? ?S Calliandra californica Baja fairy duster / / VL L / LS Calliandra emarginata dwarf powderpuff ? ? ? ? ? ?S Calliandra eriophylla fairy duster / / VL VL / LS Calliandra haematocephala pink powder puff / / M M / HS Calliandra tweedii trinidad flame bush / / M M / MS Callicarpa bodinieri beauty berry M M ? ? ? ?S Callicarpa dichotoma lavender beautyberry M M M ? ? ?S Callicarpa japonica beauty berry M M ? M / /TS Callistemon citrinus bottle brush L L L L / MTS Callistemon pinifolius pine-leafed bottlebrush ? ? L L ? ?TS Callistemon salignus pink tips/white bottlebrush L M M ? / ?TS Callistemon speciosus Albany bottlebrush ? ? M ? / MTS Callistemon subulatus callistemon (subulatus) ? ? L ? ? ?TS Callistemon viminalis weeping bottle brush L L M M / MS Calluna vulgaris Scotch heather M M / / / /T Calocedrus decurrens incense cedar M M M M M /S Calocephalus brownii cushion bush L / L L / LT Calodendrum capense cape chestnut L / M M / /S Calostemma purpureum garland lily M ? ? ? ? ?S Calothamnus quadrifidus net bush L ? M ? / ?S Calycanthus floridus Carolina allspice M ? ? ? ? ?S Calycanthus occidentalis western spice bush L L M M / /P Calyophus drummondii calyophus (drummondii) M ? ? ? ? MGc Calyophus hartwegii Sierra sundrop L ? ? ? ? MS Camellia japonica camellia M M M H / HS Camellia sasanqua sasanqua camellia M M M M / HP Camissonia cherianthifolia (Oenothera) beach evening primrose L ? L / / /Gc Campanula poscharskyana Serbian bell flower M M M M / MP Campanula spp. bell flower M M M M / MV Campsis spp. trumpet creeper L L M M M MP Canna spp. canna M M M H M MS Cantua buxifolia magic flower M / M ? ? ?S Capparis spinosa caper bush L / L ? ? ?P Carex (garden spp.) sedge M M M M / MGc Carissa macrocarpa (prost.cvs.) Natal plum L / M M / MS Carissa spp. Natal plum L / M M / MP Carlina acaulis stemless carline thistle ? ? ? ? ? ?S Carnegiea gigantea saguaro / / VL L / LS Carpenteria californica bush anemone L L L M / /T Carpinus betulus Fastigiata European hornbeam M M / / / / 68
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEGc Carpobrotus spp. ice plant (Carpobrotus) L M VL L / L L LT Carya illinoensis pecan L M M M M MSP Caryopteris X clandonensis blue mist M M M M / /SP Caryopteris incana common bluebeard ? ? ? M ? ?T Caryota mitis clustered fishtail palm / / M / / /TS Caryota urens fishtail wine palm H / M H / /T Casimiroa edulis white sapote M / M M / / Cassia australis (See Senna australis) Cassia artemesioides (See Senna artemesioides) Cassia bicapsularis (C. candolleana) See Senna bicapsularis Cassia didymobotria (See Senna didymobotria)S Cassia eremophila (C.nemophila) desert cassia / ? L L L L Cassia goldmanii (See Senna polyantha)T Cassia leptophylla gold medallion tree L L M M / / Cassia lindheimeriana (See Senna lindheimeriana) Cassia odorata (See Senna odorata) Cassia phyllodenia (See Senna phyllodenia) Cassia spectabilis (C.excelsa) Cassia splendida (See Senna splendida) Cassia sturtii (See Senna sturtii)S Cassia tomentosa (See Senna multiglandulosa)S Cassia wizlizeni shrubby cassia ? ? L ? / LT Castanopsis cuspidata copper false chestnut ? ? ? ? ? ?T Castanospermum australe Moreton Bay chestnut L / M M / /T Casuarina cunninghamiana river she-oak L L L L M M Casuarina stricta (See Allocasuarina verticilliata)T Catalpa bungei umbrella catalpa L ? ? ? ? ?T Catalpa speciosa western catalpa L M M M M MP Catananche caerulea cupids dart M L M ? ? ?P Catharanthus roseus Madagascar periwinkle M M M M M MP Cautleya spicata cautleya H ? ? ? ? ?S Gc Ceanothus spp. California lilac VL L VL L L /S Gc Ceanothus cultivars ceanothus L L L L L /T Cedrus atlantica Atlas cedar M M L M M MT Cedrus deodora deodar cedar L M L M M MT Cedrus libani cedar of Lebanon M M L M ? ?T Celtis australis European hackberry L M / / M MT Celtis occidentalis common hackberry L L / M M MT Celtis reticulata western hackberry L / / / L LT Celtis sinensis Chinese hackberry L M / M M MP Centaurea cineraria dusty miller (cineraria) L L M M / MP Centaurea dealbata Persian knapweed M ? M ? ? ?P Centaurea gymnocarpa velvet centaurea L L M M / MP Centaurea montana perennial cornflower L ? ? ? ? ?P Centaurea rupestris centaurea (rupestris) ? ? ? ? ? ?P Centranthus ruber red valerian VL VL L L / M LP Centratherum punctatum porcupine flower ? ? M ? ? ?S Cephalocereus spp. old man cactus VL / VL L L LGc Cephalophyllum spp. ice plant (Cephalophyllum) L L L L / LGc Cerastium tomentosum snow in summer M M M M M MT Ceratonia siliqua carob L L L L / L 69
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Ceratostigma abyssinicum African plumbago L / M M M MS Ceratostigma griffithii Burmese plumbago L M M M M MGc Ceratostigma plumbaginoides dwarf plumbago L M M M M MS Ceratostigma willmottianum Chinese plumbago M M M M ? ?T Cercidiphyllum japonicum Katsura tree M M ? ? / /T Cercidium floridum (See Parkinsonia florida)T Cercidium microphyllum little leaf palo verde / VL VL L / LT Cercidium praecox Sonoran palo verde / L VL L / LT Cercidium Sonorae Sonora cercidium ? ? ? ? / LT Cercis canadensis eastern redbud M M M M / /S Cercis chinensis Chinese redbud M M ? ? ? ?TS Cercis mexicana Mexican redbud L L ? ? ? ?TS Cercis occidentalis western redbud VL VL L L / /T Cercis reniformis southwest redbud L L ? ? ? ?TS Cercis siliquastrum Judas tree M M ? ? ?S Cercocarpus betuloides mountain ironwood VL VL VL VL VL /S Cercocarpus minutiflorus San Diego mountain mahogany L ? VL VL / /S Cereus peruvianus Peruvian apple cactus / ? L L / LSV Cestrum auranticum orange cestrum M / M M ? ?S Cestrum elegans red cestrum M / M M / MS Cestrum fasciculatum var. Newellii Newell cestrum M ? M ? ? ?S Cestrum nocturnum night jessamine M M M M / MS Chaenomeles cvs. flowering quince L L M M L MP Chaenorhinium glareosum dwarf snapdragon M ? ? ? ? ?TS Chamaecyparis spp. false cypress M M / / / /SP Chamaedorea spp. chamaedorea / / H H / HGc P Chamaemelum nobile chamomile L M M M M MTS Chamaerops humilis Mediterranean fan palm L L M M M MS Chamelaucium uncinatum Geraldton wax flower L L L M / MP Chasmanthe aethiopica chasmanthe L ? L L ? ?P Chasmanthium latifolium sea oats L M M M M MP Cheilanthes lanosa hairy lip fern M ? ? ? ? ?P Cheiranthus cheiri (See Erysimum cheiri)T Chilopsis linearis desert willow VL VL VL L M MS Chimonanthus praecox wintersweet ? ? M ? ? ?S Chimonobambusa marmorea marbled bamboo L L M M / M (Arundinarea)T Chimonobambusa quadrangularis square-stemmed bamboo L L M M / MT Chionanthus retusus Chinese fringe tree M M M M / /T Chionanthus virginicus white fringe tree M / ? ? ? ?T X Chitalpa tashkentensis chitalpa L M L L L MS Choisya ternata Mexican orange M M M M / MP Chondropetalum tectorum cape reed H ? M ? ? ?T Chorisia insignis white floss silk tree M / M L / MT Chorisia speciosa floss silk tree L / L L / MS Chorizema cordata flame pea M ? ? ? ? ? Chrysanthemum frutescens (See Argyranthemum frutescens) Chrysanthemum maximum (See Leucanthemum X superbum) Chrysanthemum parthenium (See Tanacetum parthenium)P Chrysopsis villosa (See Heterotheca villosa)S Chrysothamnus nauseosus albicaulis rabbit brush / / ? ? VL ?P Chusquea coronalis bamboo H ? M H ? ?P Cibotium glaucum Hawaiian tree fern / / H H / /T Cinnamomum camphora camphor tree M / M M / MV Cissus antarctica kangaroo treebine L M M M / M 70
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEV Cissus rhombifolia grape ivy M / M M / MV Cissus trifoliata treebine ? / ? ? ? LS Gc Cistus spp. rockrose L L L L L L LTS Citrus spp. orange, lemon etc. M M M M / MV Clematis armandii evergreen clematis M M M M M MV Clematis hybrids and cvs deciduous clematis M M H H M MS Clematis integrifolia bushy clematis M M ? ? ? ?V Clematis lasiantha pipestem clematis L L VL L / /V Clematis ligusticifolia western virgins bower M ? ? L / /V Clematis pauciflora small flowered clematis ? ? VL L ? ?S Cleome isomeris bladder pod VL VL VL VL L LP Clerodendrum bungei cashmere bouquet L M M ? ? ?TS Clerodendrum trichotomun harlequin glory bower M ? ? ? ? ?S Clerodendrum ugandense butterfly bush M ? M M / MTS Clethra alnifolia summersweet M / ? ? ? ?S Cleyera japonica sakaki M M M ? ? ?S Clianthus puniceus parrots beak L L M M ? ?P Clivia miniata Kaffir lily M M L M / MV Clytostoma callistigioides violet trumpet vine M M M M / MS Cneoridium dumosum bushrue ? ? ? ? L LV Cobaea scandens cup and saucer vine M M ? ? ? ?TS Cocculus laurifolius laurel leaf cocculus M M M M / MP Colchicum agrippium autumn crocus VL VL M M M MS Coleonema album white breath of heaven M M M M / /S Coleonema pulchrum breath of heaven M M M M / /ST Comarostaphylis diversifolia (See Archtostaphylos diversifolia)V Combretum fruticosum combretum / / M M / /S Convolvulus cneorum bush morning glory L L L L L L Convolvulus mauritanicus (see C. Sasbatius)Gc P Convolvulus sabatius ground morning glory L L L L M MS Gc Coprosma X kirkii creeping coprosma L L M M / / Coprosma pumila (See C.petriei) /S Gc Coprosma petriei Verde vista verde vista coprosma L L M M / /S Coprosma repens mirror plant M M M M / / LTS Cordia boissieri Texas olive ? ? ? L L LS Cordia parvifolia little leaf cordia ? ? L L / LT Cordyline australis New Zealand cabbage tree L M L M M M LTS Cordyline indivisa blue dracaena palm L L ? ? ? ?S Cordyline stricta palm lily / M M M / MS Cordyline terminalis ti plant M / M / / /P Coreopsis auriculataNana dwarf coreopsis L L L L M MP Coreopsis gigantea giant coreopsis ? ? VL L / /P Coreopsis lanceolata coreopsis L L L L M MP Coreopsis maritima sea dahlia L ? VL ? ? ?P Coreopsis verticilata cvs. threadleaf coreopsis L L L L M MP Corethrogyne californica black bush ? ? / / VL /T Cornus alba red-barked dogwood M M ? ? / /Gc Cornus canadensis bunchberry M M ? ? / /T Cornus capitata evergreen dogwood M M M ? / /T Cornus Eddies White Wonder Eddies white wonder dogwood M M ? ? / /T Cornus kousa Japanese dogwood M M / / / /T Cornus kousa chinensis Chinese dogwood M M / / / /T Cornus florida eastern dogwood M M H H / /T Cornus nuttallii western dogwood M M / M / / Cornus sericea (See C. stolonifera)S Cornus stolonifera red osier dogwood H H / H / /S Corokia cotoneaster wire-netting bush M M M M M MS Corokia X virgata corokia M ? M ? ? ?S Correa spp. Australian fuchsia L L L L / M 71
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Cortaderia sellowana cvs. pampas grass VL L L L L L L LST Corylopsis spicata winter hazel M ? ? ? / /S Corylus avelleana contorta Harry Lauders walking stick M M / / / /S Corylus cornuta californica western hazelnut L ? / / / /TS Corylus maxima filbert L / / / / /T Corynocarpus laevigata New Zealand laurel M / H / / /P Cosmos atrosanguineus chocolate cosmos M M M ? ? ?TS Cotinus coggygria smoke tree L L L L L /TS Cotinus obvatus American smoke tree L ? ? ? ? ?S Cotoneaster spp. (shrubs) cotoneaster L L L M M M L LGc Cotoneaster spp.(ground covers) cotoneaster M M M M M MP Cotula lineariloba silver button plant H H M ? ? ?P Cotula Silver Mound cotula H H ? ? ? ?SP Cotyledon spp. cotyledon L L L L / LS Coursetia axillaris baby bonnets ? ? ? ? ? LS Cowania mexicana cliff rose L / / L L LSP Crassula spp. crassula L L L L / LP Craspedia globosa drumsticks M M M M ? ?T Crataegus spp. hawthorn M M / M M / LT Crinodendron hookerianum lantern tree ? ? ? ? ? ?T Crinodendron patagua lily-of-the-valley tree M / M M / /P Crinum spp. crinum lily, spider lily M M M M ? MP Crocrosmia hybrids (Tritonia) montbrieta L L L L / LS Crotalaria agatiflora canary-bird bush L / M M / HTS Cryptomeria japonica Japanese cryptomeria M H H H / /T Cupaniopsis anacardioides carrotwood M / M M / /P Cuphea hyssophyla false heather M M M M / /P Cuphea ignea cigar plant M M M M / /P Gc Cuphea llavea bat-faced cuphea M ? ? ? / /SP Cuphea micropetela cuphea (micropetala) ? ? M ? / /T X Cupressocyparis leylandii Leyland cypress M M M / M MT Cupressus arizonica ssp. arizonica Cuayamaca cypress VL VL VL L L LT Cupressus arizonica var.glabra smooth Arizona cypress VL VL VL L L LT Cupressus goveniana Gowen cypress ? ? ? ? ? ?T Cupressus guadalupensis forbesii tecate cypress L L VL VL / /T Cupressus macrocarpa Monterey cypress M M M / / / LT Cupressus sempervirens Italian cypress L M L L M MT Cussonia paniculata little cabbage tree / / M ? /SP Cyathea cooperii Australian tree fern H H H H / /S Cycas revoluta sago palm M M M M M MP Cyclamen hederifolium cyclamen L L M ? / MP Cyclamen persicum hybrids florists cyclamen M M M M / MGc P Cymbalaria muralis Kenilworth ivy M M H H / /P Cyperus albostriatus dwarf umbrella plantP Cyperis spp. umbrella sedge/papyrus H H H H H HP Cyrtanthus brachyscyphus dobo lily M ? ? ? ? ?P Cyrtanthus purpureus fire lily M ? ? ? ? ?P Cyrtomium falcatum holly fern M M H M / MGc Cytisus X kewensis Kew broom M M / / M /S Cytisus spp. broom (Cytisus) L L / M / / L LS Daboecia cantabrica Irish heath M ? ? ? / /S Dahlia imperialis tree dahlia M M M M / ?P Dahlia spp. dahlia M M M H H HT Dalbergia sissoo sissoo / / / / / MS Dalea bicolor dalea (bicolor) / / L L / MGc Dalea capitata dalea (capitata) / / ? ? M MS Dalea dorychnioides dalea (dorychnioides) ? ? ? ? ? ?S Dalea frutescens black dalea / / M / M MP Dalea gattingeri (Petalostemum purple prairie clover ? ? ? ? ? ? purpureum)Gc Dalea greggii trailing indigo bush ? / L L L L 72
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Dalea lutea dalea (lutea) / / / ? M MGc Dalea orcutii Baja indigo bush / / L L / LS Dalea pulchra indigo/pea bush / / M / M MT Dalea spinosa (See Psorothamnus spinosa)S Dalea versicolor dalea (versicolor) / / M / M MP Dalechampia dioscorifolia purple wings ? ? M ? ? ?S Gc Dampiera diversifolia dampiera L / M ? ? ?P Dampiera trigona dampiera L / M ? ? ?S Daphne X burkwoodii Burkwood daphne M M ? ? ? ?S Daphne caucasica daphne (caucasia) M ? M ? ? ?S Daphne odora winter daphne M M M M / /P Darmera peltata umbrella plant/Indian rhubarb H ? ? ? ? ?S Dasylirion spp. desert spoon VL / L L L LP Davallia trichomanoides squirrels foot fern L M M H / HGc Delosperma spp. ice plant (Delosperma) L M L L / L LP Delphinium spp. delphinium M M M M M MTS Dendriopoterium menendezii dendriopoterium ? ? M ? / ?S Dendromecon spp. bush poppy VL L VL L / /P Deschampsia caespitosa tufted hairgrass L L L L / /S Deutzia spp. bridal wreath M M / M M /P Dianella intermedia Turutu M ? M ? ? ?P Dianella tasmanica blueberry M ? M M / ?P Dianthus spp. pink/carnation M M M M M MP Diascia spp. twinspur M M M M / /P Dicentra spp. bleeding heart M M M H / /P Dichelostemma capitatum wild hyacinth L L M ? ? ?Gc Dichondra argenta silver dichondra ? ? M ? ? ?Gc Dichondra micrantha dichondra M M M H / HP Dichorisandra thyrsifolia blue ginger / / H ? / ?P Dichroa febrifuga evergreen hydrangea ? ? M ? ? ?SP Dicksonia antarctica Tasmanian tree fern H H H H / /P Dicliptera suberecta velvet honeysuckle L ? M ? ? MP Dictamnus spp. burning bush/dittany L L ? ? ? ?P Dierama spp. fairy wand M M M ? ? ?P Dietes bicolor fortnight lily L L M M / MP Dietes iridioides fortnight lily L L M M / MP Dietes vegeta (See D. iridioides)P Digitalis lutea hardy/straw foxglove M M ? ? ? ?P Digitalis X mertonensis foxglove M M M M M MS Dioon spp. Mexican cycad / / M M M MT Diospyros kaki Japanese persimmon L M M M M M Diplacus (see Mimulus)V Dipogon lignosus Australian pea H ? ? ? ? ?V Distictis buccinatoria blood red trumpet vine M M M M / MV Distictis Rivers royal trumpet vine M M M M / M Disygotheca elegantissima (see Schlefflera elegantissima)Gc Dodonaea procumbens hopseed bush (procumbens) L L L ? ? ?S Dodonaea viscosa hopseed bush L L L M / MS Dodonaea viscosa Purpurea purple hopseed bush L L L M / MV Dolichos labab see Labab purpureusTS Dombeya spp. dombeya / / M M / /T Dombeya cacuminum strawberry snowball / / M M / /P Doronicum orientale (D. caucasium) leopards bane M ? M ? ? ?S Doryanthes palmeri spear lily L / L L / /S Dorycnium hirsutum hairy canary clover / ? L ? ? ?T Dracaena draco dragon tree L / VL L / /S Drepanostachyum falcatum blue bamboo L L M M / M (Arundinaria)S Drepanostachyum hookerianum bamboo L L M M / M 73
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Drimys lanceolata pepper tree M ? ? ? ? ?T Drimys winteri winters bark M ? ? ? ? ?Gc Drosanthemum spp. ice plant (Drosanthemum) L L L L / LP Dryopteris arguta sheild/wood fern M ? M ? ? ?P Dryopteris dilatata broad buckler fern M ? M ? ? ?P Dryopteris erythrosora wood fern M M M M / /P Dryopteris felix-mas male fern M ? ? ? ? ?Gc Duchesnea indica Indian mock strawberry M M M M / M LP Dudleya spp. dudleya, live forever L L VL L L LS Duranta erecta (D. repens) sky flower / / M M / MS Duranta stenostachya Brazilian sky flower / / M M / /P Dyckia spp. dyckia L ? L L ? ?P Gc Dymondia margaretae dymondia L L L L / / Dyssodia acerosa shrubby dogweed ? ? ? ? ? LP Dyssodia pentachaeta golden fleece ? M ? ? M MSP Echeveria spp. hens and chickens L L L L / MP Echinacea spp. cone flower M M M M M MS Echinocactus spp. barrel cactus VL VL L L / L Note: Many Echinocactus spp. are now in other genera including Ferrocactus, Echinopsis, Parodia, Sclerocactus and othersP Echinops exaltus globe thistle M M M ? ? MP Echinopsis spp. (Trichocereus spp.) torch cactus L L L L L LSP Echium candicans (fastuosum) pride of Madeira L L L L / M LSP Echium pininana pride of Teneriffe L L ? ? ? ?Bi Echium Purple Tower purple tower echium L L ? ? ? ?Bi Echium wildpretii tower of jewels L L M M / /S Edraianthus graminifolius grassy bells L L ? ? ? ?TS Elaeagnus angustifolia Russian olive L L L L M M LS Eleagnus X ebbengei Ebbinges silverberry L L ? ? M MS Elaeagnus pungens silverberry L L L L L LT Elaeocarpus decipiens Japanese blueberry tree M ? M ? ? ?P Elymus spp. (also see Leymus spp.) wild rye L L L L M MP Encelia californica California encelia / / VL L / LS Encelia farinosa brittle bush / / VL L L LS Enkianthus campanulatus red-veined enkianthus M H ? ? ? /SP Ensete ventricosum Abyssinian banana H H H H / HS Epacris gunii Australian heath M ? ? ? ? ?P Epidendrum reed stem hybrids epidendrum M / M M ? ?P Epilobium spp.(Zauchneria) California fuchsia L L VL L M MGc Epimedium grandiflorum bishops hat M M / / / /P Equisetum spp. horsetail H H H H H HS Eremophila glabra emu bush L L L ? / LS Eremophila maculata spotted emu bush L L L L / LS Eremophila racemosa Easter egg bush ? ? L L ? ?P Erianthus ravennae plume grass ? ? ? ? ? ?S Gc Erica spp. heath M M M / / / LS Ericameria laricifolia (Haplopappus) turpentine bush / / / / L LP Erigeron divergens native fleabane ? ? ? ? ? ?P Erigeron formosissimus fleabane M ? ? ? ? ?P Erigeron glaucus beach aster L / M M / /P Erigeron karvinskianus fleabane L M M M M MP Erigeron speciosus Oregon fleabane ? ? ? ? ? ?SP Eriogonum spp. buckwheat L L VL L L LP Eriophyllum confertiflorum golden yarrow L ? VL VL / /P Eriophyllum lanatum chalk buckwheat L ? ? ? ? ? Erodium chaemedryoides (See E. reichardii)P Gc Erodium chrysanthum cranessbill (chrysanthum) L M M M M MP Erodium corsicum herons-bill ? ? ? ? ? ? 74
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Erodium reichardii alpine geranium L M M M M MP Eryngium pandanifolium sea holly M ? ? ? ? ?P Eryngium variifolium sea holly M ? ? ? ? ?T Eryobotrya deflexa bronze loquat M M M M / MT Eryobotrya japonica loquat L L M M / MP Erysimum Bowles Mauve Bowles mauve wallflower L L M M ? ?P Erysimum cheiri (Cherianthus cheiri) wallflower M M M M M MP Erysimum helveticum wallflower M ? ? ? ? ?P Erysimum hyeraciifolium Siberian wallflower L L L ? ? ?P Erysimum Jubilee jubilee wallflower L L L ? ? ?P Erysimum linifolium wallflower L L L M / MP Erysimum menziesii wallflower L L L ? ? ?P Erysimum pulchellum wallflower L L L ? ? ?P Erysimum suffrutescens (concinnum) Pt. Reyes wallflower L L ? ? ? ?P Erysimum Wenlock Beauty Wenlock beauty wallflower ? ? L ? ? ?T Erythrina americana(E.coralloides) naked coral tree / / L L / /T Erythryna X bidwillii coral tree L L L L / /T Erythrina caffra Kaffir bloom coral tree / / L L / /TS Erythrina crista-galli cockspur coral tree M M L L / MT Erythrina falcata coral tree (falcata) / / L / / /T Erythrina humeana Natal coral tree / M L M / /T Erythrina X sykesii Sykes coral tree / / L L / /S Escallonia spp. escallonia M M M M / MP Eschscholzia californica California poppy VL VL L L L LS Espostoa lantana Peruvian old man cactus ? ? L L L LT Eucalyptus camaldulensis red gum L L L L M M LT Eucalyptus campaspe silver gimlet ? L M ? / MT Eucalyptus cinerea ash leaved gum, silver dollar tree VL L L M ? ?T Eucalyptus citriodora lemon scented gum L / L M / MT Eucalyptus cladocalyx sugar gum L / L L / /T Eucalyptus deglupta mindinao gum / / M M / /T Eucalyptus erythrocorys red cap gum L L M M / MT Eucalyptus ficifolia red flowering gum L / M M / /T Eucalyptus formanii Formans mallee ? ? L ? ? LT Eucalyptus globulus blue gum L L L M / / L L Eucalyptus grandis flooded/rose gum M M M M / /T Eucalyptus gunnii cider gum L L L L ? ?T Eucalyptus kruseana book-leaf mallee VL / L ? / ?T Eucalyptus largiflorens black box ? ? ? ? ? ?T Eucalyptus lehmannii bushy yate L L L L / /T Eucalyptus leucoxylon white ironbark L L L L / MT Eucalyptus loxophleba York gum ? VL ? VL / /T Eucalyptus macranda long flowered marlock VL VL VL L / LT Eucalyptus maculata spotted gum L / M M / /T Eucalyptus microtheca coolibah L L L L M MT Eucalyptus nicholii Nichols willow leaf peppermint L L M M M MT Eucalyptus polyanthemos silver dollar gum L L L L M MT Eucalyptus preissiana bell mallee VL / L ? / ?T Eucalyptus pulverulenta silver mountain gum L M M M / M LT Eucalyptus robusta swamp mahogany L L L L / /T Eucalyptus rudis flooded gum L L L L M MT Eucalyptus sargentii Salt River mallet ? VL ? L / LT Eucalyptus sideroxylon red iron bark L L L L M MT Eucalyptus spathulata swamp mallee L / L L / MT Eucalyptus torelliana cadaga / / ? ? ? ?T Eucalyptus torquata coral gum L L L M / MT Eucalyptus viminalis manna gum L L L M / MT Eucalyptus woodwardii lemon flowered gum VL ? L ? ? LP Eucomis bicolor hybrids pineapple lily M ? ? ? ? ?T Eucryphia glutinosa hardy eucryphia M ? ? ? ? ? 75
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Eucryphia x intermedia eucryphia M M ? ? ? ?T Eucryphia lucida (billardieri) leatherwood M M ? ? ? ?S Euonymous alatus burning bush M M ? ? ? ?Gc Euonymus fortunei purple winter creeper M M M M M /V Euonymus fortunei radicans winter creeper M M / M M MS Euonymus japonicus evergreen euonymus L L M M M MS Euonymus kiautschovicus euonymus L ? ? ? ? ?P Eupatorium spp. mistflower M ? M ? M MP Euphorbia characias euphorbia L L L L ? ?TS Euphorbia cotinifolia Carribean copper plant / / M / / /P Euphorbia cyparissias cypress spurge L ? ? ? ? ?P Euphorbia dulsis euphorbia (dulsis) M ? ? ? ? ?S Euphorbia lambii tree euphorbia ? ? ? ? ? ?S Euphorbia milii crown of thorns / L L L / LP Euphorbia myrsinites euphorbia L ? L L ? ?P Euphorbia polychroma (epithymoides) cushion spurge L L ? ? ? ?S Euphorbia pulcherrima poinsettia / / L M / MS Euphorbia rigida euphorbia / L VL L / LP Euphorbia segueriana niciciana euphorbia ? ? ? ? ? ?S Euphorbia tirucalli milk bush / / VL / / LSP Euryops pectinatus euryops/shrub daisy L L L L M MSP Euryops pectinatus viridis green euryops M M M M M MP Evolvulus pilosus (nuttallianus) evolvulus ? ? M M / ?S Fabiana imbricana pichi ? ? M ? ? ?T Fagus sylvatica European beech M H / / / /P Fallopia japonica Japanese knotweed ? ? ? ? ? ?S Fallugia paradoxa Apache plume / ? VL VL L LP Farfugium japonicum (Ligularia) farfugium/ligularia H H H ? ? ? Fargesia murielae see Thamnocalamus spathaceusSP Fargesia nitida (See Sinarundinaria nitida)P Fascicularia pitcairnifolia fascicularia ? ? L ? ? ?V X Fatshedera lizei tree ivy M M M H / HS Fatsia japonica Japanese aralia M M M M / H Feijoa sellowiana (See Acca sellowiana)S Felicia amelloides blue marguerite M M M M / MS Felicia fruticosa shrub aster L L L M / MS Ferocactus spp. barrel cactus VL VL VL L L LP Festuca californica California fescue L M M M M MP Festuca cinerea fescue (cinerea) L ? M ? ? ?P Festuca idahoensis Idaho fescue VL L ? ? ? ?P Festuca muelleri Muellers fescue ? ? M M ? ?P Festuca glauca blue fescue L L M M M MP Gc Festuca rubra creeping red fescue L / H H / /P Festuca tenuifolia fescue (tenuifolia) M ? ? ? ? ?T Ficus auriculata Roxburgh fig / / M M / /T Ficus barteri banana-leaf fig ? ? ? ? ? ?TS Ficus benjamina weeping Chinese banyan / / M / / MT Ficus carica edible fig M M M M M M LTS Ficus elastica rubber plant / / M M / /T Ficus florida Florida fig / / M M / /T Ficus macrophylla Moreton Bay fig / / M M / /T Ficus microcarpa Indian laurel fig/ laurel fig M / M M / MT Ficus microcarpa Green Gem" green gem ficus M / L M / MT Ficus microphylla (See Ficus rubiginosa)V Ficus pumila creeping fig M M M M M MT Ficus retusa nitida (See Ficus microcarpa) 76
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Ficus rubiginosa rusty leaf fig M / M M / / Filipendula hexapetela see Filipendula vulgarisP Filipendula vulgaris Meadowsweet H ? ? ? ? ?S Forestiera neomexicana desert olive ? ? L L L LS Forsythia X intermedia forsythia L L M M M MS Fothergilla gardenii dwarf fothergilla M M ? ? ? ?S Fouquieria splendens ocotillo / / VL L L LGc Fragaria spp. strawberry M M M M M MP Francoa ramosa bridal wreath M M M M / /P Francoa sonchifolia bridal wreath M ? M ? / /TS Franklinia alatamaha (Gordonia franklin tree M / / / / / altmahama) franklin treeT Fraxinus americana white ash M M / / / /T Fraxinus griffithi Griffith ash ? ? ? ? ? ?T Fraxinus latifolia Oregon ash M M / / / /T Fraxinus Moraine moraine ash M M / / M MT Fraxinus oxycarpa Raywood raywood ash M M M M M /T Fraxinus pennsylvanicaMarshal green ash M M / / M /T Fraxinus uhdei evergreen ash M M M M H HT Fraxinus velutina Arizona ash M M M M M MT Fraxinus velutina Modesto Modesto ash M M M M M MS Fremontodendron spp. flannel bush VL VL VL L / /P Fuchsia spp. fuchsia M M H H / /S Furcraea spp. furcraea L / / L L ?P Gaillardia grandiflora blanket flower L L M M M MP Galium odoratum sweet woodruff M M H / / /P Galtonia candicans summer hyacinth ? ? ? ? ? ?S Galvesia juncea Baja bush-snapdragon / / VL L / MS Galvesia speciosa island bush snapdragon L L VL L ? MS Gamolepis chrysanthemumoides gamolepis M M M M / HS Gardenia spp. gardenia M M M M / MS Garrya eliptica coast silktassel L L L M / /S Garrya flavescens ashy silktassel / ? L L / /S Garrya fremontii Fremont silktassel L L VL / / /P Gasteria spp. mother-in-laws tongue etc. L L L L / ?S Gaultheria mucronata (Pernettya prickly heath M ? ? ? ? ? mucronata)Gc Gaultheria procumbens creeping wintergreen M M / / / /S Gaultheria shallon salal M M / H / /P Gaura lindheimeri gaura M M M M M MGc Gazania spp. gazania M M M M M MT Geijera parviflora Australian willow M M L M M MV Gelsemium rankinii swamp jessamine ? ? ? ? ? ?V Gelsemium sempervirens Carolina jessamine L L M M / MGc Genista lydia Lydia woadwaxen M ? M ? / /Gc Genista pilosa (Vancouver Gold) Vancouver gold genista M M / M ? MS Genista spp. broom (Genista) L L M M / M L LP Gentiana scabra procumbens gentian H ? ? ? ? ?P Geranium spp. cranesbill M M M M M MP Gerbera jamesonii Transvaal daisy M M M M / MP Geum spp. avens M M M M M /T Ginkgo biloba maiden hair tree M M M M M ?P Gladiolus spp. gladiolus L L L L / /P Gladiolus hybrids & selections gladiolus M M M M / /P Gc Glechoma hederaceae ground ivy L M M H / /T Gleditsia triacanthos honey locust L L M L L LP Globularia cordifolia creeping globe daisy L ? ? ? ? ?P Globularia X indubia globe daisy M ? ? ? ? ?P Goniolimon incanum (Limonium statice L L L M / M speciosum) 77
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Goniolimon tataricum (Limonum Tartarian statice L ? M ? ? ? tataricum)T Gordonia axillaris gordonia H ? ? ? ? ?T Gordonia lasianthus lob lolly bay M ? H ? ? ?S Graptopetalum spp. graptopetalum VL L L L / MS Grevillea spp. grevillea L L L L / MT Grevillea robusta silk oak L L L M / MS Grewia occidentalis lavender star flower M M M M / MP Grindelia camporum gum plant ? ? L ? ? ?S Griselinia littoralis kapuka M / M / / /S Griselinia lucida puka M / M / / /P Gunnera magellanica gunnera H / H H / /S Gutierrezia sarothrae snakeweed ? ? / / L LP Gypsophila cerastioides babys breath ? L M M / /P Gypsophila paniculata babys breath L L M M / MP Gypsophila repens creeping babys breath M M M M / / Habranthus andersonii (See H. / tubispanthus)P Habranthus robustus (Zephranthes) pampas lily M M M M / M Habranthus texanus (See H. tubispanthus)P Habranthus tubispathus habranthus M M M M / /S Hakea laurina sea urchin tree L L L L / /S Hakea suaveolens sweet hakea L L L L / /P Hakonechloa macra hakone grass M M ? ? ? ?S X Halmiocistus B866sahucci halmiocistus L ? L L ? ?S X Halmiocistus wintonensis halmiocistus L ? L L ? ?S Halimium lasianthum sun rose L L L ? ? ?S Hamamelis virginiana common witch hazel M M / / / /S Hamelia patens Texas firecracker bush ? ? ? ? / MVS Hardenbergia comptoniana western Australia coral pea M M M M / MVS Hardenbergia violacea lilac vine M M M M / MT Harpephyllum caffrum Kaffir plum M / M M / /T Harpullia arborea tulipwood / / M / / /P Haworthia spp. haworthia L L L L / LS Hebe spp. hebe M M M M / /GC V Hedera canariensis Algerian ivy M M M M M M LGC V Hedera helix English ivy M M M M M M L LGc V Hedera nepalensis Himalayan ivy M ? ? ? ? ?P Hedychium coccinium red ginger lily / / H H / HP Hedychium coronarium white ginger lily M / H H / HP Hedychium flavescens yellow ginger L ? H H / HP Hedychium garnerianum Kahili ginger M / H H / HP Hedychium greenei red ginger / / H H / HP Helenium bigelovii Bigelow sneezeweed L L ? ? ? ?P Helenium hoopesii orange sneezeweed L L ? ? ? ?S Helianthemum appenium white rock rose ? ? ? ? ? ?P Helianthemum nummularium helianthemum L L L L / /P Helianthus angustifolius swamp sunflower H ? ? ? ? ?P Helianthus maximiliani Maximilian sunflower M L ? ? ? ?P Helichrysum bracteatum straw flower ? L M M ? ?P Helichrysum petiolare licorice plant ? M M M ? ? LS Helichrysum rosemarinifolium ( See Ozothamnus roasemarinifolius)P Helictotrichon sempervirens blue oat grass L L M M M MP Heliopsis helianthoides scabra golden sunflower H ? ? ? ? ?P Heliotropum arborescens common heliotrope M M M M ? MP Helleborus spp. Christmas/Lenten rose M M M M / /P Hemerocallis spp. day lily M M M M M MGc Herniaria glabra green carpet H M M M / /S Hesperaloe funifera Coahuilan hesperaloe / / VL L L L 78
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Hesperaloe parviflora red/ yellow yucca / / VL L L LS Hesperantha spp. hesperantha L ? ? L ? ?S Heterocentron elegans Spanish shawl / / ? ? ? ?S Heteromeles arbutifolia toyon VL VL L L / /P Heterotheca villosa (chrysopsis villosa) hairy golden aster L ? ? ? ? ?P Heuchera maxima island alum root M / M M / /P Heuchera micrantha alum root M M M M M MP Heuchera sanguinea coral bells M M M M M MP X Heucherella tiarelloides Bridget Bridget bloom heucherella H H M ? ? ? BloomP Hibanobambusa tranquillans inyouchikuzoku H ? ? ? ? ?S Hibbertia aspera hibbertia (aspera) M / ? ? ? ?S Hibbertia cuniformis cut leaf Guinea flower M M M ? / MS Gc Hibbertia pedunculata hibbertia (pedunculata) M / ? ? MV Hibbertia scandens Guinea gold vine M M M M / MS Hibbertia vestita hibbertia (vestita) M / ? ? ? ?P Hibiscus moscheutos mallow rose M M M ? ? ?S Hibiscus mutabilis confederate rose M M ? M ? ?S Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Chinese hibiscus M M M M / HS Hibiscus syriacus rose of Sharon L M M M M MP Hibiscus trionum flower-of-an-hour M ? ? ? ? ?P Hippeastrum spp. amaryllis M M M M ? ?P Hippolytia herderi (Tanacetum herderi) hippolytia ? ? ? ? ? ?S Holodiscus discolor sea foam L ? M M / /P Homeria spp. cape tulip ? ? M M ? ? Homoglossum watsonium (See Gladiolus spp.)P Hosta spp. plantain lily M M / / / /P Houttuynia cordata Chameleon chameleon houttuynia M M M ? ? ?S Howea forsterana Kentia palm / / M M / /P Hunnemannia fumarifolia Mexican tulip poppy L L M M ? ?SV Hydrangea anomala petiolaris climbing hydrangea M H / H / /S Hydrangea arborescens snowball hydrangea M H ? ? ? ?S Hydrangea aspera villosa lacecap hydrangea M H ? ? ? ?S Hydrangea macrophylla hydrangea M H M H H HS Hydrangea paniculata Grandiflora peegee hydrangea M ? M ? ? ?S Hydrangea quercifolia oakleaf hydrangea M ? M M H HS Hydrangea serrata blue bird hydrangea H ? ? ? ? ?S Hymenoclea monogyra cheese bush ? ? ? ? VL VLT Hymenosporum flavum sweet shade M / M M / / Hymenoxys acaulis (See Tetraneuris acaulis)S Hypericum beanii Henry St. Johns wort M M M M M /Gc Hypericum calycinum Aarons beard M M M M M /S Gc Hypericum empetrifolium nanum hypericim (e nanum) M ? ? ? ? /SP Hypericum frondosum hypericum ( frondosum) M ? ? ? ? /S Hypericum Hidecote St.Johnswort M M M M M /S Hypericum X inodorum Albury Purple Albury purple hypericum M ? ? ? ? /P Hypericum kelleri Keller hypericum M ? ? ? ? /SP Hypericum X moseranum gold flower M M M M M /S Hypericum olympicum olympic hypericum L ? ? ? ? /S Hypericum Rowallane Rowall hypericum M ? ? ? ? /PS Hypoestes aristata ribbon bush ? ? M ? ? ?P Hyptis emoryi desert lavender ? ? ? ? / LP Iberis gibraltarica Gibraltar candytuft M ? ? ? ? ?P Iberis sempervirens evergreen candy tuft M M M M M MS Ilex X altaclarensis Wilsonii Wilson holly M M M M M MS Ilex aquifolium English holly L M M M M M LS Ilex cornuta Burfordii Burford holly L M M M M M 79
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Ilex crenata box-leaved holly M ? M M ? ?S Ilex dimorphophilla Okinawan holly M M M M / ?P Ilex integra Nepal holly ? ? ? ? ? ?S Ilex X meserveae blue boy/girl etc. cvs. M M M M / ?S Ilex verticillata winterberry ? ? ? ? ? ?S Ilex vomitoria yaupon L M L L M MP Illicium floridanum Alba white Florida anise-tree M ? ? ? ? ?PS Impatiens sodeni (oliveri) poor mans rhododendron M / H / / /S Impatiens uguensis impatiens (uguensis) H ? H ? ? ?P Imperata cylindrica Rubra Japanese blood grass H H M M ? M LS Indigofera decora (incarnata) Chinese indigo M ? ? ? ? ?P Inula ensifolia inula M ? ? ? ? ?S Iochroma cyanea violet tubeflower M ? M M / /S Iochroma fuchsioides red tubeflower M ? M M ? ?P Ipheion uniflorum (Tritelia) spring star flower L L L ? ? ?V Ipomea indica (acuminata) blue dawn flower L M L M / MP Ipomopsis rubra standing cypress L ? ? ? ? ?P Iris spp. Douglas iris hybrids L L M M H /P Iris spp. bearded iris L L M M M MP Iris spp. Siberian iris M M H ? ? ?P Iris spp. Japanese iris H H H H / /P Iris spp. Spanish/Dutch iris M M M M M MS Isocoma spp. (Haplopappus) goldenbush ? ? VL VL VL VLP Isolepis cernua (Scirpus cernuus) low bull rush H H H H H HPS Isoplexis chalcantha isoplexis L ? ? ? ? ?S Isopogon formosus rose cone flower/drumsticks L ? ? ? ? ?S Itea ilicifolia holly sweetspire M M M M ? ?Gc Iva hayesiana poverty weed VL VL VL L / /P Ixia spp. African corn lily L l M M ? ?S Ixora coccinia jungle geranium ? ? M ? / ?T Jacaranda mimosifolia jacaranda M M M M / MSV Jasminum angulare South African jasmine ? / M ? ? ?SV Jasminum azoricum lemon scented jasmine M ? M ? ? ?SV Jasminum beesianum jasmine (beesianum) M ? ? ? ? ?S Jasminum floridum showy jasmine L M M M / M Jasminum grandiflorum see J officinale f.grandiflorumS Jasminum humile Italian jasmine L M M M / MV Jasminum leratii jasmine (leratii) M ? M M / /S Jasminum mesnyi primrose jasmine L M M M / MS Jasminum nitidum angel wing jasmine L M M M / MS Jasminum nudiflorum winter jasmine L L ? ? ? ?S Jasminum officinale f. grandiflorum common jasmine L L M M ? ?S Jasminum parkeri dwarf jasmine L L M ? ? ?V Jasminum polyanthum pink jasmine M M M M / MSV Jasminum sambac Arabian jasmine M ? M ? ? MV Jasminum X stephanense Stephan jasmine M ? ? ? ? ?T Jatropha integerrima spicy jatropha ? ? L ? ? LT Jubaea chilensis Chilean wine palm L M L M / /T Juglans californica S. California black walnut M / L L / /T Juglans hindsii California black walnut M M / L / /T Juglans major Arizona walnut ? ? ? ? ? MT Juglans nigra eastern black walnut M M / / / /T Juglans regia English walnut M M M M / /P Juncus spp. rush H H M M ? ? LP Juniperus californica California juniper L L L L L LT Juniperus scopulorumTolleson Tollesons juniper L L M M M MT Juniperus spp. juniper L L L M M MS Justicia aurea yellow plume flower ? ? H H ? ?S Justicia brandegeana shrimp plant M M M M / MS Justicia californica chuparosa M / VL L L MS Justicia candicans red justicia ? ? ? ? ? ? 80
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVES Justicia carnea Brazilian plume flower M H H H / HP Justicia leonardii justicia (leonardii) ? ? ? ? ? ?S Justicia sonorea Sonoran justicia ? ? ? ? ? LS Justicia spicigera Mexican honeysuckle / ? L L / LP Kalanchoe spp. kalanchoe L L L L / MGc P Keckiella antirhinnoides yellow penstemmon ? ? L L / /Gc P Keckiella cordifolia heart-leaved penstemmon ? ? VL L / /V Kennedia nigricans black coral pea L ? ? ? ? ?V Kennedia rubicunda dusky coral pea L ? ? ? ? ?S Kerria japonica Japanese rose M M ? M M ?P Kirengeshoma koreana yellow waxbells H ? ? ? ? ?P Kirengeshoma palmata yellow waxbells H ? ? ? ? ?P Kniphofia triangularis (galpinii) coral poker M M L L / MP Kniphofia uvaria red hot poker M M L L / MP Koelaria glauca blue hair grass M ? M M M ?T Koelreuteria bipinnata Chinese flame tree M M M M / MT Koelreuteria elegans Chinese flame tree M M M M / MT Koelreuteria paniculata golden rain tree M M L L M MS Kolkwitzia amabalis beauty bush L M M M M /S Kunzea spp. kunzea L / M ? ? ?V Labab purpureus (Dolichos labab) hyacinth bean M M M ? ? ?T Laburnum X watereri golden chain tree M M / / / /P Lachenalia spp. cowslip L L ? ? ? ?TS Lagerstroemia X fauerei crape myrtle L L M M M MTS Lagerstroemia indica crape myrtle L L M M M MT Lagunaria patersonii primrose tree L / L L / /S Lambertia intermis lambertia L ? ? ? ? ?P Gc Lamiastrum galeobdolon yellow archangel M M M ? ? ?Gc Lamium maculatum spotted deadnettle M M M ? ? ?Gc Lampranthus spp. ice plant (Lampranthus) L L L L / LS Lantana camara lantana L L L L / MS Gc Lantana montevidensis (sellowiana) trailing lantana L L L L / MT Larix decidua European larch M / / / / /P Larrea tridentata creosote VL VL VL L L LP Gc Laurentia fluviatilis blue star creeper M M M M ? MTS Laurus nobilis sweet bay L L L L M MT Laurus Saratoga Saratoga laurel L L L L M MS Lavandula spp. lavender L L L L M MS Lavatera assurgentiflora tree mallow L M L L / MS Lavatera hybrids lavatera L L M M ? ?S Lavatera maritima bush mallow L L M M ? ?S Lechenaultia formosa orange L ? ? ? ? ? Lemaireocereus thurberi (See Stenocereus thurberi)S Leonotis leonurus lions tail L L L L M MP Leontopodium alpinium eidelweiss M M ? ? ? ?S Lepechinia hastata Mexican pitcher sage L ? M ? ? ?TS Leptospermum laevigatum Australian tea tree L L L L / /TS Leptospermum petersonii lemon scented tea tree L ? M M / /TS Leptospermum polygalifolium tea tree ? ? ? ? / /T Leptospermum rotundifolium tea tree L L ? L / /S Gc Leptospermum rupestre (humifusum) tea tree L ? ? ? / /TS Leptospermum scoparium New Zealand tea tree M M M M / /T Leucadendron argenteum Silver tree L / L / / /T Leucadendron galpinii Galpins leucadendron ? / ? ? ? ?T Leucadendron hybrids hybrid leucadendron L ? ? ? ? ?P Leucanthemum X superbum Shasta daisy M M M M M MP Leucojum aestivum summer snowflake ? L M M ? ?S Leucophyllum spp. purple sage, Texas ranger etc. L L L L L LS Leucospermum cordifolium nodding pincushion / / L / / /S Leucothoe fontanesiana drooping laurel M ? ? ? ? ? 81
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Lewisia columbiana rupicola columbia lewisia L / ? ? ? ?P Lewisia cotyledon bitter root L / ? ? ? ?P Lewisia hybrids lewisia L / ? ? ? ?P Leymus spp. (also see Elymus spp.) wild rye VL VL M M ? ?P Liatris spicata gay feather M M M M M MP Libertia spp. libertia L ? M ? ? ?P Ligularia tussilaginea (See Farfugium japonicum)S Ligustrum japonicum Japanese privet M M M M M MT Ligustrum lucidum glossy privet L L M M M M LS Ligustrum ovalifolium California privet L L M M ? ?S Ligustrum X vicaryi golden privet L L M M ? ?P Lilium (garden hybrids) lily M M M M M MP Limonium commune var. californicum coastal statice L L L M / /P Limonium perezii statice L L L M / M LP Limonium speciosum (See Goniolemon incanum)P Limonium tataricum (See Goniolemon tataricum)P Linaria purpurea toadflax L M L M M MP Linaria supina toadflax ? ? ? ? ? ?P Linum spp. flax VL VL M ? M MT Liquidambar styraciflua sweet gum M M M M M /T Liriodendron tulipifera tulip tree M H M H / /P Liriope spp. lilyturf M M M M M MT Lithocarpus densiflorus tanbark oak L / L L / /T Lithocarpus edulis (Pasania edulis) Japanese false oakP Lithodora diffusa heavenly blue M M / / / /T Livistona australis Australia fountain palm / / M M / /T Livistona chinensis Chinese fan palm ? / M M / /T Livistona mariae central Australian fan palm / / ? ? ? ?T Livistona rigida livistona (rigida) / / ? ? ? ?P Lobelia Brightness brightness lobelia H H H ? ? ?P Lobelia chinensis lobelia (chinensis) H ? ? ? ? ?P Lobelia fulgens Mexican cardinal flower H H H ? ? ?SP Lobelia laxiflora Mexican bush lobelia ? ? VL VL ? MS Lobelia ricardii lobelia (ricardii) ? ? M ? ? ?P Lobelia richmondensis perennial lobelia M ? M ? ? ?P Lobelia siphilitica great blue lobelia ? ? ? ? ? ?S Lobostemon fruiticosus eight-day-healing bush / ? L ? ? ?P Lomandra longifolia spiny headed mat rush ? ? M ? ? ?V Lonicera confusa honeysuckle (confusa) ? ? M ? ? ?V Lonicera hildebrandiana giant Burmese honeysuckle M M M M M MS Lonicera hispidula honeysuckle (hispidula) L ? L VL ? ?V Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle M M L L M M LV Gc Lonicera japonica Halliana Halls honeysuckle M M L L M M LS Lonicera nitida box honeysuckle L M / M / /V Lonicera periclymenum flowering woodbine L L ? ? ? ?V Lonicera sempervirens trumpet honeysuckle M M / M M MS Lonicera subspicata chaparral honeysuckle L ? L VL ? ?V Lonicera tatarica tatarian honeysuckle M ? ? ? ? ?T Lophostemon confertus Brisbane box M / M M / /S Loropetalum chinense fringe flower L M M ? ? ?Gc Lotus corniculatus birdsfoot trefoil L M M M / M LP Lotus scoparius deer weed VL VL VL VL L LST Luculia pinceana luculia M / ? ? ? ?S Luma apiculata palo Colorado M / M M / /S Lupinus albifrons silver lupine VL L / L / /S Lupinus arboreus coastal bush lupine L / L / / / LS Lupinus excubitus grape soda lupine VL VL ? ? ? ?P Lupinus (Russell hybrids) Russell lupines M M / / / / 82
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Lupinus sparsiflorus arroyo lupin ? ? ? ? ? ?P Luzula nivea snowy woodrush M ? ? ? ? ?P Luzula purpurea purple woodrush M ? ? ? ? ?P Luzula sylvatica greater woodrush M ? ? ? ? ?P Lychnis alpina alpine campion M M ? ? ? ?P Lychnis chalcedonica Maltese cross M M M M M MP Lychnis coronaria rose campion/crown pink L L L L M MS Lycianthus rantonnetii Paraguay nightshade/blue potato M M M M / M bush MS Lycium exertum boxthorn / ? ? ? ? ?S Lycium fremontii wolfberry / L L L L LT Lyonothamnus floribundus Catalina ironwood L / VL L / /TS Lysiloma candida palo blanca / / ? ? / MTS Lysiloma microphylla var. thornberi feather bush ? / L L / MP Gc Lysimachia spp. loosestrife/moneywort H H H H / / LT Macadamia spp. macadamia nut M / M M / /V Macfadyena unguis-cati cats claw L L L L L LS Mackaya bella forest bell bush M ? M M / /P Macleaya spp. plume poppy M ? M ? ? ?T Magnolia grandiflora southern magnolia M M M M / HT Magnolia hybrids hybrid magnolias M M ? ? ? ?TS Magnolia X loebneri loebner magnolia M M ? ? ? ?TS Magnolia sieboldii oyama magnolia M M ? ? ? ?T Magnolia X soulangiana saucer magnolia M M M M / /T Magnolia stellata star magnolia M M M M / /T Magnolia X veitchii veitch magnolia M M ? ? ?S Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grape M M M M M MS Mahonia bealei leatherleaf mahonia M M M M M MS Mahonia fortunei chinese mahonia M M ? ? ? ?S Mahonia Golden Abundance golden abundance mahonia L L L M M MS Mahonia lomariifolia Chinese holly grape M M L M M MS Mahonia nervosa longleaf mahonia M ? ? M ? ?S Mahonia nevinii Nevin mahonia VL L L L M MS Mahonia pinnata & cvs. California holly grape L L M M M MGc Mahonia repens creeping mahonia L L L M M /P Maianthemum dilatatum May lily M H ? ? ? ?S Maireana sedifolia pearl bluebush ? ? L ? ? ?S Malacothamnus clementinus San Clemente Island bush mallowS Malacothamnus fasciculatus bush mallow VL L VL L / /S Malacothamnus fremontii Fremonts bush mallow VL L ? ? ? ?Gc Maleophora spp. ice plant (Maleophora) L L L L / L LS Malosma laurina (Rhus laurina) laurel sumac VL L VL L / /T Malus spp.(edible) apple M M M M M /T Malus hybrids crabapple M M / M M /S Malvaviscus arboreus Turks cap M ? M M / /V Mandevilla laxa Chilean jasmine M / M M / MS Mandevilla splendens mandevilla M / M M / MV Mandevilla cvs. Alice Dupont etc. M / M H / H Mandevilla suaveolens (See M. laxa)P Manfreda spp. manfreda L ? ? ? ? ?T Markhamia lutea (hildebrandtii) markhamia ? / M / / /V Mascagnia lilacina purple orchid vine ? ? ? ? ? MV Mascagnia macroptera yellow orchid vine ? ? ? ? ? MP Matteuccia struthiopteris ostrich fern ? ? M H ? ? Maurandya antirriniflora (See Asarina antirriniflora) Maurandya barclaiana (See Asarina barclaiana) Maurandya erubescens (See Asarina erubescens) 83
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Maytenus boaria mayten tree M M M M / /ST Maytenus phyllanthoides mangle dulce ? ? ? ? ? ?P Gc Mazus reptans mazus M H M H ? ?TS Melaleuca armillaris bracelet honey-myrtle VL / L M / MTS Melaleuca decussata totem poles (lilac melaleuca) VL / L M / MTS Melaleuca elliptica granite honey-myrtle VL / L M / MT Melaleuca ericifolia heath melaleuca L / ? ? ? ?S Melaleuca fulgens melaleuca (fulgens) L ? L M / MS Melaleuca huegelii chenile honey-myrtle ? / L M / MS Melaleuca incana grey honey-myrtle L ? L M / MT Melaleuca lanceolata black tea ? L ? L / /T Melaleuca linariifolia flax leaf paper bark L L L L / /T Melaleuca nesophila pink melaleuca L L L L / /T Melaleuca quinquinervia (See Melaleuca virididfolia var rubifolia)T Melaleuca rhaphiophylla swamp paper bark ? / ? L / /T Melaleuca squamea swamp honey-myrtle ? ? L M / MT Melaleuca styphelioides prickly-leaved paperback L L L M / MT Melaleuca thymifolia thyme honey-myrtle L L ? ? ? ?T Melaleuca viridiflora var. rubiflora cajeput tree L L M M / M LS Melaleuca wilsonii Wilson melaleuca L L ? ? ? ?P Melampodium leucanthum blackfoot daisy L / ? L L LT Melia azedarach chinaberry VL L VL L L LS Melianthus major honey bush L M M M / MP Gc Melissa officinalis lemon balm ? M M ? ? ?Gc P Mentha spp. mint L M M M M M LV Merremia aurea merremia (aurea) ? ? ? ? / MV Merremia quinquefolia merremia (quinquefolia) ? ? ? ? / MT Meryta sinclairii puka / / M ? / /T Metasequoia glyptostroboides dawn redwood H H H H / /T Metrosideros excelsa New Zealand Christmas tree L / M M / /S Metrosideros collinia Lehua of Hawaii ? ? ? ? ? ? Metrosideros tomentosa (see M. excelsa)T Michelia champaca fragrant Himalayan champaca M ? M ? / /T Michelia doltsopa wong-lan M M M M / /S Michelia figo banana shrub M M M H / HT Michelia X foggi Jack Fogg Jack Fogg michelia M ? ? ? ? ?S Gc Microbiota decussata Siberian cypress M ? ? ? ? ?P Microlepia strigosa lace fern M / M H / /P Milium effusum golden wood millet M ? ? ? ? ?V Milletia reticulata evergreen wisteria M ? M M / /V Milletia taiwanensis Chinese evergreen wisteria H ? ? ? ? ?S Mimulus spp. (shrubby) monkey flower L L L L / /P Mimulus spp. (herbaceous) monkey flower H H H H / /P Mirabilis california wishbone bush ? ? M ? ? ?P Mirabilis jalapa four oclock VL L / L M MP Mirabilis multiflora giant four oclock ? L ? ? ? ?P Miscanthus sinensis eulalia grass H H M M M MP Miscanthus transmorrisonensis evergreen eulalia H H M M M MP Molinia caerulea Moor grass M ? ? ? ? ?P Monarda didyma bee balm M M M M M MP Monardella linoides ssp. viminea San Diego willowy mint L ? M ? ? ?P Monardella macrantha scarlet monardella L ? ? ? ? ?P Monardella odoratissima mountain pennyroyal / ? M ? ? ?P Monardella villosa coyote mint VL VL VL L ? MP Monochaetum volcanicum monochaetum M ? ? ? ? ?S Montanoa grandiflora daisy tree M ? M ? ? ?P Moraea spp. (summer growing) moraea M M ? ? ? ?P Moraea spp.(winter growing) morea VL VL ? ? ? ?P Morina longifolia whorlflower M ? ? ? ? ? 84
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Morus alba white mulberry M M M M M MGc V Muehlenbeckia axillaris creeping wire vine M M M M / MGc V Muehlenbeckia complexa mattress vine L L M M / MP Muhlenbergia capillaris hairy awn muhly L ? M ? M MP Muhlenbergia dumosa bamboo muhly L ? M M M MP Muhlenbergia emersleyi bull grass M ? ? ? ? MP Muhlenbergia lindheimeri Lindheimer muhly L ? ? M ? MP Muhlenbergia pubescens soft muhly L ? ? ? ? MP Muhlenbergia rigens deer grass L M L M M MS Murraya paniculata orange jessamine / H M M / MP Muscari macrocarpum grape hyacinth VL VL VL VL M HSP Musa spp. banana H H H H / HTS Myoporum laetum myoporum L M M M / / LS Gc Myoporum X Pacificum pacifica saltbush L L L M / /S Gc Myoporum parvifolium & cvs. myoporum L L L L / MP Myosotis scorpioides forget-me-not M M / M / H LS Myrica californica Pacific wax myrtle L L L M / /S Myrica pennsylvanica bayberry M M ? ? / /S Myrica rubra Chinese strawberrry tree ? ? ? ? ? ?S Myrsine africana African boxwood L L L M / /S Myrtus communis true myrtle L L L M M MT Nageia nagi (Podocarpus nagi) Nageia M M M M ? MS Nandina domestica heavenly bamboo L L L M M MS Nandina domestica Purpurea heavenly bamboo (Nana) M M M M M MP Narcissus spp. daffodil VL VL L L L LP Nassella cernua nodding needlegrass VL L VL VL VL LP Nassella lepida foothill needlegrass VL L VL VL VL LP Nassella pulchra purple needlegrass VL L VL VL VL LP Nassella tenuissima Texas needle grass ? ? VL VL VL LP Nauplius sericeus (Asteriscus sericeus) Canary island daisy L ? VL / / /T Neodypsis decaryi triangle palm ? / M M / /P Neomarica caerulea poor mans orchid L ? M ? ? ?P Nepeta spp. catmint/catnip L M M M M MP Nephrolepis cordifolia southern sword fern M M M M M MP Nephrolepis exaltata Boston fern / M M M M MP Nerine spp. nerine L L L L M MS Nerium oleander oleander L L L L M M LP Nierembergia hippomanica cup flower M M M M / MTS Nolina recurvata (Beaucarnea bottle palm / / L L / L recurvata)SP Nolina spp. bear grass VL VL VL VL L LT Nyssa sylvatica sour gum/tupelo M M M H / /S Ochna serrulata birds eye bush L / M M / /S Odontonema strictum firespike ? ? ? ? ? ?Gc Odontospermum hybrida gold coin ? L M M ? ?P Oenanthe javanica water dropwort H ? ? ? ? ? L Oenothera berlandieri (See Oenothera speciosa)P Oenothera caespitosa tufted (white) evening primrose L ? / L L L Oenothera cherianthifolia (See Camissonia cherianthifolia)P Oenothera fruiticosa golden sundrops M ? VL / / / Oenothera missouriensis (See O. macrocarpa)P Gc Oenothera macrocarpa Ozark sundrops M M L ? L LP Oenothera pallida evening primrose (pallida) L ? L ? L LP Oenothera rosea evening primrose (rosea) M ? L ? ? ?Gc P Oenothera speciosa Mexican/white evening primrose L L L L M MGc P Oenothera speciosa Rosea pink evening primrose L L L L M MGc P Oenothera stubbei Baja evening primrose L L L L L L 85
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE Oenothera tetragona (See O. fruticosa spp. glauca)T Olea europaea olive VL VL L L M M LT Olmediella betschleriana Guatemalan holly M / M M / /T Olneya tesota desert ironwood / / / / L LP Omphalodes cappadocica navelwort M M M ? ? ?P Omphalodes verna creeping forget-me-not M ? ? ? ? ?P Onoclea sensibilis sensitive fern H H M ? ? ?P Ophiopogon clarkii Clark lily turf M M M M M MP Ophiopogon jaburan giant lily turf M M M M M MP Ophiopogon japonicus mondo grass M M M M M MP Ophiopogon planiscapus var. black mondo grass M M M M M M nigrescensS Opuntia spp. prickly pear/cholla VL VL VL L L LP Origanum spp. dittany/oregano etc. M M L L M LP Ornithogalum thyrsoides chincherinchee ? ? L L ? ?P Orthosiphon labiatus shell bush M ? ? ? ? ?P Orthrosanthus chimboracensis orthrosantus L ? ? ? ? ? centroamericanusP Orthrosanthus multiflorus orthrosantus L ? ? ? ? ?S Osmanthus spp. sweet olive/osmanthus M M M M M MP Osmunda cinnamomea cinnamon fern H H H H / /P Osmunda regalis royal/flowering fern H H H ? / /Gc Osteospermum spp. African daisy L L L L / MPS Otatea acuminata (aztecorum) Mexican weeping bamboo M ? M M / HP Otholobium fruiticans blue cape pea ? ? M ? ? ?P Oxalis spp. sorrel/shamrock M M M M ? ?P Oxera pulchella royal climber ? / M M / /T Oxydendrum arboreum sourwood tree M M / ? ? /P Oxypetalum caeruleum (See Tweedia caesulea)S Ozothamnus rosemarinifolius ozothamnus M ? L ? ? ? (Helichrysum)T Pachycormis discolor elephant tree ? ? L ? / LT Pachypodium lamerei Madagascar palm ? / L M / MGc Pachysandra terminalis Japanese spurge M M M / M /P Paeonia spp. peony M M / / / /V Pandorea jasminoides bower vine M / M M / /V Pandorea pandorana wonga wonga vine M / M M / /P Panicum virgatum cvs. switch grass M ? ? ? ? ?P Panicum (native spp.) switch grass ? ? L L VL VLP Papaver orientale oriental poppy M M M M M HP Papaver pilosum poppy L / M ? ? ?P Parahebe spp. veronica/speedwell M ? M ? ? ?T Parkinsonia aculeata Mexican palo verde/ Jerusalem VL VL L L L L thornT Parkinsonia florida (Cercidium floridum) blue palo verde VL VL VL L / LT Parrotia persica Persian witch hazel M ? / ? ? /V Parthenocissus henryana silver vein creeper M ? M ? ? ?Gc V Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper M M M M M MGc V Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy M M M M M M Pasania edulis (See Lithocarpus edulis)V Passiflora spp. passion vine M M M M / MP Pattersonia drummondii pattersonia M ? M ? ? ?T Paulownia kawakamii sapphire dragon tree ? ? M M ? /T Paulownia tomentosa empress tree M H M M ? /S Pavonia praemorsa yellow mallow ? ? M ? ? ?P Pelargonium cordifolium heartleaf geranium M ? M M ? ?P Pelargonium domesticum Martha Washington pelargonium M M M M / M 86
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Pelargonium X hortorum garden geranium L L M M / MGc P Pelargonium peltatum ivy geranium M M M M / MP Gc Pelargonium sidoides geranium (sidoides) M ? L ? ? ?P Pelargonium tomentosum peppermint-scented geranium M M L M ? ?P Pellaea mucronata birds foot fern L ? M ? ? ?P Pellaea rotundifolia button fern M ? M ? ? ?P Pennisetum alopecuroides black pennisetum L L L L L LP Pennisetum orientale Chinese fountain grass M ? L ? ? ? Pennisetum machrostachym (see P. setaceum)P Pennisetum setaceum fountain grass L L L L L L L LP Pennisetum setaceum cvs, purple/burgundy fountain grass M L M L L LP Penstemon hybrids penstemon (hybrids) M M M M M MP Penstemon wild spp. penstemon (wild) L L L L L L Pentapterygium (See Agapetes)S Perityle incana Guadalupe island rock daisy / ? ? ? ? / Pernetteya mucronata (See Gaultheria mucronata)SP Perovskia spp. Russian sage M M M M L LT Persea americana avocado M M M M / / Petalostemon purpureum (See Dalea gattingeri)V Petrea volubilis queens wreath ? / M M ? ?P Phalaris spp. (ornamental) ribbon grass M M M M / / LS Philadelphus lewisii californicus wild mock orange M ? M M ? ?S Philadelphus mexicanus evergreen mock orange L M M M M MS Philadelphus X virginalis double mock orange M M M / / /SP Philodendron bipinnatifidum (selloum) tree philodendron M M M M / MP Phlebodium aureum (Polypodium rabbits foot fern M ? M ? ? ? aureum)P Phlomis caballeroi phlomis (caballeroi) ? ? L L ? ?SP Phlomis cashmeriana phlomis (cashmeriana) ? ? L L ? ?P Phlomis cretica phlomis (cretica) ? ? L L ? ?SP Phlomis fruticosa Jerusalem sage L L L L M MSP Phlomis italica phlomis (italica) L M L L ? ?P Phlomis lanata phlomis (lanata) L ? L L ? ?P Phlomis purpurea phlomis (purpurea) ? ? L L ? ?P Phlomis russeliana phlomis (russeliana) L ? M M ? ?S Phlomis tuberosa phlomis (tuberosa) M ? L L ? ?P Phlox (shrubby cvs.) phlox M M M M M MGc P Phlox subulata moss pink M M / / M MT Phoenix canariensis Canary Island date palm L L L L M MT Phoenix dactylifera date palm L L L L M MT Phoenix reclinata Senegal date palm / / M M / MT Phoenix roebelenii pigmy date palm L / M M / MT Phoenix rupicola cliff date palm / / M M / /S Phormium hybrids flax L M M M / MS Phormium tenax New Zealand flax L L L M / MTS Photinia X fraseri Fraser photinia M M M M M MTS Photinia serratifolia (P. serrulata) Chinese photinia M M / M M MS Phygelius X rectus cape fuchsia M ? M ? ? ?Gc Phyla nodiflora (Lippia nodiflora) cape weed L M L L / M L Phyllitis scolopendrium (See Asplenium scolopendrium)S Phyllostachys spp. bamboo (Phylostachys) L L M M M MP Physostegia virginiana obedient plant M M M M M MT Picea abies Norway spruce M M M / / /T Picea glauca Alberta spruce M M / / M /T Picea mariana black spruce ? ? ? ? ? /T Picea omorika Serbian spruce ? ? ? ? ? / 87
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Picea orientalis oriental spruce ? ? ? ? ? /T Picea pungens Colorado spruce M M M M M /S Pieris formosa var.forestii Chinese pieris M M / / / /S Pieris japonica (taiwanensis) lily-of-the-valley shrub M M / / / /S Pimelea ferruginia rice flower M / / / ? ?S Pimelea prostrata rice flower M / / / ? ?P Pinellia ternata pinellia M ? M ? ? ?T Pinus attenuata knobcone pine L L L L / /T Pinus X attenuradiata knobcone-Monterey pine M / L M / /T Pinus brutia Calabrian pine L L L L M MT Pinus brutia ssp. eldarica eldarica pine L L L L L LT Pinus canariensis Canary Island pine L L L M M MT Pinus contorta beach pine M M / / / /T Pinus coulteri Coulter pine L L L L M /T Pinus densiflora Japanese red pine M M / M / /T Pinus edulis pinyon pine L L VL L L / Pinus eldarica (See P brutia spp. eldarica)T Pinus flexilis limber pine ? ? L ? ? ?T Pinus halepensis Aleppo pine L L L L L LT Pinus heldreichii Bosnian pine M ? ? ? ? ?T Pinus jeffreyi Jeffrey pine L L / / / / Pinus leucodermis (See P. heldreichhi)T Pinus monophylla single leaf pinyon pine L / L L L /T Pinus montezumae Montezuma pine L ? L L / /S Pinus mugo mugo pine L L / M M /T Pinus muricata bishop pine M M L / / /T Pinus nigra Austrian black pine M M / M M /T Pinus parviflora Japanese white pine M M / / ? /T Pinus patula Jelecote pine M M M M M MT Pinus pinaster cluster pine M M L / / / LT Pinus pinea Italian stone pine L L L L M M LT Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine L L / L / /T Pinus radiata Monterey pine M / M M / / LT Pinus roxburghii chir pine M M M M M MT Pinus sabiniana foothill/Gray pine VL VL VL L / /T Pinus strobus eastern white pine M ? / / ? /T Pinus sylvestris Scotch pine M M / M / /T Pinus thumbergii Japanese black pine M M M M M MT Pinus torreyana Torrey pine L L L M / /T Pisonia umbellifera bird catcher tree ? / M ? / /T Pistacia chinensis Chinese pistache L L M M M MTS Pistacia lentiscus mastic tree VL ? M M ? ?T Pistacia vera pistachio L L M M / /T Pithecellobium flexicaule Texas ebony ? ? / ? / LT Pithecellobium pallens tenaza ? ? ? ? L LV Pithecoctenium crucigerum pithecoctenium ? ? M M ? ?TS Pittosporum crassifolium evergreen pittosporum M M M M / /TS Pittosporum eugenioides tarata M M M M / /T Pittosporum phillyraeoides willow pittosporum M M L L / MTS Pittosporum rhombifolium Queensland pittosporum M / M M / /TS Pittosporum tenuifolium tawhiwhi M M M M / /S Pittosporum tobira mock orange L M M M M MS Pittosporum tobira Wheelers Dwarf dwarf pittosporum M M M M M MT Pittosporum undulatum victorian box M / M M / /T Platanus X acerifolia and cvs. London plane M M M M H HT Platanus occidentalis Glabrata Texas sycamore ? ? ? ? ? ?T Platanus racemosa California sycamore M M M M H HT Platanus wrightii Arizona sycamore M ? M M H HS Platycladus orientalis oriental arborvitae M M M M M M 88
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Platycodon grandiflorus balloon flower M M M M M MS Plecostachys serpyllifolia (Helichrysum) straw flower L L L L M MSP Plectranthus spp. Swedish ivy M / M M / /GcP Pleioblastus spp. dwarf bamboo M ? M ? ? ?S Plumbago auriculata (campense) cape plumbago L M M M / MS Plumbago scandens summer snow ? ? ? M / LS Plumeria rubra frangipani / / L / / MP Poa costineata Australian blue grass M ? ? ? ? ? Podocarpus gracilior (See Afrocarpus gracillior)T Podocarpus henkelii long leaf yellow wood M H M M M /T Podocarpus latifolius yellow wood M ? M / / /TS Podocarpus macrophyllus yew pine M M M M M M Podocarpus nagi (See Nageia nagi)S Podocarpus nivalis alpine totara M ? ? ? ? ?T Podocarpus totara totara ? ? M M ? ?V Podranea ricasoliana pink trumpet vine / M M M / MP Polemonium spp. Jacobs ladder H H M M ? ?P Poliomintha longiflora Mexican oregano L ? ? ? L LP Polyanthes tuberosa tuberose M M L ? L LS Polygala X dalmaisiana sweet pea shrub L M M M / /P Polygonatum odoratum (japonicum) Solomans seal H / M ? ? ?V Polygonum aubertii silver lace vine L L L L M MP Polypodium (native spp.) plypody VL ? ? ? ? ?P Polypodium (subtropical spp.) polypody M ? ? ? ? ?P Polystichum californicum sword fern L M M H / /P Polystichum munitum western sword fern M M M H / HP Polystichum polyblepharum Japanese lace fern M H H H M MP Polystichum X setigerum Alaskan fern M H H H M MT Populus alba Pyramidalis bolleana poplar M M M M H HT Populus balsamifera balsam/balm of Gilead poplar M M M M H HT Populus X canadensis Carolina poplar H H ? M H HT Populus fremontii western cottonwood M M M M H HT Populus Mohavensis Mohave poplar ? ? ? ? M MT Populus nigra Italica Lombardy poplar M M M M H HT Populus Red Caudina cottonless cottonwood ? ? ? ? ? ?T Populus trichocarpa black cottonwood H H M M H /SP Portulacaria afra elephants food L L L L / LS Potentilla fruticosa cvs. cinquefoil M M / / M /Gc Potentilla neumanniana spring cinquefoil M M M M / M (tabernaemontani)P Gc Pratia angulata pratia H H H H / /T Prosopis alba Argentine mesquite / L L L M M Prosopis chilensis (See P. glandulosa)T Prosopis glandulosa Chilean mesquite / L L L L LT Prosopis glandulosa glandulosa Honey mesquite / L L L L LT Prosopis juliflora Arizona mesquite ? ? L L L LT Prosopis pubescens screwbean mesquite / L L L M MT Prosopis velutina velvet mesquite / L L L M MS Prostanthera denticulata mint bush L ? ? ? ? ?S Prostanthera lasianthos victorian dogwood M ? ? ? ? ?S Prostanthera rotundifolia round leaf mint bush L M L M / /SP Protea spp. protea M / M M / /Gc P Prunella spp. self heal M M M M ? ?TS Prunus caroliniana Carolina laurel cherry L L M M M MTS Prunus ilicifolia holly leaf cherry L L VL VL / /TS Prunus lauroceracus English laurel M M / H / /TS Prunus lusitanica Portugal laurel L L / / / / 89
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVETS Prunus lyonii Catalina cherry L L L L / /T Prunus sargentii Sargent cherry M ? M ? ? /T Prunus spp. (edible) almond L M M M M / apricot M M M M M /T Prunus spp. (edible) cherry M M M M M / peach M M M M M / peach (low chill only) M M M M / M nectarine M M M M M / plum M M M M M / plum (low chill only) L M M M / M prune L M M M M /T Prunus spp. (ornamental) flowering cherry M M M M M / flowering peach L M M M M / flowering plum L M M M M MT Pseudobomax ellipticum shaving brush ? ? L ? / LV Pseudogynoxys chenopodiodes Mexican flame vine M M M ? ? ? (Senecio)T Pseudolarix kaempheri golden larch ? ? / / ? /TS Pseudopanax lessonii houpara M ? M / / ?S Pseudosasa japonica arrow bamboo M ? M M ? ?P Pseudosasa japonica tsutsumiana dwarf arrow bamboo M ? M M ? ? Psidium cattleianum (See P. littorale var. longipes)ST Psidium guajava common guava / / M / / MST Psidium littorale var. longipes strawberry guava M M M / / MSP Psilostrophe cooperi paper flower ? ? ? ? L LSP Psilostrophe tagetina paper flower ? ? ? L L LS Psoralea pinnata blue pea M ? L M ? ?S Psorothamnus spinosa (Dalea spinosa) smoke tree / L / L L LP Pteris spp. brake fern M M M H H /P Pulmonaria spp. lungwort M H / ? ? ?P Pulsatilla vulgaris (Anemone pulsatilla) Pasque flower M M ? ? ?T Punica granatum pomegranate L L M M M MS Punica granatum Nana dwarf pomegranate L L M M M MP Puya spp. puya VL ? L L / MS Gc Pyracantha spp. firethorn L L L M M M LP Pyrethropsis hosmariense Moroccan daisy L ? L ? ? ? Pyrethrum roseum (See Tanacetum coccinium)V Pyrostegia venusta flame vine / / M M / MP Pyrrosia spp. felt fern L / L ? ? ?T Pyrus calleryana cultivars Callery pear M M M M M MT Pyrus communis edible pear M M M M M /T Pyrus kawakamii evergreen pear M M M M M MT Quercus agrifolia coast live oak VL VL L L / MTS Quercus berberidifolia California scrub oak VL VL VL VL L /T Quercus buckleyi Texas red oak ? ? / ? ? ?T Quercus chrysolepis canyon live oak VL L L L / /T Quercus coccinea scarlet oak M M / M / /T Quercus douglasii blue oak VL VL VL L / /TS Quercus dumosa Nutalls scrub oak VL VL VL VL L /T Quercus engelmannii mesa oak / L L L / /T Quercus fusiformis escarpment live oak ? ? ? ? ? LT Quercus ilex holly oak L L L L M MT Quercus kelloggii California black oak L M / M / /T Quercus lobata valley oak L L / M / /T Quercus muhlenbergii chinquapin oak L ? ? L L MT Quercus palustris pin oak M M M M / /T Quercus robur English oak M M ? M ? / 90
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Quercus rubra red oak M M / M / /T Quercus shumardii Shumard red oak M M ? / / /T Quercus suber cork oak L L L L L LT Quercus texana Spanish oak L ? ? L L MT Quercus tomentella island oak L ? L / / /T Quercus virginiana southern live oak M M M M M MT Quercus wislizeni interior live oak VL VL VL VL M /T Quillaja saponaria soapbark tree VL L L ? ? ?T Radermachera sinica Asian bell flower / / M / / /P Ranunculus californicus California buttercup VL VL VL VL ? ?P Ranunculus cortusaefolius buttercup L ? L ? ? ?P Ranunculus repens creeping buttercup H M L ? ? ?P Raoulia australis golden scabweed L / / ? ? ?P Ratibida columnifera Mexican hat M ? L ? ? ?T Ravanea rivularis ravanea / / M M / /P Rehmannia elata Chinese foxglove H H M H M MP Reineckia carnea reineckia M ? ? ? ? ?Gc Rhagodia deltophylla rhagodia L ? VL ? ? ?S Rhamnus alaternus Italian buckthorn L L L M / /S Rhamnus californicus coffeeberry L L VL L / MS Rhamnus croceus redberry L L VL L / MS Rhamnus croceus ilicifolia hollyleaf redberry L L VL L / MS Rhaphiolepis indica Indian hawthorne L L M M M MT Rhaphiolepis Majestic Beauty majestic beauty L L M M M MS Rhaphiolepis umbellata Yeddo hawthorne L L M M ? ?S Rhapis excelsa lady palm / / M M / /S Rhododendron spp. azalea M M H H / /S Rhododendron spp. rhododendron M M H H / /P Rhodohypoxis spp. rose grass M ? L ? ? ?P Rhodophiala bifida rhodophiala L ? ? ? ? ?V Rhoicissus capensis evergreen grape M / M M / MTS Rhopalostylis baueri Norfolk palm ? / M M / /TS Rhopalostylis sapida Nikau palm ? / H H / /S Gc Rhus aromatica fragrant sumac ? ? ? ? ? ?S Rhus choriophylla evergreen sumac ? ? ? ? ? ?S Rhus integrifolia lemonade berry L L VL L / /T Rhus lancea African sumac L L L L M MT Rhus lanceolata prairie flameleaf sumac ? ? ? ? L L Rhus laurina (see Malosma laurina)S Rhus lentii pink-flowering sumac / ? L ? ? ?S Rhus microphylla littleaf sumac ? ? ? ? ? ?S Rhus ovata sugar bush L L VL L M MS Rhus trilobata squawbush L L L L L /ST Rhus typhina staghorn sumac L L L ? L /S Rhus virens evergreen sumac ? ? ? ? ? ?S Rhynchelytrum neriglume ruby grass ? ? ? ? ? ?S Ribes aureum golden currant L L L L L /S Ribes indecorum white flowering currant L L L L L /S Ribes malvaceum chaparral currant VL VL VL L / /S Ribes sanguineum red flowering currant L L L M / /S Ribes speciosum fuchsia flowering gooseberry L L L M / /S Ribes thacherianum Santa Cruz Island gooseberry / ? M ? ? ?S Gc Ribes viburnifolium evergreen currant L L L M / /T Robinia X ambigua locust L L L L M MT Robinia pseudoacacia black locust L L L L L L LP Rodgersia aesculifolia rogersia (aesculifolia) M ? ? ? ? ?P Rodgersia pinnata rogersia (pinnata) M ? ? ? ? ?P Rohdea japonica rohdea L M M M ? ?SP Romneya coulteri Matilija poppy VL VL VL L / /V Rosa banksiae Lady Banks rose L L M M M MS Rosa californica California wild rose L L L L / / 91
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEV Rosa Cecile Brunner Cecile Brunner rose L L M M M MS Rosa hybrids..bush rose M M M M H HV Rosa hybrids..climbing climbing roses M M M M H HS Rosa minutifolia Baja California wild rose L ? L ? M ?S Rosa rugosa Japanese rose L M M ? M MS Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana mountain wood rose M ? ? ? M ?P Roscoea purpurea roscoea M ? ? ? ? ?SP Rosmarinus officinalis rosemary L L L L M MP Gc Rosemarinus Prostratus trailing rosemary L L L L M MS Rubus lineatus bramble (lineatus) M ? ? ? ? ?S Rubus pentalobus (calcynioides) bramble M M M / / /S Rubus ursinus California blackberry L L M ? ? ?P Rudbeckia spp. coneflower M M M M ? ?S Ruellia X brittoniana dwarf ruellia M ? L ? M LS Ruellia californica rama parda ? ? VL VL / LS Ruellia macrantha Christmas pride M / M ? ? ?S Ruellia peninsularis Baja ruellia / ? M M / MP Rumohra adiantiformis leather leaf fern M M M M / /P Ruscus spp. butchers broom L L L ? ? ?T Sabal spp. palmetto / / M M / /Gc P Sagina subulata Irish moss M M M H H HGc P Sagina subulata Aurea Scotch moss M M M H H HTS Salix spp. willow H H H H H HS Salvia apiana white sage VL L VL VL L LS Salvia argentea silver sage L L L L ? ?P Salvia azurea grandiflora prairie sage M M L ? ? ?P Salvia Bees Bliss bees bliss sage L ? L ? L ?P Salvia blepharophylla eyelash-leafed sage M ? M ? ? ?P Salvia buchananii Buchanans sage M ? M M ? ?P Salvia cacaliaefolia Guatemalan blue sage M ? M M ? ?P Salvia californica Baja California sage / ? VL VL ? ?P Salvia chamaedryoides blue sage L L L L M MP Salvia chiapensis Chiapas sage M ? M M ? ?S Salvia clevelandii & hybrids Cleveland/Alan Chickering etc. L L VL L L LSP Salvia coahuilensis Coahuila sage L ? L ? ? ?P Salvia coccinea Texas sage L M M M M MPS Salvia confertiflora spike sage M ? M ? ? ?S Salvia Costa Rica Blue Costa Rica blue sage M ? M ? ? ?P Salvia Daras Choice Sonoma sage L L L L L LPS Salvia darcyi Darcy sage M ? ? ? ? ?P Salvia discolor Andean silver leaf sage M / ? ? ? ?P Salvia dorisiana grapefruit-scented sage M ? M ? ? ?P Salvia dorrii purple sage / M L ? L LPS Salvia elegans pineapple sage M M M M ? ?P Salvia farinacea nealy cup sage M M M M / MP Salvia Firescape Firescape sage ? ? ? ? ? ?P Salvia forskaohlei (hians) sage (forskaohlei/hians) M ? ? ? ? ?PS Salvia fulgens Mexican cardinal sage M ? M ? ? ?PS Salvia gesneriflora scarlet sage M ? M ? ? ?P Salvia glechomaefolia sage (glechomaefolia) M ? ? ? ? ? Salvia grahamii (See S. microphylla)S Salvia greggii & hybrids autumn sage L L L L M MPS Salvia guarantica anise scented sage M / ? ? ? ? Salvia hians (See S. forskaohlei)PS Salvia involucrata roseleaf sage M ? M ? ? ?S Salvia iodantha sage (iodantha) M ? M ? ? ?S Salvia X jamensis cvs. sage (jamensis cvs.) L ? ? ? ? ?S Salvia karwinskii Karwinskis sage M ? ? ? ? ?P Salvia koyamae maniko M ? ? ? ? ?SP Salvia leucantha Mexican bush sage L L L L / MS Salvia leucophylla purple sage L / L L / M 92
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEPS Salvia madrensis forsythia sage M ? ? ? ? ?P Salvia Maraschino maraschino sage M ? M ? ? ?P Salvia Mrs. Beard Mrs. Beard sage ? ? M ? ? ?S Salvia mellifera black/green sage L L L L / MS Salvia mexicana Mexican sage M / M ? ? ?S Salvia microphylla cherry/Graham sage ? M L M L LPS Salvia muelleri royal purple autumn sage L M L ? M M Salvia muirii ? ? ? ? ? ?S Salvia munzii San Miguel Mountain sage L ? VL L L /PS Salvia officinalis garden/kitchen sage L M M M M MP Salvia patens gentian sage M M M ? ? ?P Salvia pratensis haematodes medow sage M M ? ? ? ?S Salvia penstemonoides big red sage M ? ? ? ? ?S Salvia Purple Majesty purple magesty sage M M M ? ? ?S Salvia regla mountain sage L ? M ? ? ?P Salvia reptans sage (reptans) L ? ? ? ? ?P Salvia roemeriana cedar sage M ? ? ? ? ?P Salvia sinaloensis Sinaloan blue sage M ? M ? ? ?P Salvia sonomensis creeping/Sonoma sage L ? ? ? ? ?PS Salvia spathacea hummingbird/pitcher sage L ? L ? ? ?P Salvia X superba hybrids & cvs. sage (superba) M M M ? ? ?P Salvia thymoides blue salvia L ? L ? ? ?P Salvia uliginosa bog sage M M M ? / /P Salvia verticillata Purple Rain purple rain sage M ? ? M ? ?PS Salvia Waverly Waverly sage M ? M ? ? ?TS Sambucus spp. elderberry L L L L M MSP Santolina spp. lavender cotton L L L L L LT Sapium sebiferum Chinese tallow tree M M M M / / LGc P Saponaria ocymoides rock soapwort L L M M / /S Sarcococca confusa sweet box L M M ? / /S Gc Sarcococca hookerana humilis sweet sarcococca L M M M / /S Sarcococca ruscifolia fragrant sarcococca L M M M / /S Sasa spp. bamboo (Sasa) L L M M / MS Gc Sasaella masamuniana albostriata white striped dwarf bamboo M ? M ? ? ?P Satureja chandleri San Miguel savory L ? ? ? ? ?P Satureja douglasii yerba buena L ? M ? ? ?P Satureja mexicana savory L ? ? ? ? ?P Saxifraga spp. saxifrage M M M H H HP Scabiosa spp. pincushion flower M M M M M MGc P Scaevola aemula Diamond Head blue wonder L L M M / /Gc P Scaevola Mauve Clusters fan flower L L M M / /S Schlefflera actinophylla (Brassaia) Queensland umbrella tree / / M / / MS Schefflera arboricola Hawaiian elf schefflera / / H H / HS Schefflera elegantissima (Dizygotheca) thread leaf false aralia M M M M / MTS Schefflera pueckleri (Tupidanthus) Australian umbrella tree / / M H / HT Schinus molle California pepper tree VL L VL L M M LT Schinus polygamous Peruvian pepper tree VL L L L L MT Schinus terebinthefolius Brazilian pepper tree M M M M / M LP Schizostylis coccinia Kaffir lily M M M M / MP Schoenoplectus lacustris zebra rush M ? H H ? ? var.tabernaemontaniT Schotia latifolia forest Boer bloom ? ? M ? ? ?T Sciadopitys verticillata Japanese umbrella pine M ? M / / /P Scilla hughii bluebell VL VL ? ? ? ?P Scilla peruviana Peruvian lily VL VL M M ? ? Scirpus cernuus (See Isolepis cernua)P Gc Sedum spp. stone crop L L L L L LP Selliera radicans swamp weed M ? M ? ? ?P Semiaquilegia ecalcarata semiaquilegia H ? M ? ? ? 93
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEPS Semiarundinaria fastuosa Narihira bamboo M ? M M ? MP Sempervivum spp. house leek L L L L / LP Senecio cineraria dusty miller L L L L / M Senecio confusus (See Pseudogynoxys chenopodiodes)S Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii bush groundsel VL ? L L / M Senecio greyi (See Brachyglottis greyi)Gc Senecio mandraliscae kleinia / / L M / MS Senna australis (Cassia australis) Australian senna/cassiaS Senna artemesioides (Cassia feathery cassia/senna L L L L L L artemesioides)S Senna bicapsularis (Cassia New Zealand cassia/senna L L L / / L candolleana)S Senna didymobotrya (Cassia senna/cassia didymobotrya ? ? L ? ? ? didymobotrya)S Senna lindheimeriana (Cassia Lindheims senna/cassia lindheimeriana)S Senna multiglandulosa (Cassia wooly senna VL / L ? / M tomentosa)S Senna odorata (Cassia odorata) senna/cassia (odorata) ? ? L L / LS Senna polyantha (Cassia goldmanii) Goldmans senna/cassia ? ? L ? ? ?S Senna phyllodenia (Cassia phyllodenia) silver cassia/senna ? ? L L L LS Senna spectabilis (Cassia excelsa) senna/cassia (spectabilis/excelsa) ? ? L L ? ?S Senna splendida (Cassia splendida) golden wonder ? ? L ? ? ?S Senna sturtii (Cassia sturtii) Sturts cassia/senna / / L L L LT Sequoia sempervirens coast redwood H H H H / /T Sequoiadendron giganteum giant sequoia M M / M / /S Serissa foetida serissa M / M M ? ?P Sesleria spp. moor grass M ? M ? / /P Setaria palmifolia palm grass H ? M M ? ? LP Setcreasea pallida Purple Heart purple heart setcreasea / / M M H HS Shepherdia argentea silver buffaloberry L ? VL VL ? ?P Gc Shibatea kumasasa Okame-Zaza bamboo M ? M ? ? ?P Sidalcea spp. false mallow M M M ? ? ?P Sideritis syriaca sideritis L ? ? ? ?P Silene spp. moss pink/campion M M L L ? MS Simmondsia chinensis jojoba VL VL VL VL L LS Sinarundinaria nitida (Fargesia nitida) blue fountain bamboo M ? ? ? ? ?P Sinningia tubiflora velvet slipper L ? ? ?P Sisyrinchium bellum blue-eyed grass VL VL L L M MP Sisyrinchium californicum golden-eyed grass M M M M M MP Sisyrinchium convolutum sisysrinchium (convolutum) H ? ? ? ? ?P Sisysrinchium striatum sisysrinchium (striatum) M ? M ? / /S Skimmia japonica Japanese skimmia M M / / / /S Skimmia reevesiana Reeves skimmia ? ? / / / /V Solandra maxima cup of gold vine M M M M / /S Solanum aviculaare kangaroo apple L ? ? ? ? ?VS Solanum crispum Chilean potato tree M ? ? ? ? ?V Solanum jasminoides potato vine M M M M / MV Solanum wendlandii Costa Rican nightshade L / M / / MV Solanum xantii purple nightshade L L L L / LGc P Soleirolia soleirolii babys tears H H H H / HS Gc Sollya heterophylla Australian bluebell creeper L L L L / /V Sollya parvifolia vining bluebell ? ? ? ? ? ?T Sophora japonica Japanese pagoda tree L L M M M MTS Sophora secundiflora Texas mountain laurel L L L L M MT Sorbus aucuparia European mountain ash / M / / M / 94
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVET Sorbus hupehensis mountain ash ? ? / / ? /T Sparmannia africana African linden H / M ? / ?S Spartium junceum Spanish broom VL VL VL L VL / LP Spathiphyllum spp. spathiphyllum / / H / / /T Spathodea campanulata African tulip tree / / M / / /P Sphaeralcea spp. desert/globe mallow L L L L / LS Spiraea spp. spiraea M M M M M MP Sporobolus airoides alkalai dropseed L ? ? ? ? LP Sprekelia formosissima Aztec lily L L L L L LP Stachys albotomentosa betony ? ? L ? ? ?P Stachys byzantina lambs ears L L M M / MT Stenocarpus sinuatus firewheel tree / / M M / /P Stenocereus thurberi (Lemaireocereus) organ pipe cactus / / VL L / LP Stenomesson variegatum stenomesson M ? ? ? ? ?V Stephanotis floribunda Madagascar jasmine / / M M / MT Stewartia pseudocamellia Japanese stewartia M / / / / /V Stigmaphyllon ciliatum butterfly vine M / M ? ? ?P Stipa cernua nodding feather grass VL ? L L L LP Stipa gigantea giant needle grass M ? L L L LP Stipa lepida foothill stipa VL VL L L L LP Stipa pulchra feather grass VL L VL L L LP Stipa stipa spinosa desert bunch grass ? ? L L L LP Stipa tenuissima Mexican feather grass L ? L L L LP Stokesia laevis stokes aster M M M M M MT Strelitzia nicolai giant bird of paradise M / M M / MS Strelitzia reginae bird of paradise M M M M / MS Streptosolen jamesonii marmalade bush / / M H / /T Styrax japonicum Japanese snowbell M M / / M /S Styrax officinale californicum California storax L L L L M /S Styrax officinale redivivus snowdrop bush L L / ? ? /PS Sutera spp. sutera M ? L ? ? ?S Swainsonia galegifolia winter sweet pea M ? ? ? ? ?T Syagrus romanzoffiana queen palm L M M M M MS Symphoricarpus albus snowberry L L L L ? /S Symphoricarpus orbiculatus coralberry M ? ? ? ? /S Symphoricarpus mollis creeping snowberry L L ? ? ? /S Symphyandra spp. ring bellflower M ? M ? ? ?S Syringa X chinensis Chinese lilac M M / ? ? /S Syringa X hyacinthiflora Canadian lilac M M / ? ? /S Syringa patula Korean lilac M M / ? ? /S Syringa X persica Persian lilac L L / ? M /S Syringa vulgaris lilac L L / M M /S Syzygium paniculatum Australian brush cherry M M M M / /S Syzygium smithii Smiths brush cherry ? ? M M / ?S Tabebuia chrysotricha golden trumpet tree ? / M M / MT Tabebuia impetiginosa (ipe) pink/lavender trumpet tree / / M M / /T Tagetes lemmoni mountain marigold L L L L M MSP Tagetes lucida Mexican tarragon M M M M M MP Talinium calcynium flame flower L ? ? ? ? ?P Tamarix spp. tamarisk VL VL L L L L L LTS Tanacetum coccinium (Pyrethrum painted daisy M / L ? ? ? roseum)P Tanacetum haradjanii tansy L ? L ? ? ? Tanacetum herderi (See Hippolyta herderi)P Tanacetum parthenium feverfew L L M M M M (Chrysanthemum parthenium)T Taxodium distichum bald cypress M M M M / /T Taxodium mucronatum Montezuma cypress M M M M / /TS Taxus baccata English yew M M M M M / 95
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVETS Taxus baccata Fastigiata Irish yew M M M M M /S Taxus cuspidata Japanese yew M ? M ? ? ?S Taxus Meyeri Meyers Yew M ? ? ? ? ?S Taxus X media cvs. Yew (media cvs.) M ? M ? ? ?S Tecoma Orange Jubilee orange jubilee tecoma M M ? ? / MST Tecoma X smithii Smiths tecoma ? ? M ? ? ?TS Tecoma stans yellow bells / / L L / LV Tecomanthe speciosa tecomanthe M ? ? ? ? ?SV Tecomaria capensis cape honeysuckle M M M M / MP Tellima grandiflora fringe cups M ? ? ? ? ?P Telopea speciosissima waratah M / ? ? ? ?S Ternstroemia gymnanthera Japanese ternstroemia M M M M M /S Tetraneuris acaulis (Hymenoxis acaulis) sweet shade ? ? ? ? / MS Tephrosia grandiflora hoary pea M ? ? ? ? ?V Tetrapanax papyrifer rice paper plant L M M M / MGc Tetrastigma voinieranum Javan grape / / M M / MP Gc Teucrium chamaedrys germander L L L L M MS Gc Teucrium cossonii Majorcan germander VL L L L / LS Teucrium fruticans bush germander L L L L / MP Teucrium hyrcanicum germander (hyrcanicum) L ? ? ? ? ?S Teucrium marum cat thyme L L L L ? ?PS Teucrium scorodonia Crispum germander (crispum) M ? M ? ? ?P Thalictrum aquilegifolium purple meadow rue H ? M ? ? ?P Thalictrum coreanum meadow rue (coreanum) M ? ? ? ? ?P Thalictrum delavayi lavender shower H ? M M ? ?P Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum meadow rue M ? L L ? ?P Thalictrum flavum spp glaucum meadow rue (flavum) H ? M ? ? ?P Thalictrum dipterocarpum (See T. H ? ? ? ? ? delavayi)P Thalictrum polycarpum medow rue M ? M M M MP Thalictrum rochenbrunianum lavender mist H ? ? ? ? ? Thalictrum speiosissimum (See T. flavum spp glaucum)P Thamnocalamus spathaceus (Fargesia umbrella bamboo M ? M M ? ? murieliae)TS Thevetia peruviana yellow oleander / / M M / MT Thevetia thevetioides giant thevetia / / M M / MS Thuja occidentalis American arborvitae M M M M M MS Thuja orientalis (See Platycadus orientalis)V Thunbergia alata black eyed susan M M M M M MV Thunbergia battiscombei thunbergia (battiscombei) M ? M M M MV Thunbergia grandiflora sky flower M / M / / MV Thunbergia gregorii orange clock vine M / M M / MV Thunbergia mysorensis thumbergia (mysorensis) M ? M / / /GC P Thymus spp. thyme M M M M M MP Thysanolaena maxima tiger grass ? ? M M ? ?S Tiarella wherryi sugar scoop M / M ? M ?S Tibuchina heteromalla glory bush M / M ? / /S Tibuchina urvilleana (semidecandra) princess flower M / M H / HT Tilia americana American linden M M / / / /T Tilia cordata little leaf linden M M / / / /T Tipuana tipu tipu tree M / M M / /P Todea barbara crepe fern M ? M ? ? ?T Toona sinensis (Cedrela sinensis) Chinese toon ? ? L ? ? ?P Trachelium caeruleum throatwart M ? M ? ? ?Gc V Trachelospermum asiaticum Asian star jasmine M M M M M MS Gc Trachelospermum jasminoides star jasmine M M M M M MT Trachycarpus fortunei windmill palm L M M M / MT Trachycarpus takil takil fan palm ? / M M / M 96
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Tradescantia X andersoniana spiderwort M M M M M MP Tradescantia fluminensis wandering Jew M / M ? ? ?P Tradescantia pallida spiderwort M ? M ? ? ? Trichocereus spp. (See Echinopsis spp.)SP Trichostema lanatum woolly/mountain blue curls VL VL VL L / M Trichostema parishii (See T. lanatum) /P Tricyrtis hirta toad lily M ? L ? ? ?Gc Trifolium fragiferum OConnor OConnors legume (landscape M M M M M M use)Gc Trifolium fragiferum OConnor OConners legume (revegetation L L L L L L use)Gc Trifolium repens white clover M / H H ? ? Tristania conferta (See Lophostemon confertus) Tristania laurina (See Tristaniopsis laurina)T Tristaniopsis laurina little leaf myrtle M / M M / /P Tritelia laxa Ithuriels spear Vl VL L L ? ?P Tritonia spp. tritoniaS Trixis californica trixis ? ? ? ? L MP Trollius spp. globeflower H H M M H HP Tropaeolum majus nasturtium M M / M / M LT Tsuga canadensis Canadian hemlock M / / / / /P Tulbaghia fragrans sweet garlic M M M M / MP Tulbaghia violacea society garlic M M M M / M Tupidanthus calyptratus (See Schefflera pueckleri)P Tweedia caesulea (Oxypetalum blue flowered milkweed M ? M ? ? ? caeruleum)S Ugni molinae Chilean guava M M M M ? ?ST Ungnadia speciosa Mexican buckeye ? ? ? ? L MT Ulmus americana American elm M M M M ? /T Ulmus glabra Scotch elm M ? ? ? ? ?T Ulmus parvifolia Chinese evergreen elm M M M M M MT Ulmus pumila Siberian elm L L / L M MT Umbellularia californica California bay M M M M / /P Urginea maritima sea squill L ? L ? / /S Vaccinium moupinense Himalayan blueberry M ? ? ? / /S Vaccinium ovatum evergreen huckleberry M M / / / /S Vaccinium parvifolium red huckleberry M M / / / /S Vaccinium vitis-idaea foxberry M ? / / / /P Gc Vancouveria spp. inside-out flower M ? ? ? ? ?S Vauquelinia californica Arizona rosewood L ? / / M MS Vauquelinia corymbosa var. heterodon narrow leaf rosewood ? ? / / ? LP Velthemia bracteata forest lily L ? M / ? ?P Verbascum bombiciferum mullein M ? L ? ? ?P Verbascum phoeniceum purple mullein L L L L / /P Verbena bonariensis verbena (bonariensis) VL M L L M MGc P Verbena gooddingii Goodding verbena L L L L / MP Verbena hybrids garden verbena L L M M / MGc P Verbena lilacina lilac verbena L ? L L / LGc Verbena peruviana Peruvian verbena L L L L / MGc P Verbena rigida vervian M M M M / MGc Verbena stricta hoary vervian L M M M M MGc Verbena tenera (pulchella) rock verbena M ? ? M M MGc Verbena tenuisecta moss verbena L L L L / MP Veronica spp. veronica M M M / / MGc Veronica repens speedwell M M M / / / 97
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Veronicastrum virginicum blackroot M ? ? ? ? ?S Viburnum Anne Russel Anne Russel viburnum M ? ? ? ? ?S Viburnum awabuki awabuki viburnum M ? M ? ? ?S Viburnum X bodnantense Bodnant viburnum M ? ? ? ? ?S Viburnum X burkwoodii Burkwood viburnum L M M / M /S Viburnum carlesii Korean spice viburnum M ? ? ? ? ?S Viburnum carlesii cvs. Cayuga,Chesapeake, Eskimo M ? ? ? ? ? ViburnumS Viburnum davidii David viburnum M M / / / /S Viburnum japonicum Japanese viburnum M M M M M /S Viburnum Mohawk Mohawk viburnum M ? ? ? ? ?S Viburnum odoratissimum sweet viburnum L M M / M /S Viburnum opulus European cranberry bush L M M M M /S Viburnum plicatum tomentosum doublefile viburnum M M M M ? /S Viburnum X pragense Prague viburnum ? ? ? ? ? ?S Viburnum X rhytidophylloides viburnum (rhytidophylloides) M ? ? ? ? ?S Viburnum rhytidophyllum leatherleaf viburnum M M M M M MS Viburnum setigerum tea viburnum ? ? M ? ? ?S Viburnum suspensum sandanqua viburnum M M M M M MS Viburnum tinus laurustinus M M M M M MS Viburnum trilobum American cranberry M ? ? ? ? ?V Vigna caracalla snail vine M / M M / MS Viguiera deltoidea goldeneye / ? ? ? L LS Viguiera laciniata San Diego County viguiera / ? VL ? ? ?T Villebrunea pedunculata villebrunea ? ? M ? ? ?Gc Vinca major periwinkle M M M M M M LGc Vinca minor periwinkle M M M M M MP Viola adunca western dog violet M ? M ? ? ?P Viola cornuta horned violet M ? M ? ? ?P Gc Viola hederacea Australian violet M M M H M MP Viola japonica violet (japonica) M ? ? ? ? ?P Gc Viola labradorica Labrador violet M M M H H HP Gc Viola odorata sweet violet M M M H H HP Viola sempervirens redwood violet L ? ? ? ? ?T Vitex agnus-castus chaste tree L L L M M MV Vitis californica California wild grape L M VL L M MV Vitis girdiana desert grape L M L L M MV Vitis labrusca American grape L L M M M MV Vitis vinifera European grape L L M M M MP Wachendorfia thrysiflora red root H ? ? ? ? ?P Wahlenbergia gloriosa royal bluebell M ? ? ? ? ?T Washingtonia filifera California fan palm L M L L M MT Washingtonia robusta Mexican fan palm L M L L M MP Watsonia spp. watsonia L M L M M M LP Gc Wedelia trilobata trailing daisy ? ? H / / ?S Weigela coraeensis white weigela ? ? M ? ? ?S Weigela florida weigelia M M M M M /S Westringia fruiticosa (rosmariniformis) coast rosemary L L L L / MS Westringia glabra violet westringia L ? L ? / MS Westringia longifolia westringia (longifolia) L ? L ? / MS Westringia raleighi Raleigh westringia L ? L ? / MS Westringia Wynyabbie Gem Wynyabbie gem westringia L ? L ? / MV Wisteria spp. wisteria M M M M M MP Woodwardia fimbriata giant chain fern M M M M / /P Woodwardia radicans European chain fern H / H H H HP Xanthorrhoea spp. grass tree L / L L ? ?P Xeronema calistemon poor knights lily M ? ? ? ? ?P Xerophyllum tenax bear grass L ? ? ? ? ?SP Xylococcus bicolor mission manzanita ? ? VL L M /S Xylosma congestum shiny xylosma L L M M M MST Yucca spp. yucca L L L L L L 98
  • Species Evaluation List--1999 REGIONAL EVALUATIONSTYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVEP Zaluzianskya katherinae zaluzinskya M ? ? ? ? ?S Zamia pumila Florida arrowroot / / M H / /P Zantedeschia aethiopia calla lily M M M M / M LP Zantedeschia spp. & hybrids pink/yellow calla lily M M M M / MP Zauschneria spp. (see Epilobium)T Zelkova serrata saw leaf zelkova M M L M M MP Zephryranthes spp. zephyr flower M M M M / M Zephryanthes robusta (See Habranthus robustus)P Zexmenia hispida zexmenia ? ? ? ? ? ?GC P Zinnia grandiflora prairie zinnia M M M M M MT Ziziphus jujuba Chinese jujube L L L M M MT Ziziphus obtusifolia graythorn / ? ? ? ? ?Gc P Zoyzia tenuifolia Mascarene grass M M M M M M 99
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEAarons beard Hypericum calycinumAbyssinian acacia Acacia abyssinicaAbyssinian banana Ensete ventricosumAfrican boxwood Myrsine africanaAfrican corn lily Ixia spp.African daisy Arctotis hybridsAfrican daisy Osteospermum spp.African fern pine Afrocarpus gracilior (Podocarpus gracilior)African linden Sparmannia africanaAfrican plumbago Ceratostigma abyssinicumAfrican sumac Rhus lanceaAfrican tulip tree Spathodea campanulataagapetes (serpens) Agapetes serpens (Pentapetpterygium)agave Agave spp.Alaskan fern Polystichum X setigerumAlbany bottlebrush Callistemon speciosusAlberta spruce Picea glaucaAlbury purple hypericum Hypericum X inodorum Albury Purplealectryon/titoki Alectryon excelsusAleppo pine Pinus halepensisAlgerian ivy Hedera canariensisAlice Dupont etc. Mandevilla cvs.alkalai dropseed Sporobolus airoidesallium Allium spp.almond Prunus spp. (edible)aloe Aloe spp.aloysia Aloysia machrostachyaalpine campion Lychnis alpinaalpine geranium Erodium reichardiialpine totara Podocarpus nivalisalpine water fern Blechnum penna-marinaalum root Heuchera micranthaamaryllis Hippeastrum spp.American arborvitae Thuja occidentalisAmerican cranberry Viburnum trilobumAmerican elm Ulmus americanaAmerican grape Vitis labruscaAmerican linden Tilia americanaAmerican smoke tree Cotinus obvatusamur maple Acer tataricum ssp. ginnalaAndean silver leaf sage Salvia discolorangel flower Angelonia angustifoliaangel wing jasmine Jasminum nitidumangels trumpet Brugmansia spp.anise scented sage Salvia guaranticaAnne Russel viburnum Viburnum Anne RusselApache plume Fallugia paradoxaapple Malus spp.(edible)apricotArabian jasmine Jasminum sambacArgentine mesquite Prosopis albaArizona ash Fraxinus velutinaArizona mesquite Prosopis julifloraArizona rosewood Vauquelinia californicaArizona sycamore Platanus wrightiiArizona walnut Juglans major 101
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEarnica Arnica montanaarrow bamboo Pseudosasa japonicaarroyo lupin Lupinus sparsiflorusash leaved gum, silver dollar tree Eucalyptus cinereaashy silktassel Garrya flavescensAsian bell flower Radermachera sinicaAsian star jasmine Trachelospermum asiaticumAsphodel Asphodeline tauricaastelia Astelia nivicolaaster Aster spp.athanasia Athanasia acerosaAtlas cedar Cedrus atlanticaAustralia fountain palm Livistona australisAustralian agathis/ kauri Agathis australisAustralian blue grass Poa costineataAustralian bluebell creeper Sollya heterophyllaAustralian brush cherry Syzygium paniculatumAustralian fuchsia Correa spp.Australian heath Epacris guniiAustralian pea Dipogon lignosusAustralian senna/cassia Senna australis (Cassia australis)Australian tea tree Leptospermum laevigatumAustralian tree fern Cyathea cooperiiAustralian umbrella tree Schefflera pueckleri (Tupidanthus)Australian violet Viola hederaceaAustralian willow Geijera parvifloraAustrian black pine Pinus nigraautumn crocus Colchicum agrippiumautumn sage Salvia greggii & hybridsavens Geum spp.avocado Persea americanaawabuki viburnum Viburnum awabukiazalea Rhododendron spp.azara Azara integrifoliaAztec lily Sprekelia formosissimababoon flower Babiana stricta hybridsbaby bonnets Coursetia axillarisbabys breath Gypsophila cerastioidesbabys breath Gypsophila paniculatababys tears Soleirolia soleiroliiBailey acacia Acacia baileyanaBaja bush-snapdragon Galvesia junceaBaja California sage Salvia californicaBaja California wild rose Rosa minutifoliaBaja evening primrose Oenothera stubbeiBaja fairy duster Calliandra californicaBaja indigo bush Dalea orcutiiBaja ruellia Ruellia peninsularisbald cypress Taxodium distichumballoon flower Platycodon grandiflorusbalsam/balm of Gilead poplar Populus balsamiferabamboo Chusquea coronalisbamboo Drepanostachyum hookerianumbamboo (Bambusa) Bambusa spp.bamboo (Phylostachys) Phyllostachys spp.bamboo (Sasa) Sasa spp. 102
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEbamboo muhly Muhlenbergia dumosabanana Musa spp.banana-leaf fig Ficus barteribanana shrub Michelia figobarberry Berberis spp.barberry Berberis X stenophylla Irwiniibarleria Barleria obtusabarrel cactus Echinocactus spp.barrel cactus Ferocactus spp.bat-faced cuphea Cuphea llaveabaumea Baumea rubiginosabayberry Myrica pennsylvanicabeach aster Erigeron glaucusbeach evening primrose Camissonia cherianthifolia (Oenothera)beach pine Pinus contortabear grass Nolina spp.bear grass Xerophyllum tenaxbearded iris Iris spp.bears breech Acanthus mollisbeauty berry Callicarpa bodinieribeauty berry Callicarpa japonicabeauty bush Kolkwitzia amabalisbee balm Monarda didymabees bliss sage Salvia Bees Blissbell flower Campanula spp.bell mallee Eucalyptus preissianabentennial baccharis Baccharis Centennialbetony Stachys albotomentosabig leaf maple Acer macrophyllumbig red sage Salvia penstemonoidesBigelow sneezeweed Helenium bigeloviibird catcher tree Pisonia umbelliferabird of paradise Strelitzia reginaebirds eye bush Ochna serrulatabirds foot fern Pellaea mucronatabirds nest fern Asplenium nidusbirdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatusbishop pine Pinus muricatabishops hat Epimedium grandiflorumbitter root Lewisia cotyledonblack alder Alnus glutinosablack box Eucalyptus largiflorensblack bush Corethrogyne californicablack coral pea Kennedia nigricansblack cottonwood Populus trichocarpablack dalea Dalea frutescensblack eyed susan Thunbergia alatablack locust Robinia pseudoacaciablack mondo grass Ophiopogon planiscapus var. nigrescensblack pennisetum Pennisetum alopecuroidesblack spruce Picea marianablack tea Melaleuca lanceolatablack/green sage Salvia melliferablackfoot daisy Melampodium leucanthumblackroot Veronicastrum virginicumblackwood acacia Acacia melanoxylon 103
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEbladder pod Cleome isomerisblanket flower Gaillardia grandiflorableeding heart Dicentra spp.blood red trumpet vine Distictis buccinatoriablue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium bellumblue bamboo Drepanostachyum falcatum (Arundinaria)blue bird hydrangea Hydrangea serratablue boy/girl etc. cvs. Ilex X meserveaeblue cape pea Otholobium fruiticansblue dawn flower Ipomea indica (acuminata0blue dracaena palm Cordyline indivisablue fescue Festuca glaucablue flowered milkweed Tweedia caesulea (Oxypetalum caeruleum)blue fountain bamboo Sinarundinaria nitida (Fargesia nitida)blue ginger Dichorisandra thyrsifoliablue gramma Bouteloua gracilisblue gum Eucalyptus globulusblue hair grass Koelaria glaucablue hesper palm Brahea armatablue hibiscus Alyogyne huegeliiblue leaf wattle Acacia salignablue marguerite Felicia amelloidesblue mist Caryopteris X clandonensisblue oak Quercus douglasiiblue oat grass Helictotrichon sempervirensblue palo verde Parkinsonia florida (Cercidium floridum)blue pea Psoralea pinnatablue sage Salvia chamaedryoidesblue salvia Salvia thymoidesblue star creeper Laurentia fluviatilisblue wonder Scaevola aemula Diamond Headbluebell Scilla hughiiblueberry Dianella tasmanicablueberry creeper Ampelopis brevipedunculataBodnant viburnum Viburnum X bodnantensebog rosemary Andromeda polifoliabog sage Salvia uliginosabolleana poplar Populus alba Pyramidalisbook-leaf mallee Eucalyptus kruseanaboronia Boronia spp.Bosnian pine Pinus heldreichiiBoston fern Nephrolepis exaltataBoston ivy Parthenocissus tricuspidatabottle brush Callistemon citrinusbottle palm Nolina recurvata (Beaucarnea recurvata)bottle tree Brachychiton populneusbougainvillea Bougainvillea spp.bower vine Pandorea jasminoidesbower wattle Acacia cognata (A.subporosa)Bowles mauve wallflower Erysimum Bowles Mauvebox-leaved holly Ilex crenatabox elder Acer negundobox honeysuckle Lonicera nitidabox leaf azara Azara microphyllaboxthorn Lycium exertumbracelet honey-myrtle Melaleuca armillaris 104
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEbrake fern Pteris spp.bramble Rubus pentalobus (calcynioides)bramble (lineatus) Rubus lineatusBrazilian butterfly tree Bauhinia forficataBrazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthefoliusBrazilian plume flower Justicia carneaBrazilian sky flower Duranta stenostachyabreath of heaven Coleonema pulchrumbridal wreath Deutzia spp.bridal wreath Francoa ramosabridal wreath Francoa sonchifoliaBridget bloom heucherella X Heucherella tiarelloides Bridget Bloombrightness lobelia Lobelia BrightnessBrisbane box Lophostemon confertusbrittle bush Encelia farinosabroad buckler fern Dryopteris dilatatabrodiaea Brodiaea spp.bronze loquat Eryobotrya deflexabroom (Cytisus) Cytisus spp.broom (Genista) Genista spp.Buchanans sage Salvia buchananiibuckwheat Eriogonum spp.bulb oat grass Arrhenatherum elatius ssp bulbosumbulbinella Bulbinella robustabull grass Muhlenbergia emersleyibunchberry Cornus canadensisbunya-bunya Araucaria bidwiliiBurford holly Ilex cornuta BurfordiiBurkwood daphne Daphne X burkwoodiiBurkwood viburnum Viburnum X burkwoodiiBurmese plumbago Ceratostigma griffithiiburning bush Euonymous alatusburning bush/dittany Dictamnus spp.bursera Bursera hindsianabush anemone Carpenteria californicabush germander Teucrium fruticansbush groundsel Senecio flaccidus var. douglasiibush mallow Lavatera maritimabush mallow Malacothamnus fasciculatusbush morning glory Convolvulus cneorumbush poppy Dendromecon spp.bushrue Cneoridium dumosumbushy clematis Clematis integrifoliabushy yate Eucalyptus lehmanniibutchers broom Ruscus spp.buttercup Ranunculus cortusaefoliusbutterfly bush Buddleja davidiibutterfly bush Clerodendrum ugandensebutterfly vine Stigmaphyllon ciliatumbutterfly weed Asclepias tuberosabutton fern Pellaea rotundifoliacadaga Eucalyptus torellianacajeput tree Melaleuca viridiflora var. rubifloraCalabrian pine Pinus brutiacalamint Calamintha spp.calico flower Aristolochia elegans 105
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMECalifornia bay Umbellularia californicaCalifornia black oak Quercus kelloggiiCalifornia black walnut Juglans hindsiiCalifornia blackberry Rubus ursinusCalifornia buckeye Aesculus californicaCalifornia buttercup Ranunculus californicusCalifornia Dutchmans pipe Aristolochia californicaCalifornia encelia Encelia californicaCalifornia fan palm Washingtonia filiferaCalifornia fescue Festuca californicaCalifornia fuchsia Epilobium spp.(Zauchneria)California holly grape Mahonia pinnata & cvs.California juniper Juniperus californicaCalifornia lilac Ceanothus spp.California pepper tree Schinus molleCalifornia poppy Eschscholzia californicaCalifornia privet Ligustrum ovalifoliumCalifornia scrub oak Quercus berberidifoliaCalifornia storax Styrax officinale californicumCalifornia sycamore Platanus racemosaCalifornia wild grape Vitis californicaCalifornia wild rose Rosa californicacalla lily Zantedeschia aethiopiaCallery pear Pyrus calleryana cultivarscallistemon (subulatus) Callistemon subulatuscalyophus (drummondii) Calyophus drummondiicamellia Camellia japonicacamphor tree Cinnamomum camphoraCanadian hemlock Tsuga canadensisCanadian lilac Syringa X hyacinthifloracanary-bird bush Crotalaria agatifloraCanary island daisy Nauplius sericeus (Asteriscus sericeus)Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensisCanary Island pine Pinus canariensisCanary Island rose Aeonium spp.cane bluestem Bothriochloa barbinoidescane reed Arundinaria giganteacanna Canna spp.canyon live oak Quercus chrysolepiscape chestnut Calodendrum capensecape fuchsia Phygelius X rectuscape honeysuckle Tecomaria capensiscape plumbago Plumbago auriculata (campense0cape reed Chondropetalum tectorumCape reed Elegia capensiscape tulip Homeria spp.cape weed Arctotheca calendulacape weed Phyla nodiflora (Lippia nodiflora)caper bush Capparis spinosacarob Ceratonia siliquaCarolina allspice Calycanthus floridusCarolina jessamine Gelsemium sempervirensCarolina laurel cherry Prunus carolinianaCarolina poplar Populus X canadensiscarpet bugle Ajuga reptansCarribean copper plant Euphorbia cotinifolia 106
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEcarrotwood Cupaniopsis anacardioidescascalote Caesalpinea cacalacocashmere bouquet Clerodendrum bungeicast iron plant Aspidistra elatiorcat thyme Teucrium marumCatalina cherry Prunus lyoniiCatalina ironwood Lyonothamnus floribunduscatclaw acacia Acacia greggiicatmint/catnip Nepeta spp.cats claw Macfadyena unguis-caticautleya Cautleya spicataCayuga,Chesapeake, Eskimo Viburnum Viburnum carlesii cvs.ceanothus Ceanothus cultivarsCecile Brunner rose Rosa Cecile Brunnercedar of Lebanon Cedrus libanicedar sage Salvia roemerianacentaurea (rupestris) Centaurea rupestriscentral Australian fan palm Livistona mariaechalk buckwheat Eriophyllum lanatumchamaedorea Chamaedorea spp.chameleon houttuynia Houttuynia cordata Chameleonchamise Adenostoma fasciculatumchamomile Chamaemelum nobilechaparral currant Ribes malvaceumchaparral honeysuckle Lonicera subspicatachasmanthe Chasmanthe aethiopicachaste tree Vitex agnus-castuscheese bush Hymenoclea monogyrachenile honey-myrtle Melaleuca huegeliicherimoya Annona cherimolacherry Prunus spp. (edible)cherry/Graham sage Salvia microphyllaChiapas sage Salvia chiapensisChilean guava Ugni molinaeChilean jasmine Mandevilla laxaChilean mesquite Prosopis glandulosaChilean potato tree Solanum crispumChilean wine palm Jubaea chilensischinaberry Melia azedarachchincherinchee Ornithogalum thyrsoidesChinese abelia Abelia chinensisChinese dogwood Cornus kousa chinensisChinese evergreen elm Ulmus parvifoliaChinese evergreen wisteria Milletia taiwanensisChinese fan palm Livistona chinensisChinese flame tree Koelreuteria bipinnataChinese flame tree Koelreuteria elegansChinese fountain grass Pennisetum orientaleChinese foxglove Rehmannia elataChinese fringe tree Chionanthus retususChinese hackberry Celtis sinensisChinese hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensisChinese holly grape Mahonia lomariifoliaChinese indigo Indigofer decora (incarnata)Chinese jujube Ziziphus jujubaChinese lilac Syringa X chinensis 107
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEchinese mahonia Mahonia fortuneiChinese maple Acer truncatumChinese photinia Photinia serratifolia (P. serrulata)Chinese pieris Pieris formosa var.forestiiChinese pistache Pistacia chinensisChinese plumbago Ceratostigma willmottianumChinese redbud Cercis chinensisChinese strawberrry tree Myrica rubraChinese tallow tree Sapium sebiferumChinese toon Toona sinensis (Cedrela sinensis)chinquapin oak Quercus muhlenbergiichir pine Pinus roxburghiichitalpa X Chitalpa tashkentensischocolate cosmos Cosmos atrosanguineuschocolate scented daisy Berlandiera lyrataChristmas pride Ruellia macranthaChristmas/Lenten rose Helleborus spp.chuparosa Justicia californicacider gum Eucalyptus gunniicigar plant Cuphea igneacinnamon fern Osmunda cinnamomeacinquefoil Potentilla fruticosa cvs.Clanwilliam daisy Euryops speciosissimusClark lily turf Ophiopogon clarkiiclay wattle Acacia glaucopteraCleveland/Alan Chickering etc. Salvia clevelandii & hybridscliff date palm Phoenix rupicolacliff rose Cowania mexicanaclimbing hydrangea Hydrangea anomala petiolarisclimbing roses Rosa hybrids..climbingclimbing snapdragon Asarina barclaiana (Maurandya)cluster pine Pinus pinasterclustered fishtail palm Caryota mitisCoahuila sage Salvia coahuilensisCoahuilan hesperaloe Hesperaloe funiferacoast beefwood Allocasuarina verticillata (Casuarina stricta)coast live oak Quercus agrifoliacoast redwood Sequoia sempervirenscoast rosemary Westringia fruiticosa (rosmariniformis)coast silktassel Garrya elipticacoastal bush lupine Lupinus arboreuscoastal statice Limonium commune var. californicumcockspur coral tree Erythrina crista-gallicoffeeberry Rhamnus californicusColorado spruce Picea pungenscolumbia lewisia Lewisia columbiana rupicolacolumbine Aquilegia spp.combretum Combretum fruticosumcommon bluebeard Caryopteris incanacommon guava Psidium guajavacommon hackberry Celtis occidentaliscommon heliotrope Heliotropum arborescenscommon jasmine Jasminum officinale f. grandiflorumcommon witch hazel Hamamelis virginianacommon yarrow Achillea millefolium & hybridscone flower Echinacea spp. 108
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEconeflower Rudbeckia spp.confederate rose Hibiscus mutabiliscoolibah Eucalyptus microthecacopper false chestnut Castanopsis cuspidatacoral bells Heuchera sanguineacoral gum Eucalyptus torquatacoral plant Berberidopsis corallinacoral poker Kniphofia triangularis (galpinii)coral tree Erythryna X bidwilliicoral tree (falcata) Erythrina falcatacoral vine Antigonon leptopuscoralberry Symphoricarpus orbiculatuscoreopsis Coreopsis lanceolatacork oak Quercus subercorokia Corokia X virgataCosta Rica blue sage Salvia Costa Rica BlueCosta Rican nightshade Solanum wendlandiicotoneaster Cotoneaster spp. (shrubs)cotoneaster Cotoneaster spp.(ground covers)cottonless cottonwood Populus Red Caudinacotyledon Cotyledon spp.Coulter pine Pinus coultericowslip Lachenalia spp.coyote brush Baccharis pilularis consanguineacoyote mint Monardella villosacrabapple Malus hybridscranesbill Geranium spp.cranessbill (chrysanthum) Erodium chrysanthumcrape myrtle Lagerstroemia indicacrassula Crassula spp.creeping babys breath Gypsophila repenscreeping buttercup Ranunculus repenscreeping coprosma Coprosma X kirkiicreeping fig Ficus pumilacreeping forget-me-not Omphalodes vernacreeping globe daisy Globularia cordifoliacreeping gloxinia Asarina erubescens (Maurandya)creeping mahonia Mahonia repenscreeping red fescue Festuca rubracreeping snowberry Symphoricarpus molliscreeping wintergreen Gaultheria procumbenscreeping wire vine Muehlenbeckia axillariscreeping/Sonoma sage Salvia sonomensiscreosote Larrea tridentatacrepe fern Todea barbaracrinum lily, spider lily Crinum spp.cross vine Bignonia capreolatacrown of thorns Euphorbia miliicruel vine Araujia sericiferaCuayamaca cypress Cupressus arizonica ssp. arizonicacup and saucer vine Cobaea scandenscup flower Nierembergia hippomanicacup of gold vine Solandra maximacuphea (micropetala) Cuphea micropetelacupids dart Catananche caeruleacushion bush Calocephalus brownii 109
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEcushion spurge Euphorbia polychroma (epithymoides)cut-leaf banksia Banksia praemorsacut leaf Guinea flower Hibbertia cuniformiscyclamen Cyclamen hederifoliumcypress spurge Euphorbia cyparissiasdaffodil Narcissus spp.dahlia Dahlia spp.daisy tree Montanoa grandifloradalea (bicolor) Dalea bicolordalea (capitata) Dalea capitatadalea (dorychnioides) Dalea dorychnioidesdalea (lutea) Dalea luteadalea (versicolor) Dalea versicolordampiera Dampiera diversifoliadampiera Dampiera trigonadaphne (caucasia) Daphne caucasicaDarcy sage Salvia darcyidate palm Phoenix dactyliferaDavid viburnum Viburnum davidiidawn redwood Metasequoia glyptostroboidesday lily Hemerocallis spp.deciduous clematis Clematis hybrids and cvsdeer fern Blechnum spicantdeer grass Muhlenbergia rigensdeer weed Lotus scopariusdelphinium Delphinium spp.dendriopoterium Dendriopoterium menendeziideodar cedar Cedrus deodoradesert bird of paradise Caesalpinea gilliesiidesert broom Baccharis sarothroidesdesert bunch grass Stipa stipa spinosadesert cassia Cassia eremophila (C.nemophila)desert grape Vitis girdianadesert honeysuckle Anisacanthus spp.desert ironwood Olneya tesotadesert lavender Hyptis emoryidesert marigold Baileya multiradiatadesert olive Forestiera neomexicanadesert spoon Dasylirion spp.desert sweet acacia Acacia smalliidesert willow Chilopsis linearisdesert/globe mallow Sphaeralcea spp.dichondra Dichondra micranthadittany/oregano etc. Origanum spp.dobo lily Cyrtanthus brachyscyphusdombeya Dombeya spp.double mock orange Philadelphus X virginalisdoublefile viburnum Viburnum plicatum tomentosumDouglas iris hybrids Iris spp.dragon tree Dracaena dracodrooping laurel Leucothoe fontanesianadrumsticks Craspedia globosadudleya, live forever Dudleya spp.dusky coral pea Kennedia rubicundadusty miller Senecio cinerariadusty miller (cineraria) Centaurea cineraria 110
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEDutchmans pipe Aristolochia duriordwarf arrow bamboo Pseudosasa japonica tsutsumianadwarf bamboo Pleioblastus spp.dwarf coreopsis Coreopsis auriculataNanadwarf coyote brush Baccharis pilularis cvs.dwarf fothergilla Fothergilla gardeniidwarf jasmine Jasminum parkeridwarf pittosporum Pittosporum tobira Wheelers Dwarfdwarf plumbago Ceratostigma plumbaginoidesdwarf poinciana Caesalpinea pulcherrimadwarf pomegranate Punica granatum Nanadwarf powderpuff Calliandra emarginatadwarf ruellia Ruellia X brittonianadwarf snapdragon Chaenorhinium glareosumdwarf umbrella plant Cyperus albostriatusdyckia Dyckia spp.dymondia Dymondia margaretaeEaster egg bush Eremophila racemosaEaster lily vine Beaumontia grandifloraeastern black walnut Juglans nigraeastern dogwood Cornus floridaeastern redbud Cercis canadensiseastern white pine Pinus strobusEbbinges silverberry Eleagnus X ebbengeiEddies white wonder dogwood Cornus Eddies White Wonderedible fig Ficus caricaedible pear Pyrus communiseidelweiss Leontopodium alpiniumeight-day-healing bush Lobostemon fruiticosuseldarica pine Pinus brutia ssp. eldaricaelderberry Sambucus spp.elephant tree Pachycormis discolorelephants ear Alocasia spp.elephants food Portulacaria afraempress tree Paulownia tomentosaemu bush Eremophila glabraEnglish boxwood Buxus sempervirensEnglish daisy Bellis perenisEnglish holly Ilex aquifoliumEnglish ivy Hedera helixEnglish laurel Prunus lauroceracusEnglish oak Quercus roburEnglish walnut Juglans regiaEnglish yew Taxus baccataepidendrum Epidendrum reed stem hybridsescallonia Escallonia spp.escarpment live oak Quercus fusiformiseucryphia Eucryphia x intermediaeulalia grass Miscanthus sinensiseumong/shoestring acacia Acacia stenophylaeuonymus Euonymus kiautschovicuseuphorbia Euphorbia characiaseuphorbia Euphorbia myrsiniteseuphorbia Euphorbia rigidaeuphorbia Euphorbia segueriana nicicianaeuphorbia (dulsis) Euphorbia dulsis 111
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEEuropean beech Fagus sylvaticaEuropean chain fern Woodwardia radicansEuropean cranberry bush Viburnum opulusEuropean grape Vitis viniferaEuropean hackberry Celtis australisEuropean hornbeam Carpinus betulus FastigiataEuropean larch Larix deciduaEuropean mountain ash Sorbus aucupariaEuropean white birch Betula pendulaeuryops/shrub daisy Euryops pectinatusevening primrose (pallida) Oenothera pallidaevening primrose (rosea) Oenothera roseaevergreen ash Fraxinus uhdeievergreen candy tuft Iberis sempervirensevergreen clematis Clematis armandiievergreen currant Ribes viburnifoliumevergreen dogwood Cornus capitataevergreen eulalia Miscanthus transmorrisonensisevergreen euonymus Euonymus japonicusevergreen grape Rhoicissus capensisevergreen huckleberry Vaccinium ovatumevergreen hydrangea Dichroa febrifugaevergreen maple (oblongum) Acer oblongumevergreen maple (paxii) Acer paxiievergreen mock orange Philadelphus mexicanusevergreen pear Pyrus kawakamiievergreen pittosporum Pittosporum crassifoliumevergreen sumac Rhus choriophyllaevergreen sumac Rhus virensevergreen wisteria Milletia reticulataevolvulus Evolvulus pilosus (nuttallianus)eyelash-leafed sage Salvia blepharophyllafairy duster Calliandra eriophyllafairy wand Dierama spp.false cypress Chamaecyparis spp.false heather Cuphea hyssophylafalse indigo Baptista australisfalse indigobush Amorpha fruiticosafalse mallow Anisodontea scabrosafalse mallow Sidalcea spp.false spirea Astilbe hybridsfan flower Scaevola Mauve Clustersfarfugium/ligularia Farfugium japonicum (Ligularia)fascicularia Fascicularia pitcairnifoliafeather bush Lysiloma microphylla var. thornberifeather grass Stipa pulchrafeather reed Calamagrostis spp.feathery cassia/senna Senna artemesioides (Cassia artemesioides)felt fern Pyrrosia spp.fern leaf yarrow Achillea filipendulinafescue (cinerea) Festuca cinereafescue (tenuifolia) Festuca tenuifoliafeverfew Tanacetum parthenium (Chrysanthemum parthenium)filbert Corylus maximafir Abies spp.fire lily Cyrtanthus purpureus 112
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEFirescape sage Salvia Firescapefirespike Odontonema strictumfirethorn Pyracantha spp.firewheel tree Stenocarpus sinuatusfishtail wine palm Caryota urensfiveleaf akebia Akebia quinataflame flower Talinium calcyniumflame pea Chorizema cordataflame tree Brachychiton acerifoliusflame vine Pyrostegia venustaflannel bush Fremontodendron spp.flax Phormium hybridsflax Linum spp.flax leaf paper bark Melaleuca linariifoliafleabane Erigeron formosissimusfleabane Erigeron karvinskianusflooded gum Eucalyptus rudisflooded/rose gum Eucalyptus grandisFlorida arrowroot Zamia pumilaFlorida fig Ficus floridaflorists cyclamen Cyclamen persicum hybridsfloss silk tree Chorisia speciosaflower-of-an-hour Hibiscus trionumflowering cherry Prunus spp. (ornamental)flowering maple Abutilon X hybridumflowering peachflowering plumflowering quince Chaenomeles cvs.flowering woodbine Lonicera periclymenumfoothill needlegrass Nassella lepidafoothill stipa Stipa lepidafoothill/Gray pine Pinus sabinianaforest bell bush Mackaya bellaforest Boer bloom Schotia latifoliaforest lily Velthemia bracteataforest oak Allocasuarina torulosaforget-me-not Myosotis scorpioidesFormans mallee Eucalyptus formaniiforsythia Forsythia X intermediaforsythia sage Salvia madrensisfortnight lily Dietes bicolorfortnight lily Dietes iridioidesfountain butterfly bush Buddleja alternifoliafountain grass Pennisetum setaceumfour oclock Mirabilis jalapafoxberry Vaccinium vitis-idaeafoxglove Digitalis X mertonensisfragrant Himalayan champaca Michelia champacafragrant sarcococca Sarcococca ruscifoliafragrant sumac Rhus aromaticafrangipani Plumeria rubrafranklin tree Franklinia alatamaha (Gordonia)Fraser photinia Photinia X fraseriFreeman maple Acer X freemaniiFremont silktassel Garrya fremontiiFremonts bush mallow Malacothamnus fremontii 113
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEfringe cups Tellima grandiflorafringe flower Loropetalum chinensefuchsia Fuchsia spp.fuchsia begonia Begonia fuchoides roseafuchsia flowering gooseberry Ribes speciosumfurcraea Furcraea spp.Galpins leucadendron Leucadendron galpiniigamolepis Gamolepis chrysanthemumoidesgarden geranium Pelargonium X hortorumgarden monkshood Aconitum napellusgarden verbena Verbena hybridsgarden/kitchen sage Salvia officinalisgardenia Gardenia spp.garland lily Calostemma purpureumgaura Gaura lindheimerigay feather Liatris spicatagazania Gazania spp.gentian Gentiana scabra procumbensgentian sage Salvia patensGeraldton wax flower Chamelaucium uncinatumgeranium (sidoides) Pelargonium sidoidesgermander Teucrium chamaedrysgermander (crispum) Teucrium scorodonia Crispumgermander (hyrcanicum) Teucrium hyrcanicumgiant bird of paradise Strelitzia nicolaigiant Burmese honeysuckle Lonicera hildebrandianagiant chain fern Woodwardia fimbriatagiant coreopsis Coreopsis giganteagiant four oclock Mirabilis multifloragiant hyssop Agastache auranticagiant lily turf Ophiopogon jaburangiant needle grass Stipa giganteagiant reed Arundo donaxgiant sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteumgiant thevetia Thevetia thevetioidesGibraltar candytuft Iberis gibraltaricagladiolus Gladiolus spp.gladiolus Gladiolus hybrids & selectionsglobe daisy Globularia X indubiaglobe thistle Echinops exaltusglobeflower Trollius spp.glory bower Clerodendrum phillippinumglory bush Tibuchina heteromallaglossy abelia Abelia X grandifloraglossy privet Ligustrum lucidumgold coin Odontospermum hybridagold coin, Canary Island daisy Asteriscus maritimusgold flower Hypericum X moseranumgold medallion tree Cassia leptophyllagolden-eyed grass Sisyrinchium californicumgolden abundance mahonia Mahonia Golden Abundancegolden chain tree Laburnum X watererigolden currant Ribes aureumgolden fleece Dyssodia pentachaetagolden foxtail Alopecurus pratensis Aureusgolden larch Pseudolarix kaempheri 114
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEgolden privet Ligustrum X vicaryigolden rain tree Koelreuteria paniculatagolden scabweed Raoulia australisgolden sundrops Oenothera fruiticosagolden sunflower Heliopsis helianthoides scabragolden trumpet tree Tabebuia chrysotrichagolden trumpet vine Allamanda catharticagolden wonder Senna splendida (Cassia splendida)golden wood millet Milium effusumgolden yarrow Eriophyllum confertiflorumgoldenbush Isocoma spp. (Haplopappus)goldeneye Viguiera deltoideaGoldmans senna/cassia Senna polyantha (Cassia goldmanii)Goodding verbena Verbena gooddingiigordonia Gordonia axillarisGowen cypress Cupressus govenianagranite honey-myrtle Melaleuca ellipticagrape hyacinth Muscari macrocarpumgrape ivy Cissus rhombifoliagrape soda lupine Lupinus excubitusgrapefruit-scented sage Salvia dorisianagraptopetalum Graptopetalum spp.grass tree Xanthorrhoea spp.grassy bells Edraianthus graminifoliusgraythorn Ziziphus obtusifoliagreat blue lobelia Lobelia siphiliticagreater masterwort Astrantia major roseagreater woodrush Luzula sylvaticaGrecian horehound Ballota pseudodictamnusGreek yarrow Achillea ageratifoliagreen ash Fraxinus pennsylvanicaMarshalgreen carpet Herniaria glabragreen euryops Euryops pectinatus viridisgreen gem ficus Ficus microcarpa Green Gemgreen kangaroo paw Anigozanthos viridisgreen wattle Acacia decurrensgrevillea Grevillea spp.grey honey-myrtle Melaleuca incanaGriffith ash Fraxinus griffithiground ivy Glechoma hederaceaeground morning glory Convolvulus sabatiusgroundsel Brachyglottis greyi (Senecio greyi)Guadalupe island rock daisy Perityle incanaGuadalupe palm Brahea edulisguajillo Acacia berlandieriGuatemalan blue sage Salvia cacaliaefoliaGuatemalan holly Olmediella betschlerianaGuinea gold vine Hibbertia scandensgum myrtle Angophora cordifolia (Angophora costata)gum plant Grindelia camporumgunnera Gunnera magellanicahabranthus Habranthus tubispathushairy awn muhly Muhlenbergia capillarishairy canary clover Dorycnium hirsutumhairy golden aster Heterotheca villosa (chrysopsis villosa)hairy lip fern Cheilanthes lanosa 115
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEhairy wattle Acacia vestitahakone grass Hakonechloa macraHalls honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Hallianahalmiocistus X Halimiocistus sahuccihalmiocistus X Halmiocistus wintonensishammock fern Blechnum occidentaleHardijizers beauty Azaliadendron Hardjizers Beautyhardy alyssum/basket of gold Aurinia saxatilishardy begonia Begonia grandishardy eucryphia Eucryphia glutinosahardy/straw foxglove Digitalis luteaharlequin glory bower Clerodendrum trichotomunHarry Lauders walking stick Corylus avelleana contortaHarts tongue fern Asplenium scolopendrium (Phyllitis)Hawaiian elf schefflera Schefflera arboricolaHawaiian snow bush Breynia nivosa (distacha)Hawaiian tree fern Cibotium glaucumhaworthia Haworthia spp.hawthorn Crataegus spp.heart-leaved penstemmon Keckiella cordifoliaheartleaf bergenia Bergenia cordifoliaheartleaf geranium Pelargonium cordifoliumheath Erica spp.heath-leafed banksia Banksia ericifoliaheath melaleuca Melaleuca ericifoliaheavenly bamboo Nandina domesticaheavenly bamboo (Nana) Nandina domestica Purpureaheavenly blue Lithodora diffusahebe Hebe spp.hedge maple Acer campestrehelianthemum Helianthemum nummulariumHenry St. Johns wort Hypericum beaniihens and chickens Echeveria spp.herons-bill Erodium corsicumhesperantha Hesperantha spp.hibbertia (aspera) Hibbertia asperahibbertia (pedunculata) Hibbertia pedunculatahibbertia (vestita) Hibbertia vestitaHimalayan blueberry Vaccinium moupinenseHimalayan ivy Hedera nepalensishippolytia Hippolytia herderi (Tanacetum herderi)hoary pea Tephrosia grandiflorahoary vervian Verbena strictaholly fern Cyrtomium falcatumholly leaf cherry Prunus ilicifoliaholly oak Quercus ilexholly sweetspire Itea ilicifoliahollyleaf redberry Rhamnus croceus ilicifoliahoney bush Melianthus majorhoney locust Gleditsia triacanthosHoney mesquite Prosopis glandulosa glandulosahoneysuckle (confusa) Lonicera confusahoneysuckle (hispidula) Lonicera hispidulaHong Kong orchid tree Bauhinia X blakeanahopseed bush Dodonaea viscosahopseed bush (procumbens) Dodonaea procumbens 116
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEhorned violet Viola cornutahorsetail Equisetum spp.houpara Pseudopanax lessoniihouse leek Sempervivum spp.hummingbird/pitcher sage Salvia spathaceahyacinth bean Labab purpureus (Dolichos labab)hyacinth orchid Bletilla striatahybrid brachychiton Brachychiton X hybridushybrid leucadendron Leucadendron hybridshybrid magnolias Magnolia hybridshydrangea Hydrangea macrophyllahypericum ( e. nanum) Hypericum empetrifolium nanumhypericum ( frondosum) Hypericum frondosumice plant (Aptenia) Aptenia cordifoliaice plant (Carpobrotus) Carpobrotus spp.ice plant (Cephalophyllum) Cephalophyllum spp.ice plant (Delosperma) Delosperma spp.ice plant (Drosanthemum) Drosanthemum spp.ice plant (Lampranthus) Lampranthus spp.ice plant (Maleophora) Maleophora spp.ice plant (Red Apple) Aptenia Red AppleIdaho fescue Festuca idahoensisimpatiens (uguensis) Impatiens uguensisincense cedar Calocedrus decurrensIndian hawthorne Rhaphiolepis indicaIndian laurel fig/ laurel fig Ficus microcarpaindian mallow Abutilon palmeriIndian mock strawberry Duchesnea indicaindigo/pea bush Dalea pulchrainside-out flower Vancouveria spp.interior live oak Quercus wislizeniinula Inula ensifoliainyouchikuzoku Hibanobambusa tranquillansIrish heath Daboecia cantabricaIrish moss Sagina subulataIrish yew Taxus baccata FastigiataIrish, Scotch moss Arenaria spp. (See Sagina)island alum root Heuchera maximaisland bush snapdragon Galvesia speciosaisland oak Quercus tomentellaisoplexis Isoplexis chalcanthaItalian alder Alnus cordataItalian Arum Arum italicumItalian buckthorn Rhamnus alaternusItalian cypress Cupressus sempervirensItalian jasmine Jasminum humileItalian stone pine Pinus pineaIthuriels spear Tritelia laxaivy geranium Pelargonium peltatumjacaranda Jacaranda mimosifoliaJack Fogg michelia Michelia X foggi Jack FoggJacobs ladder Polemonium spp.Jacobs rod/kings spear Asphodeline luteaJapanese anemone Anemone X hybridaJapanese aralia Fatsia japonicaJapanese ardesia, marlberry Ardisia japonica 117
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEJapanese aucuba Aucuba japonicaJapanese black pine Pinus thumbergiiJapanese blood grass Imperata cylindrica RubraJapanese blueberry tree Elaeocarpus decipiensJapanese boxwood Buxus microphylla japonicaJapanese cryptomeria Cryptomeria japonicaJapanese dogwood Cornus kousaJapanese false oak Lithocarpus edulis (Pasania edulis)Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonicaJapanese iris Iris spp.Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonicaJapanese lace fern Polystichum polyblepharumJapanese maple Acer palmatumJapanese mountain birch Betula platyphyla japonicaJapanese pagoda tree Sophora japonicaJapanese persimmon Diospyros kakiJapanese privet Ligustrum japonicumJapanese red pine Pinus densifloraJapanese rose Kerria japonicaJapanese rose Rosa rugosaJapanese skimmia Skimmia japonicaJapanese snowbell Styrax japonicumJapanese spurge Pachysandra terminalisJapanese stewartia Stewartia pseudocamelliaJapanese ternstroemia Ternstroemia gymnantheraJapanese umbrella pine Sciadopitys verticillataJapanese viburnum Viburnum japonicumJapanese white pine Pinus parvifloraJapanese yew Taxus cuspidatajasmine (beesianum) Jasminum beesianumjasmine (leratii) Jasminum leratiijasmine (tortulosum Jasminum tortuosumJavan grape Tetrastigma voinieranumJeffrey pine Pinus jeffreyiJelecote pine Pinus patulaJerusalem sage Phlomis fruticosajojoba Simmondsia chinensisjubilee wallflower Erysimum JubileeJudas tree Cercis siliquastrumjungle geranium Ixora cocciniajuniper Juniperus spp.justicia (leonardii) Justicia leonardiiKaffir bloom coral tree Erythrina caffraKaffir lily Clivia miniataKaffir lily Schizostylis cocciniaKaffir plum Harpephyllum caffrumKahili ginger Hedychium garnerianumkalanchoe Kalanchoe spp.kangaroo apple Solanum aviculaarekangaroo paw Anigozanthos flaviduskangaroo treebine Cissus antarcticakapuka Griselinia littoralisKarwinskis sage Salvia karwinskiiKatsura tree Cercidiphyllum japonicumKeller hypericum Hypericum kellerikellerii achillea Achillea X kellerii 118
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEKenilworth ivy Cymbalaria muralisKentia palm Howea forsteranaKew broom Cytisus X kewensisking palm Archontophoenix cunninghamianakiwi Actinidia deliciosakiwi/Tara Actinidia argutakleinia Senecio mandraliscaeknife acacia Acacia cultriformisknobcone-Monterey pine Pinus X attenuradiataknobcone pine Pinus attenuataKorean lilac Syringa patulaKorean spice viburnum Viburnum carlesiikunzea Kunzea spp.Labrador violet Viola labradoricalace fern Microlepia strigosalacecap hydrangea Hydrangea aspera villosaLady Banks rose Rosa banksiaelady fern Athyrium filix-feminalady palm Rhapis excelsaladybells Adenophora bulleyanalambertia Lambertia intermislambs ears Stachys byzantinalantana Lantana camaralantern tree Crinodendron hookerianumlaurel leaf cocculus Cocculus laurifoliuslaurel sumac Malosma laurina (Rhus laurina)laurustinus Viburnum tinuslavatera Lavatera hybridslavender Lavandula spp.lavender beautyberry Callicarpa dichotomalavender cotton Santolina spp.lavender mist Thalictrum rochenbrunianumlavender shower Thalictrum delavayilavender star flower Grewia occidentalisleather leaf fern Rumohra adiantiformisleatherleaf acacia Acacia craspedocarpaleatherleaf mahonia Mahonia bealeileatherleaf viburnum Viburnum rhytidophyllumleatherwood Eucryphia lucida (billardieri)Lehua of Hawaii Metrosideros collinialemon balm Melissa officinalislemon flowered gum Eucalyptus woodwardiilemon scented gum Eucalyptus citriodoralemon scented jasmine Jasminum azoricumlemon scented tea tree Leptospermum petersoniilemon verbena Aloysia triphyllalemonade berry Rhus integrifolialeopards bane Doronicum orientale (D. caucasium)lewisia Lewisia hybridsLeyland cypress X Cupressocyparis leylandiilibertia Libertia spp.licorice plant Helichrysum petiolarelilac Syringa vulgarislilac verbena Verbena lilacinalilac vine Hardenbergia violacealily Lilium (garden hybrids) 119
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMElily-of-the-Nile Agapanthus africanuslily-of-the-valley shrub Pieris japonica (taiwanensis)lily-of-the-valley tree Crinodendron patagualilyleaf ladybells Adenophora liliifolialilyturf Liriope spp.limber pine Pinus flexilisLindheimer muhly Muhlenbergia lindheimeriLindheims senna/cassia Senna lindheimeriana (Cassia lindheimeriana)lions tail Leonotis leonuruslittle cabbage tree Cussonia paniculatalittle leaf cordia Cordia parvifolialittle leaf linden Tilia cordatalittle leaf myrtle Tristaniopsis laurinalittle leaf palo verde Cercidium microphyllumlittle Tyler/blue stars Aristea eckloniilittleaf sumac Rhus microphyllalivistona (rigida) Livistona rigidalob lolly bay Gordonia lasianthuslobelia (chinensis) Lobelia chinensislobelia (ricardii) Lobelia ricardiilocust Robinia X ambigualoebner magnolia Magnolia X loebneriLombardy poplar Populus nigra ItalicaLondon plane Platanus X acerifolia and cvs.long flowered marlock Eucalyptus macrandalong leaf yellow wood Podocarpus henkeliilongleaf mahonia Mahonia nervosaloosestrife/moneywort Lysimachia spp.loquat Eryobotrya japonicalow bull rush Isolepis cernua (Scirpus cernuus)luculia Luculia pinceanaLudgvan cross agapetes Agapetes Ludgvan Crosslungwort Pulmonaria spp.Lydia woadwaxen Genista lydiamacadamia nut Macadamia spp.Madagascar jasmine Stephanotis floribundaMadagascar palm Pachypodium lamereiMadagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseusmadrone Arbutus menziesiimagic flower Cantua buxifoliamaiden hair tree Ginkgo bilobamaidenhair fern Adiantum spp.majestic beauty Rhaphiolepis Majestic BeautyMajorcan germander Teucrium cossoniimale fern Dryopteris felix-masmallow rose Hibiscus moscheutosMaltese cross Lychnis chalcedonicamandevilla Mandevilla splendensmanfreda Manfreda spp.mangle dulce Maytenus phyllanthoidesmaniko Salvia koyamaemanna gum Eucalyptus viminalismanzanita Arctostaphylos spp.manzanita cultivars Arctostaphylos cultivarsmaraschino sage Salvia Maraschinomarbled bamboo Chimonobambusa marmorea (Arundinarea) 120
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEMarguerite daisy Argyranthemum frutescensMarina arbutus Arbutus Marinamarkhamia Markhamia lutea (hildebrandtii)marmalade bush Streptosolen jamesoniiMartha Washington pelargonium Pelargonium domesticumMascarene grass Zoyzia tenuifoliamastic tree Pistacia lentiscusMatilija poppy Romneya coulterimattress vine Muehlenbeckia complexaMaximilian sunflower Helianthus maximilianiMay lily Maianthemum dilatatummayten tree Maytenus boariamazus Mazus reptansmeadow rue Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpummeadow rue (coreanum) Thalictrum coreanummeadow rue (flavum) Thalictrum flavum spp glaucumMeadowsweet Filipendula vulgarisMediterranean fan palm Chamaerops humilismedow rue Thalictrum polycarpummedow sage Salvia pratensis haematodesmelaleuca (fulgens) Melaleuca fulgensmerremia (aurea) Merremia aureamerremia (quinquefolia) Merremia quinquefoliamesa oak Quercus engelmanniiMexican abelia Abelia floribundaMexican bird of paradise Caesalpinea mexicanaMexican buckeye Ungnadia speciosaMexican bush lobelia Lobelia laxifloraMexican bush sage Salvia leucanthaMexican cardinal flower Lobelia fulgensMexican cardinal sage Salvia fulgensMexican cycad Dioon spp.Mexican fan palm Washingtonia robustaMexican feather grass Stipa tenuissimaMexican flame vine Pseudogynoxys chenopodiodes (Senecio)Mexican hat Ratibida columniferaMexican honeysuckle Justicia spicigeraMexican lily Beschorneria yuccoidesMexican orange Choisya ternataMexican oregano Poliomintha longifloraMexican palo verde/ Jerusalem thorn Parkinsonia aculeataMexican pitcher sage Lepechinia hastataMexican redbud Cercis mexicanaMexican sage Salvia mexicanaMexican tarragon Tagetes lucidaMexican tulip poppy Hunnemannia fumarifoliaMexican weeping bamboo Otatea acuminata (aztecorum)Mexican/white evening primrose Oenothera speciosaMeyers Yew Taxus Meyerimilk bush Euphorbia tirucallimilk/silk weed Asclepias (wild species)mindinao gum Eucalyptus degluptamint Mentha spp.mint bush Prostanthera denticulatamirror plant Coprosma repensmission manzanita Xylococcus bicolor 121
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEmistflower Eupatorium spp.mock orange Pittosporum tobiraModesto ash Fraxinus velutina ModestoMohave poplar Populus MohavensisMohawk viburnum Viburnum Mohawkmondo grass Ophiopogon japonicusmonkey flower Mimulus spp. (shrubby)monkey flower Mimulus spp. (herbaceous)monkey puzzle tree Araucaria araucanamonochaetum Monochaetum volcanicummontbrieta Crocrosmia hybrids (Tritonia)Monterey cypress Cupressus macrocarpaMonterey pine Pinus radiataMontezuma cypress Taxodium mucronatumMontezuma pine Pinus montezumaeMoor grass Molinia caeruleaMoor grass Sesleria spp.moraea Moraea spp. (summer growing)moraine ash Fraxinus Morainemorea Moraea spp.(winter growing)Moreton Bay chestnut Castanospermum australeMoreton Bay fig Ficus macrophyllaMoroccan daisy Pyrethropsis hosmariensemosquito plant Agastache canamoss pink Phlox subulatamoss pink/campion Silene spp.moss verbena Verbena tenuisectamother-in-laws tongue etc. Gasteria spp.mother fern Asplenium bulbiferumMount Atlas daisy Anaclycus pyrethrum var depressusmountain alyssum Alyssum montanummountain ash Sorbus hupehensismountain ironwood Cercocarpus betuloidesmountain marigold Tagetes lemmonimountain pennyroyal Monardella odoratissimamountain sage Salvia reglamountain wood rose Rosa woodsii var. ultramontanaMrs. Beard sage Salvia Mrs. BeardMuellers fescue Festuca muellerimugo pine Pinus mugomulga Acacia aneuramullein Verbascum bombiciferummyoporum Myoporum laetummyoporum Myoporum parvifolium & cvs.Nageia Nageia nagi (Podocarpus nagi)naked coral tree Erythrina americana(E.coralloides)naked lady Amaryllis belladonaNarihira bamboo Semiarundinaria fastuosanarrow leaf rosewood Vauquelinia corymbosa var. heterodonnasturtium Tropaeolum majusNatal coral tree Erythrina humeanaNatal plum Carissa macrocarpa (prost.cvs.)Natal plum Carissa spp.native fleabane Erigeron divergensnavelwort Omphalodes cappadocicanealy cup sage Salvia farinacea 122
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEnectarineneedleleaf acacia Acacia rigensneem Azadirachta indicaNepal holly Ilex integranerine Nerine spp.net bush Calothamnus quadrifidusNevin mahonia Mahonia neviniiNew Zealand cabbage tree Cordyline australisNew Zealand cassia/senna Senna bicapsularis (Cassia candolleana)New Zealand Christmas tree Metrosideros excelsaNew Zealand flax Phormium tenaxNew Zealand laurel Corynocarpus laevigataNew Zealand tea tree Leptospermum scopariumNewell cestrum Cestrum fasciculatum var. NewelliiNichols willow leaf peppermint Eucalyptus nicholiinight jessamine Cestrum nocturnumNikau palm Rhopalostylis sapidanodding feather grass Stipa cernuanodding needlegrass Nassella cernuanodding pincushion Leucospermum cordifoliumNorfolk Island pine Araucaria heterophylaNorfolk palm Rhopalostylis baueriNorway maple Acer platanoidesNorway spruce Picea abiesNutalls scrub oak Quercus dumosaoakleaf hydrangea Hydrangea quercifoliaobedient plant Physostegia virginianaOConners legume(revegetation use) Trifolium fragiferum OConnorOConnors legume(landscape use) Trifolium fragiferum OConnorocotillo Fouquieria splendensOkame-Zaza bamboo Shibatea kumasasaOkinawan holly Ilex dimorphophillaold man cactus Cephalocereus spp.oleander Nerium oleanderolive Olea europaeaolympic hypericum Hypericum olympicumorange cestrum Cestrum auranticumorange clock vine Thunbergia gregoriiorange jessamine Murraya paniculataorange jubilee tecoma Tecoma Orange Jubileeorange sneezeweed Helenium hoopesiiorange, lemon etc. Citrus spp.Oregon alder Alnus oregonaOregon ash Fraxinus latifoliaOregon fleabane Erigeron speciosusOregon grape Mahonia aquifoliumorgan pipe cactus Stenocereus thurberi (Lemaireocereus)oriental arborvitae Platycladus orientalisoriental poppy Papaver orientaleoriental spruce Picea orientalisornamental asparagus Asparagus spp.orono Azara dentataorthrosantus Orthrosanthus chimboracensis centroamericanusorthrosantus Orthrosanthus multiflorusostrich fern Matteuccia struthiopterisoyama magnolia Magnolia sieboldii 123
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEOzark sundrops Oenothera macrocarpaozothamnus Ozothamnus rosemarinifolius(Helichrysum)Pacific wax myrtle Myrica californicapacifica saltbush Myoporum X Pacificumpainted daisy Tanacetum coccinium (Pyrethrum roseum)painted lady fern Athyrium nipponicum Pictumpalm grass Setaria palmifoliapalm lily Cordyline strictapalmetto Sabal spp.palo blanca Lysiloma candidapalo blanco Acacia willardianapalo Colorado Luma apiculatapampas grass Cortaderia sellowana cvs.pampas lily Habranthus robustus (Zephranthes)paper flower Psilostrophe cooperipaper flower Psilostrophe tagetinapaperbark maple Acer griseumParaguay nightshade/blue potato bush M Lycianthus rantonnetiiparrots beak Clianthus puniceusPasque flower Pulsatilla vulgaris (Anemone pulsatilla)passion vine Passiflora spp.pattersonia Pattersonia drummondiipeachpeach (low chill only)pearl acacia Acacia podalyriifoliapearl bluebush Maireana sedifoliapecan Carya illinoensispeegee hydrangea Hydrangea paniculata Grandiflorapennatula acacia Acacia pennatulapenstemon (hybrids) Penstemon hybridspenstemon (wild) Penstemon wild spp.peony Paeonia spp.pepper tree Drimys lanceolatapeppermint-scented geranium Pelargonium tomentosumpeppermint tree Agonis flexuosaperennial cornflower Centaurea montanaperennial lobelia Lobelia richmondensisperiwinkle Vinca majorperiwinkle Vinca minorPersian knapweed Centaurea dealbataPersian lilac Syringa X persicaPersian witch hazel Parrotia persicaPeruvian apple cactus Cereus peruvianusPeruvian lily Alstroemeria spp.Peruvian lily Scilla peruvianaPeruvian old man cactus Espostoa lantanaPeruvian pepper Schinus polygamousPeruvian verbena Verbena peruvianaphanera Bauhinia corymbosaphlomis (caballeroi) Phlomis caballeroiphlomis (cashmeriana) Phlomis cashmerianaphlomis (cretica) Phlomis creticaphlomis (italica) Phlomis italicaphlomis (lanata) Phlomis lanataphlomis (purpurea) Phlomis purpureaphlomis (russeliana) Phlomis russeliana 124
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEphlomis (tuberosa) Phlomis tuberosaphlox Phlox (shrubby cvs.)pichi Fabiana imbricanapigmy date palm Phoenix roebeleniipimpernel Anagallis monelliipin oak Quercus palustrispincushion flower Scabiosa spp.pindo palm Butia capitatapine-leafed bottlebrush Callistemon pinifoliuspineapple guava Acca sellowiana (Feijoa sellowiana)pineapple lily Eucomis bicolor hybridspineapple sage Salvia eleganspinellia Pinellia ternatapink jasmine Jasminum polyanthumpink powder puff Calliandra haematocephalapink tips/white bottlebrush Callistemon salignuspink/carnation Dianthus spp.pink/lavender trumpet tree Tabebuia impetiginosa (ipe)pink/yellow calla lily Zantedeschia spp. & hybridspink-flowering sumac Rhus lentiipink evening primrose Oenothera speciosa Roseapink melaleuca Melaleuca nesophilapink trumpet vine Podranea ricasolianapinyon pine Pinus edulispipestem clematis Clematis lasianthapistachio Pistacia verapithecoctenium Pithecoctenium crucigerumplantain lily Hosta spp.plumplum (low chill only)plume albizia Albizia distachyaplume grass Erianthus ravennaeplume poppy Macleaya spp.plypody Polypodium (native spp.)poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrimapolypody Polypodium (subtropical spp.)pomegranate Punica granatumponderosa pine Pinus ponderosapoor knights lily Xeronema calistemonpoor mans orchid Neomarica caeruleapoor mans rhododendron Impatiens sodeni (oliveri)poppy Papaver pilosumporcupine flower Centratherum punctatumPortugal laurel Prunus lusitanicapotato vine Solanum jasminoidespoverty weed Iva hayesianaPrague viburnum Viburnum X pragenseprairie flameleaf sumac Rhus lanceolataprairie sage Salvia azurea grandifloraprairie zinnia Zinnia grandiflorapratia Pratia angulataprickly-leaved paperback Melaleuca styphelioidesprickly heath Gaultheria mucronata (Pernettya mucronata)prickly pear/cholla Opuntia spp.pride of Madeira Echium candicans (fastuosum)pride of Teneriffe Echium pininana 125
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEprimrose jasmine Jasminum mesnyiprimrose tree Lagunaria patersoniiprincess flower Tibuchina urvilleana (semidecandra)prostrate acacia Acacia redolensprotea Protea spp.prunePt. Reyes wallflower Erysimum suffrutescens (concinnum)puka Griselinia lucidapuka Meryta sinclairiipurple heart setcreasea Setcreasea pallida Purple Heartpurple hopseed bush Dodonaea viscosa Purpureapurple magesty sage Salvia Purple Majestypurple meadow rue Thalictrum aquilegifoliumpurple mullein Verbascum phoeniceumpurple needlegrass Nassella pulchrapurple nightshade Solanum xantiipurple orchid tree Bauhinia variegata (purpurea)purple orchid vine Mascagnia lilacinapurple prairie clover Dalea gattingeri (Petalostemum purpureum)purple rain sage Salvia verticillata Purple Rainpurple sage Salvia dorriipurple sage Salvia leucophyllapurple sage, Texas ranger etc. Leucophyllum spp.purple tower echium Echium Purple Towerpurple wings Dalechampia dioscorifoliapurple winter creeper Euonymus fortuneipurple woodrush Luzula purpureapurple/burgundy fountain grass Pennisetum setaceum cvs,pussy toes Antennaria roseapuya Puya spp.quaking grass Briza mediaqueen palm Syagrus romanzoffianaqueens tears etc. Billbergia spp.queens wreath Petrea volubilisQueensland bottle tree Brachychiton rupestrisQueensland kauri Agathis robustaQueensland lace bark Brachychiton discolorQueensland pittosporum Pittosporum rhombifoliumQueensland umbrella tree Schlefflera actinophylla (Brassaia)rabbit brush Chrysothamnus nauseosus albicaulisrabbits foot fern Phlebodium aureum (Polypodium aureum)Raleigh westringia Westringia raleighirama parda Ruellia californicaravanea Ravanea rivularisraywood ash Fraxinus oxycarpa Raywoodred-barked dogwood Cornus albared-veined enkianthus Enkianthus campanulatusred buckeye Aesculus paviared cap gum Eucalyptus erythrocorysred centered hibiscus Alyogyne hakeifoliared cestrum Cestrum elegansred flowering currant Ribes sanguineumred flowering gum Eucalyptus ficifoliared ginger Hedychium greeneired ginger lily Hedychium cocciniumred gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis 126
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEred horsechestnut Aesculus X carneared hot poker Kniphofia uvariared huckleberry Vaccinium parvifoliumred iron bark Eucalyptus sideroxylonred justicia Justicia candicansred oak Quercus rubrared orchid bush Bauhinia galpiniired osier dogwood Cornus stoloniferared root Wachendorfia thrysiflorared shanks/ribbonwood Adenostoma sparsifoliumred tubeflower Iochroma fuchsioidesred valerian Centranthus ruberred/ yellow yucca Hesperaloe parvifloraredberry Rhamnus croceusredwood violet Viola sempervirensReeves skimmia Skimmia reevesianareineckia Reineckia carnearhagodia Rhagodia deltophyllarhododendron Rhododendron spp.rhodophiala Rhodophiala bifidaribbon bush Hypoestes aristataribbon grass Phalaris spp. (ornamental)rice flower Pimelea ferruginiarice flower Pimelea prostratarice paper plant Tetrapanax papyriferRichmond begonia Begonia Richmondensisrigidula acacia Acacia rigidularing bellflower Symphyandra spp.river she-oak Casuarina cunninghamianariver/red birch Betula nigrarock cress Aubrieta deltoidearock jasmine Androsace lanuginosarock soapwort Saponaria ocymoidesrock verbena Verbena tenera (pulchella)rockcress Arabis spp.rockrose Cistus spp.rogersia (aesculifolia) Rodgersia aesculifoliarogersia (pinnata) Rodgersia pinnatarohdea Rohdea japonicaroscoea Roscoea purpurearose Rosa hybrids..bushrose campion/crown pink Lychnis coronariarose cone flower/drumsticks Isopogon formosusrose grass Rhodohypoxis spp.rose of Sharon Hibiscus syriacusroseleaf sage Salvia involucratarosemary Rosmarinus officinalisround leaf mint bush Prostanthera rotundifoliaRowall hypericum Hypericum RowallaneRoxburgh fig Ficus auriculataroyal bluebell Wahlenbergia gloriosaroyal climber Oxera pulchellaroyal purple autumn sage Salvia muelleriroyal trumpet vine Distictis Riversroyal/flowering fern Osmunda regalisrubber plant Ficus elastica 127
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEruby grass Rhynchelytrum neriglumerush Juncus spp.Russell lupines Lupinus (Russell hybrids)Russian olive Elaeagnus angustifoliaRussian sage Perovskia spp.rusty leaf fig Ficus rubiginosaRyukyu Island palm Arenga engleriS. California black walnut Juglans californicasage (forskaohlei/hians) Salvia forskaohlei (hians)sage (glechomaefolia) Salvia glechomaefoliasage (iodantha) Salvia iodanthasage (jamensis cvs.) Salvia X jamensis cvs.sage (reptans) Salvia reptanssage (superba) Salvia X superba hybrids & cvs.sagebrush Artemisia spp. (shrubby)sago palm Cycas revolutasaguaro Carnegiea giganteasakaki Cleyera japonicasalal Gaultheria shallonSalt River mallet Eucalyptus sargentiisaltbush Atriplex spp.San Clemente Island bush mallow Malacothamnus clementinusSan Diego County viguiera Viguiera laciniataSan Diego mountain mahogany Cercocarpus minutiflorusSan Diego willowy mint Monardella linoides ssp. vimineaSan Jose hesper palm Brahea brandegeeiSan Miguel Mountain sage Salvia munziiSan Miguel savory Satureja chandlerisandanqua viburnum Viburnum suspensumsandwort Arenaria montanaSanta Cruz Island gooseberry Ribes thacherianumsapphire dragon tree Paulownia kawakamiiSaratoga laurel Laurus SaratogaSargent cherry Prunus sargentiisasanqua camellia Camellia sasanquasaucer magnolia Magnolia X soulangianasavory Satureja mexicanasaw leaf zelkova Zelkova serratasaxifrage Saxifraga spp.scarlet monardella Monardella macranthascarlet oak Quercus coccineascarlet red maple Acer rubrumscarlet sage Salvia gesnerifloraScotch elm Ulmus glabraScotch heather Calluna vulgarisScotch moss Sagina subulata AureaScotch pine Pinus sylvestrisscrewbean mesquite Prosopis pubescenssea dahlia Coreopsis maritimasea foam Holodiscus discolorsea holly Eryngium pandanifoliumsea holly Eryngium variifoliumsea oats Chasmanthium latifoliumsea pink Armeria alliaceasea pink Armeria maritimasea squill Urginea maritima 128
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEsea urchin tree Hakea laurinasedge Carex (garden spp.)self heal Prunella spp.semiaquilegia Semiaquilegia ecalcarataSenegal date palm Phoenix reclinatasenna/cassia (odorata) Senna odorata (Cassia odorata)senna/cassia (spectabilis/excelsa) Senna spectabilis (Cassia excelsa)senna/cassia didymobotrya Senna didymobotrya (Cassia didymobotrya)sensitive fern Onoclea sensibilisSerbian bell flower Campanula poscharskyanaSerbian spruce Picea omorikaserissa Serissa foetidaShasta daisy Leucanthemum X superbumshaving brush Pseudobomax ellipticumsheild/wood fern Dryopteris argutashell bush Orthosiphon labiatusshell ginger Alpinia zerumbetSherwood dwarf abelia Abelia Sherwoodiishiny xylosma Xylosma congestumshowy banksia Banksia speciosashowy jasmine Jasminum floridumshrimp plant Justicia brandegeanashrub aster Felicia fruticosashrub pincushion Pterocephalus dumetorumshrubby cassia Cassia wizlizenishrubby dogweed Dyssodia acerosaShumard red oak Quercus shumardiiSiberian bugloss Brunnera macrophyllaSiberian cypress Microbiota decussataSiberian elm Ulmus pumilaSiberian iris Iris spp.Siberian wallflower Erysimum hyeraciifoliumsideoats gramma Bouteloua curtipendulasideritis Sideritis syriacaSierra sundrop Calyophus hartwegiisilk oak Grevillea robustasilk tree Albizia julibrissinsilver buffaloberry Shepherdia argenteasilver button plant Cotula linearilobasilver cassia/senna Senna phyllodenia (Cassia phyllodenia)silver dichondra Dichondra argentasilver dollar gum Eucalyptus polyanthemossilver gimlet Eucalyptus campaspesilver lace vine Polygonum aubertiisilver lupine Lupinus albifronssilver maple Acer saccharinumsilver mountain gum Eucalyptus pulverulentasilver sage Salvia argenteasilver spear Astelia nervosa chathamicasilver tree Leucadendron argenteumsilver vein creeper Parthenocissus henryanasilver wattle Acacia dealbatasilverberry Elaeagnus pungenssilvery yarrow Achillea clavennaeSinaloan blue sage Salvia sinaloensissingle leaf pinyon pine Pinus monophylla 129
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEsissoo Dalbergia sissoosisysrinchium (convolutum) Sisyrinchium convolutumsisysrinchium (striatum) Sisysrinchium striatumsky flower Duranta erecta (D. repens)sky flower Thunbergia grandifloraslipper flower/slipperwort Calceolaria spp.small flowered clematis Clematis paucifloraSmiths brush cherry Syzygium smithiiSmiths tecoma Tecoma X smithiismoke tree Cotinus coggygriasmoke tree Psorothamnus spinosa (Dalea spinosa)smooth Arizona cypress Cupressus arizonica var.glabrasnail vine Vigna caracallasnakeweed Gutierrezia sarothraesnapdragon vine Asarina antirriniflora (Maurandya)snow in summer Cerastium tomentosumsnowball hydrangea Hydrangea arborescenssnowberry Symphoricarpus albussnowdrop bush Styrax officinale redivivussnowdrop windflower Anemone sylvestrisSnowy River wattle Acacia boormaniisnowy woodrush Luzula niveasoapbark tree Quillaja saponariasociety garlic Tulbaghia violaceasoft muhly Muhlenbergia pubescensSolomans seal Polygonatum odoratum (japonicum)Sonoma sage Salvia Daras ChoiceSonora cercidium Cercidium SonoraeSonoran justicia Justicia sonoreaSonoran palo verde Cercidium praecoxsorrel/shamrock Oxalis spp.sour gum/tupelo Nyssa sylvaticasourwood tree Oxydendrum arboreumSouth African jasmine Jasminum angulareSouth African mallow Anisodontea X hypomadarumsouthern live oak Quercus virginianasouthern magnolia Magnolia grandiflorasouthern sword fern Nephrolepis cordifoliasouthwest redbud Cercis reniformisSpanish broom Spartium junceumSpanish fir Abies pinsapoSpanish oak Quercus texanaSpanish shawl Heterocentron elegansSpanish/Dutch iris Iris spp.spathiphyllum Spathiphyllum spp.spear lily Doryanthes palmerispeedwell Veronica repensspicy jatropha Jatropha integerrimaspiderwort Tradescantia X andersonianaspiderwort Tradescantia pallidaspike sage Salvia confertifloraspiny headed mat rush Lomandra longifoliaspiraea Spiraea spp.spotted deadnettle Lamium maculatumspotted emu bush Eremophila maculataspotted gum Eucalyptus maculata 130
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEspring cinquefoil Potentilla neumanniana (tabernaemontani)spring star flower Ipheion uniflorum (Tritelia)square-stemmed bamboo Chimonobambusa quadrangularissquawbush Rhus trilobatasquirrels foot fern Davallia trichomanoidesSt.Johnswort Hypericum Hidecotestaghorn sumac Rhus typhinastalked bulbine Bulbine frutescensstanding cypress Ipomopsis rubrastar jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoidesstar lily Arthropodium cirrhatumstar magnolia Magnolia stellatastatice Goniolimon incanum (Limonium speciosum)statice Limonium pereziistemless carline thistle Carlina acaulisstenomesson Stenomesson variegatumStephan jasmine Jasminum X stephanensestokes aster Stokesia laevisstone crop Sedum spp.straw flower Helichrysum bracteatumstraw flower Plecostachys serpyllifolia (Helichrysum)strawberry Fragaria spp.strawberry guava Psidium littorale var. longipesstrawberry snowball Dombeya cacuminumstrawberry tree Arbutus unedoSturts cassia/senna Senna sturtii (Cassia sturtii)subporosa acacia Acacia subporosasugar bush Rhus ovatasugar gum Eucalyptus cladocalyxsugar maple Acer saccharumsugar scoop Tiarella wherryisummer holly Arctostaphylos diversiloba (Comarostaphylis diversiloba)summer hyacinth Galtonia candicanssummer snow Plumbago scandenssummer snowflake Leucojum aestivumsummersweet Clethra alnifoliasun rose Halimium lasianthumsutera Sutera spp.swamp honey-myrtle Melaleuca squameaswamp jessamine Gelsemium rankiniiswamp mahogany Eucalyptus robustaswamp mallee Eucalyptus spathulataswamp paper bark Melaleuca rhaphiophyllaswamp sunflower Helianthus angustifoliusswamp weed Selliera radicansSwan River daisy Brachycome spp.Swedish ivy Plectranthus spp.sweet acacia Acacia farnesianasweet bay Laurus nobilissweet box Sarcococca confusasweet flag Acorus gramineussweet garlic Tulbaghia fragranssweet gum Liquidambar styracifluasweet hakea Hakea suaveolenssweet olive/osmanthus Osmanthus spp.sweet pea shrub Polygala X dalmaisiana 131
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEsweet sarcococca Sarcococca hookerana humilissweet shade Hymenosporum flavumsweet shade Tetraneuris acaulis (Hymenoxis acaulis)sweet vernal grass Anthoxanthum odoratumsweet viburnum Viburnum odoratissimumsweet violet Viola odoratasweet woodruff Galium odoratumswitch grass Panicum virgatum cvs.switch grass Panicum( native spp.)sword fern Polystichum californicumSydney golden wattle Acacia longifoliaSykes coral tree Erythrina X sykesiitakil fan palm Trachycarpus takiltall aristea Aristea majortall baeckia Baeckea virgatatamarisk Tamarix spp.tanbark oak Lithocarpus densiflorustansy Tanacetum haradjaniitarata Pittosporum eugenioidestarragon/angels hair etc. Artemisia spp. (herbaceous)Tartarian statice Gonilimon tataricum (Limonium tataricum)Tasmanian tree fern Dicksonia antarcticatatarian honeysuckle Lonicera tataricatawhiwhi Pittosporum tenuifoliumtea tree Leptospermum polygalifoliumtea tree Leptospermum rotundifoliumtea tree Leptospermum rupestre (humifusum)tea viburnum Viburnum setigerumtecate cypress Cupressus guadalupensis forbesiitecomanthe Tecomanthe speciosatenaza Pithecellobium pallensTexas ebony Pithecellobium flexicauleTexas firecracker bush Hamelia patensTexas mountain laurel Sophora secundifloraTexas needle grass Nassella tenuissimaTexas olive Cordia boissieriTexas red oak Quercus buckleyiTexas sage Salvia coccineaTexas sycamore Platanus occidentalis Glabratathread leaf false aralia Schefflera elegantissima (Dizygotheca)threadleaf coreopsis Coreopsis verticilata cvs.thrift Armeria caespitosa (A. juniperifolia)thrift Armeria setaceathroatwart Trachelium caeruleumthumbergia (mysorensis) Thunbergia mysorensisthunbergia (battiscombei) Thunbergia battiscombeithyme Thymus spp.thyme honey-myrtle Melaleuca thymifoliati plant Cordyline terminalistickseed Bidens triplinerviatiger grass Thysanolaena maximatipu tree Tipuana tiputoad lily Tricyrtis hirtatoadflax Linaria purpureatoadflax Linaria supinaTollesons juniper Juniperus scopulorumTolleson 132
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEtoog Bischofia javanicatorch cactus Echinopsis spp. (Trichocereus spp.)Torrey pine Pinus torreyanatotara Podocarpus totaratotem poles (lilac melaleuca) Melaleuca decussatatower of jewels Echium wildpretiitoyon Heteromeles arbutifoliatrailing daisy Wedelia trilobatatrailing indigo bush Dalea greggiitrailing lantana Lantana montevidensis (sellowiana)trailing rosemary Rosemarinus ProstratusTransvaal daisy Gerbera jamesoniitree banksia Banksia integrifoliatree dahlia Dahlia imperialistree euphorbia Euphorbia lambiitree ivy X Fatshedera lizeitree mallow Lavatera assurgentifloratree of heaven Ailanthus altissimatree philodendron Philodendron bipinnatifidum (selloum)treebine Cissus trifoliatatriangle palm Neodypsis decaryitriangleleaf bursage Ambrosia deltoideatrident maple Acer buergerianumtrinidad flame bush Calliandra tweediitritonia Tritonia spp.trixis Trixis californicatrue myrtle Myrtus communistrumpet creeper Campsis spp.trumpet honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirenstuberose Polyanthes tuberosatufted (white) evening primrose Oenothera caespitosatufted hairgrass Deschampsia caespitosatulip tree Liriodendron tulipiferatulipwood Harpullia arboreaTurks cap Malvaviscus arboreusturpentine bush Ericameria laricifolia (Haplopappus)Turutu Dianella intermediatwinspur Diascia spp.twisted acacia Acacia schaffneriumbrella bamboo Thamnocalamus spathaceus (Fargesia murieliae)umbrella catalpa Catalpa bungeiumbrella plant/Indian rhubarb Darmera peltataumbrella sedge/papyrus Cyperis spp.valley oak Quercus lobataVancouver gold genista Genista pilosa (Vancouver Gold)veitch magnolia Magnolia X veitchiivelvet centaurea Centaurea gymnocarpavelvet honeysuckle Dicliptera suberectavelvet mesquite Prosopis velutinavelvet slipper Sinningia tubifloraverbena (bonariensis) Verbena bonariensisverde vista coprosma Coprosma petriei Verde vistaveronica Veronica spp.veronica/speedwell Parahebe spp.vervian Verbena rigidaviburnum (rhytidophylloides) Viburnum X rhytidophylloides 133
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEvictorian box Pittosporum undulatumvictorian dogwood Prostanthera lasianthosvillebrunea Villebrunea pedunculatavine maple Acer circinatumvining bluebell Sollya parvifoliaviolet (japonica) Viola japonicaviolet trumpet vine Clytostoma callistigioidesviolet tubeflower Iochroma cyaneaviolet westringia Westringia glabraVirginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefoliawallflower Erysimum cheiri (Cherianthus cheiri)wallflower Erysimum helveticumwallflower Erysimum linifoliumwallflower Erysimum menziesiiwallflower Erysimum pulchellumwandering Jew Tradescantia fluminensiswaratah Telopea speciosissimaWarley rose stone cress Aethionema armenium Warley Rosewater birch Betula fontinalis (occidentalis)water dropwort Oenanthe javanicawatsonia Watsonia spp.Waverly sage Salvia WaverlyWax begonia Begonia semperflorensweeping acacia Acacia pendulaweeping bottle brush Callistemon viminalisweeping Chinese banyan Ficus benjaminaweigelia Weigela floridaWenlock beauty wallflower Erysimum Wenlock Beautywestern Australia coral pea Hardenbergia comptonianawestern catalpa Catalpa speciosawestern cottonwood Populus fremontiiwestern dog violet Viola aduncawestern dogwood Cornus nuttalliiwestern hackberry Celtis reticulatawestern hazelnut Corylus cornuta californicawestern redbud Cercis occidentaliswestern spice bush Calycanthus occidentaliswestern sword fern Polystichum munitumwestern virgins bower Clematis ligusticifoliawestringia (longifolia) Westringia longifoliawhite alder Alnus rhombifoliawhite ash Fraxinus americanawhite barked Himalayan birch Betula utilis var. jaquemontiiwhite breath of heaven Coleonema albumwhite bursage Ambrosia dumosawhite clover Trifolium repenswhite Florida anise-tree Illicium floridanum Albawhite floss silk tree Chorisia insigniswhite flowering currant Ribes indecorumwhite fringe tree Chionanthus virginicuswhite ginger lily Hedychium coronariumwhite ironbark Eucalyptus leucoxylonwhite mulberry Morus albawhite rock rose Helianthemum appeniumwhite sage Salvia apianawhite sapote Casimiroa edulis 134
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEwhite striped dwarf bamboo Sasaella masamuniana albostriatawhite weigela Weigela coraeensiswhitethorn acacia Acacia constrictawhorlflower Morina longifoliawild ginger Asarum caudadumwild hyacinth Dichelostemma capitatumwild mock orange Philadelphus lewisii californicuswild rye Elymus spp. (also see Leymus spp.)wild rye Leymus spp. (also see Elymus spp.)willow Salix spp.willow acacia Acacia salicinawillow pittosporum Pittosporum phillyraeoidesWilson holly Ilex X altaclarensis WilsoniiWilson melaleuca Melaleuca wilsoniiwindmill palm Trachycarpus fortuneiwinter blooming bergenia Bergenia crassifoliawinter creeper Euonymus fortunei radicanswinter daphne Daphne odorawinter hazel Corylopsis spicatawinter jasmine Jasminum nudiflorumwinter sweet pea Swainsonia galegifoliawinterberry Ilex verticillatawinters bark Drimys winteriwintersweet Chimonanthus praecoxwire-netting bush Corokia cotoneasterwishbone bush Mirabilis californiawisteria Wisteria spp.wolfberry Lycium fremontiiwong-lan Michelia doltsopawonga wonga vine Pandorea pandoranawood fern Dryopteris erythrosorawoolly bush Adenanthos drummondiiwoolly bush Adenanthos sericeawoolly butterfly bush Buddleja marrubiifoliawoolly yarrow Achillea tomentosawoolly/mountain blue curls Trichostema lanatumwooly senna Senna multiglandulosa (Cassia tomentosa)wrinkled agastache Agastache rugosaWynyabbie gem westringia Westringia Wynyabbie Gemyaupon Ilex vomitoriaYeddo hawthorne Rhaphiolepis umbellatayellow archangel Lamiastrum galeobdolonyellow bells Tecoma stansyellow ginger Hedychium flavescensyellow mallow Pavonia praemorsayellow oleander Thevetia peruvianayellow orchid vine Mascagnia macropterayellow penstemmon Keckiella antirhinnoidesyellow plume flower Justicia aureayellow trumpet vine Anemopaegma chamberlayniiyellow waxbells Kirengeshoma koreanayellow waxbells Kirengeshoma palmatayellow wood Podocarpus latifoliusyerba buena Satureja douglasiiyerba mansa Anemopsis californicayesterday today and tomorrow Brunfelsia pauciflora 135
  • Common Names IndexCOMMON NAME BOTANICAL NAMEYew (media cvs.) Taxus X media cvs.yew pine Podocarpus macrophyllusYork gum Eucalyptus loxophlebayucca Yucca spp.zaluzinskya Zaluzianskya katherinaezebra rush Schoenoplectus lacustris var.tabernaemontanizephyr flower Zephryranthes spp.zexmenia Zexmenia hispida 136
  • Turfgrasses Grass Type Irrigation Requirements ____________________________________________________________________ annual bluegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ annual ryegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ Bermudagrass warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ colonial bentgrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ creeping bentgrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ hard fescue cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ highland bentgrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ Kentucky bluegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ kikuyugrass warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ meadow fescue cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ perennial ryegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ red fescue cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ rough-stalked bluegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ seashore paspalum warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ St. Augustinegrass warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ tall fescue cool season 80% of ETo _________________________________________________________________ zoysiagrass warm season 60% of ETo From: University of California ANR publication 24191, Turfgrass Evapotranspiration Map, Central Coast of California. 137
  • Appendix A— erage ETo for August in Sacramento is 7.75 inches. If the summer was particularly cool,Reference however, the actual value may be 25% less than average, or about 5.8 inches. Conversely, theEvapotranspiration actual amount may be substantially greater dur-Values for Selected ing a very hot summer. Adjustments to reflect actual ETo conditions will be appropriate in someLocations in California years.Table 1 gives monthly average values for reference 2. Variation in location. Adjustments in ETo mayevapotranspiration (ETo) in selected California lo- be needed for the location of the landscape plant-cations. All values are reported in inches per day. ing. The climatic conditions at the ETo measur- ing site may be substantially different than thoseTo calculate inches per month, select a location in at the landscape site. For example, San Fran-the column on the left, then select a month and read cisco does not have a CIMIS station. CIMISthe value corresponding to the location. Multiply stations closest to San Francisco are in Marinthe column value times the number of days in the County and San Mateo County. To use data frommonth. For example, reference evapotranspiration either Marin or San Mateo for San Francisco, ain Sacramento for the month of August is 7.75 inches downward adjustment in ETo would be needed(.25 x 31 = 7.75). since both locations are considerably warmer than San Francisco. It is important to knowThe numbers in AppendixA are normal year (histori-cal) averages, derived fromseveral years of data for themonth and location. Ad-justments to normal yearvalues may be needed to ac-count for:1. Variation in actual ETo totals for a month. From year to year the actual amount of evaporation may be substantially different than the his- Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) values are collected at various sites in California. The ETo site torical average. For ex- closest to your location may or may not have climatic conditions similar to your site. If not, then adjusments in ETo values will be needed. For example, using Marin County or San Mateo County ample, the historical av- data for San Francisco will likely produce an overestimate of landscape water needs. 139
  • where ETo measurements are being taken and then decide whether meaningful differences ex- ist between your location and the measurement location. The assistance of a qualified biometeoroligist is recommended if adjustments for location are needed. Appendix A—Table 1 Reference Evapotranspiration Rates for Selected Cities* Daily Average Reference Evapotranspiration by ETo Zone (inches per day) ETo Zone City Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 1 Santa Monica 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.08 0.04 0.02 2 Santa Cruz 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.09 0.06 0.04 3 Monterey/Salinas 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.06 4 San Diego 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.15 0.11 0.08 0.06 5 Santa Rosa 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.14 0.18 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.03 6 Los Angeles 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.06 7 Alturas 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.24 0.21 0.16 0.09 0.04 0.02 8 San Jose 0.04 0.06 0.11 0.16 0.20 0.23 0.24 0.21 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.03 9 San Bernardino Pasadena 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.17 0.19 0.22 0.24 0.22 0.19 0.13 0.09 0.06 10 Paicines 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.19 0.24 0.26 0.23 0.17 0.10 0.05 0.03 11 Sonora 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.15 0.19 0.24 0.26 0.24 0.19 0.12 0.07 0.05 12 Fresno 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.22 0.26 0.26 0.23 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.03 13 Quincy 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.16 0.21 0.26 0.29 0.25 0.19 0.12 0.06 0.03 14 Sacramento 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.17 0.22 0.26 0.28 0.25 0.19 0.13 0.07 0.05 15 Bakersfield 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.19 0.24 0.27 0.28 0.25 0.19 0.13 0.07 0.04 16 Hanford 0.05 0.09 0.13 0.19 0.25 0.29 0.30 0.27 0.21 0.14 0.08 0.05 17 Needles 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.28 0.22 0.14 0.09 0.06 18 Palm Springs 0.08 0.12 0.17 0.23 0.28 0.32 0.31 0.28 0.23 0.16 0.10 0.07* For comprehensive descriptions of each zone and to locate your region in a zone, see the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) color map opposite this page. 140
  • California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS)REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ZONES Reference EvapoTranspiration (ETo) Zones COASTAL PLAINS HEAVY FOG BELT lowest SOUTH COAST MARINE TO DESERT 1 ETo in California, characterized by dense fog 9 TRANSITION inland area between marine & desert climates COASTAL MIXED FOG AREA less fog and 2 higher ETo than zone 1 10 NORTH CENTRAL PLATEAU & CENTRAL COAST RANGE cool, high elevation areas with COASTAL VALLEYS & PLAINS & NORTH strong summer sunlight; zone has limited climate 3 COAST MOUNTAINS more sunlight than zone 2 data & the zones selection is somewhat subjective SOUTH COAST INLAND PLAINS & CENTRAL SIERRA NEVADA mountain valleys 4 MOUNTAINS NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO 11 east of Sacramento with some influence from more sunlight and higher summer ETo than delta breeze in summer zone 3 EAST SIDE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN 5 NORTHERN INLAND VALLEYS valleys north of 12 VALLEY low winter & high summer ETo with San Francisco slightly lower ETo than zone 14 UPLAND CENTRAL COAST & LOS ANGELES NORTHERN SIERRA NEVADA northern Sierra 6 BASIN higher elevation coastal areas 13 Nevada mountain valleys with less marine influence than zone 11 NORTHEASTERN PLAINS MID-CENTRAL VALLEY, SOUTHERN SIERRA 7 14 NEVADA, TEHACHAPI & HIGH DESERT MOUNTAINS high summer sunshine and wind INLAND SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA inland in some locations 8 area near San Francisco with some marine influence NORTHERN & SOUTHERN SAN JOAQUIN 15 VALLEY slightly lower winter ETo due to fog and slightly high summer ETo than zones 12 & 14 WESTSIDE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY & 16 MOUNTAINS EAST & WEST OF IMPERIAL VALLEY HIGH DESERT VALLEYS valleys in the high 17 desert near Nevada and Arizona IMPERIAL VALLEY, DEATH VALLEY & PALO 18 VERDE low desert areas with high sunlight & considerable heat advection 141
  • Appendix A—Table 2 Calculations of Species Water Needs for July for Several Locations in California Listed are normal year ETo values1 for July and three categories of water needs. Select the appropriate location and water need category. Look down the column to find the estimated water need. This was calculated by multiplying ETo x a water need category (low, medium or high). For example, for Los Angeles in July, the normal year ETo = 6.5 inches. For a planting in the medium category, (0.4 - 0.6) the estimated water need ranges from 2.6 to 3.9 inches. Estimated species water needs (inches per month)2 for JULYETo WUCOLS REGION ETo LOW MEDIUM HIGHZones 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 NORTH CENTRAL4 Novato 5.8 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.3 2.9 3.4 4.0 4.6 5.21, 2 San Francisco 4.6-4.9 0.5 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9 4.48 Concord 7.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.68 San Jose 7.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.63 Monterey 5.5 0.5 1.0 1.6 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.8 4.4 4.96 San Luis Obispo 6.5 0.6 1.3 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.9 4.5 5.2 5.8 CENTRAL VALLEY14 Auburn 8.6 0.9 1.7 2.5 3.4 4.3 5.1 6.0 6.8 7.714 Sacramento 8.6 0.9 1.7 2.5 3.4 4.3 5.1 6.0 6.8 7.712 Modesto/Stockton 8.0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.412 Fresno 8.0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.415 Bakersfield 8.6 0.9 1.7 2.5 3.4 4.3 5.1 6.0 6.8 7.714 Redding 8.6 0.9 1.7 2.5 3.4 4.3 5.1 6.0 6.8 7.7 SOUTH COASTAL4 Santa Barbara 5.8 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.3 2.9 3.4 4.0 4.6 5.24 Ventura 5.8 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.3 2.9 3.4 4.0 4.6 5.26 Los Angeles 6.5 0.6 1.3 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.9 4.5 5.2 5.81, 2 Laguna Beach 4.7-4.9 0.5 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9 4.44 San Diego 5.8 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.3 2.9 3.4 4.0 4.6 5.2 SOUTH INLAND VALLEY9 San Fernando 7.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.69 Pasadena 7.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.69 Riverside 7.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.69 Ramona 7.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.69 San Bernardino 7.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.6 HIGH DESERT17 Palmdale 9.9 1.0 1.9 2.9 3.9 4.9 5.9 6.9 7.9 8.917 Lancaster 9.9 1.0 1.9 2.9 3.9 4.9 5.9 6.9 7.9 8.917 Victorville 9.9 1.0 1.9 2.9 3.9 4.9 5.9 6.9 7.9 8.917 Bishop 9.9 1.0 1.9 2.9 3.9 4.9 5.9 6.9 7.9 8.917 Independence 9.9 1.0 1.9 2.9 3.9 4.9 5.9 6.9 7.9 8.9 LOW DESERT18 Palm Springs 9.6 1.0 1.9 2.8 3.8 4.8 5.7 6.7 7.6 8.618 Coachella 9.6 1.0 1.9 2.8 3.8 4.8 5.7 6.7 7.6 8.618 Needles 9.6 1.0 1.9 2.8 3.8 4.8 5.7 6.7 7.6 8.618 El Centro 9.6 1.0 1.9 2.8 3.8 4.8 5.7 6.7 7.6 8.6 1. Normal year values and zones are derived from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) Reference Evapotranspiration Map, 1999. 2. Please note; these values are not adjusted for irrigation efficiency. 142
  • Notes on Invasive SpeciesAppendix B— Acacia baileyana—mainly near habitations Acacia dealbata—Northern coastal to southern inlandInvasive Species regions Acacia decurrens—Northern coastal Acacia longifolia—Minor threat along coastCertain species, if grown adjacent to wildland ar- Acacia melanoxylon—Northern coastal and inland to southern coastaleas, have the ability to “invade” native habitats to Achillea millefolium—Coastal and inland areas in moistthe detriment of the native species. Others cause places Ailanthus altissima—Urban and natural areas around theproblems in managed landscapes. Species of both worldtypes are listed here. It is incumbent on landscape Albezia distachya—Coastal areas Aptenia cordifolia ‘Red Apple’—Coastal zones, mainlyarchitects, designers, and managers to learn which southernplants are considered to be invasive, and use appro- Arctotheca calendula—Northern and southern coastal bluffs, foothillspriate caution in their use. Arundo donax—All regions in moist areas, seasonal water courses Atriplex glauca—Southern coastal foothillsInvasive species are indicated on the list by , Altriplex semibaccata - Coastal to inland areasor . Briza media - Grasslands Carpobrotus edulis —Coastal and inland regional through- out CaliforniaExamples: Carpobrotus chilensis — Coastal and inland regional throughout California Arundo donax Centranthus ruber—Coastal, inland and foothill regions Considered an important wildland weed (can throughout California Cistus ladanifer—coastal sage scrub and chaparral displace native species in natural communi- Coprosma repens—Only coastal ties in one or more regions). Cordyline australis—Only coastal Cortaderia sellowana—Coastal regions, dunes, scrub and Monterey pine forest Acacia decurrens Cotoneaster pannosus—Disturbed sites, many communi- ties, central and northern coast Considered a wildland weed of secondary im- Crataegus monogyna—Central and northern coast portance, or is potentially invasive, or is a spe- Cupressus macrocarpa—Northern coastal Cytisus canariensis—Foothill regions, northern California cies which is limited to one region, landscaped and Central Valley areas or roadsides. Cytisus racemosus—Foothill regions, northern California and Central Valley Cytisus scoparius—Coastal scrub, oak woodland Genista spp. Cytisus striatus—Coastal scrub, oak woodland Delosperma spp. —Potential threat on coast NOT ALL Genista species are considered in- Duchesnia indica—Potential threat on coast vasive. Refer to “Notes on Invasive Species” Echium candicans (fastuosum)—Coastal Elaeagnus angustifolia—interior riparian areas for information about Genista monspessulanus Erica lusitanica—possible threat to wildlands French broom. Eucalyptus camaldulensis—Southern coastal canyons and foothills Eucalyptus globulus—Coastal canyons and foothills, riparian areas Eucalyptus pulverulenta—Southern coastal Ficus carica—Central Valley, south coastal and Channel Islands riparian woodlands Genista monspessulanus—Coastal scrub, oak woodland 143
  • Hedera canariensis—Coastal and inland regions in moist and shady placesHedera helix—Coastal and inland regions in moist and shady placesHelichrysum petiolare—north coastal scrubIlex aquifolium—Coastal forestsImperata cylindrica, I brasiliensis—on federal noxious weed listJuncus spp.—potential to naturalize moist areasLigustrum lucidum—Mendocino coastLimonium perezii—Southern coastal beaches and bluffsLonicera japonica ‘Halliana’—Coastal and inland regions; moist, shady placesLotus corniculatus—Roadside weedLupinus arboreus—North coast dunesLysimachia nummularia—widely naturalized in other states, not in CA to dateMalephora crocea—south coast bluffs, margins of wetlandsMelaleuca viridifolia (quinqueneveria)—severe problem in Florida wetlands, not in CA to dateMentha pulegium—invades Santa Rosa Plain (Sonoma County)Myoporum laetum—Northern and southern coastal foothillsMyosotis spp.—Coastal forestsNereum oleander—Riparian areasOenanthe javanica—potential to naturalize in damp habitatsOlea europaea—Southern coastal and inland foothillsPennisetum setaceum—All dry climate regions, grasslands, desert canyonsPhalaris aquatica—coastal sites with moist soilPhyla nodiflora—Wet places, vernal poolsPinus pinaster—Sparingly naturalized central coastPinus pinea—Sparingly naturalized central coastPinus radiata—Central and northern coastalPyracantha spp.—Central coastalRobinia pseudoacacia—Northern valleys and foothills to southern mountains and foothillsSapium sebiferum—severe problem in Gulf coast wetlands, bottomland forests, beginning to appear in CA in wetlands in Yolo county and along the American River near SacramentoSchinus mole—Coastal canyons and foothills statewideSchinus terebinthifolius—Coastal lowlands, wet placesSpartium junceum—Coastal scrub, oak woodlandsTamarix chinensis, T gallica, T parviflora, T ramosissima (pendantra)—Coastal through desert riparian areasTropaeolum majus —Moist coastal regionsVinca major—Riparian areas, oak woodland, mostly coastalWatsonia bulbillifera—North coastWatsonia marginata—North coastZantedeschia aethiopica—Coastal streams 144
  • ETAppendix C— Evapotranspiration. The sum of water lossesGlossary through evaporation (E) from the soil and transpi- ration (T) from the plant.Acre-footThe amount of water which covers an acre (43,560 ft.2) EToto the depth of one foot (12 inches). One acre-foot Reference Evapotranspiration. The approximationequals 325,850 gallons. of water loss from a field of 4-to-7-inch-tall cool- season grass that is not water stressed. ETo is mea-CIMIS sured at CIMIS weather stations in various locationsCalifornia Irrigation Management Information Sys- around the state.tem. A network of weather stations located aroundthe state which collects reference evapotranspira- ETLtion data. The network is managed by the Califor- Estimated water needs of the landscape. Calculatednia Department of Water Resources. by multiplying the landscape coefficient (KL) by Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo).Conversion Factor (0.62 gallons/ft. 2-inch)Used to convert water volume from inches per unit Hydrozonearea to gallons per unit area. There are 0.62 gallons A portion of a landscaped area having plants within a square foot-inch. similar water needs that are served by one irriga- tion valve or set of valves with the same schedule.Crop Coefficient (Kc)Fraction of water lost from the crop relative to ref- Irrigation Efficiencyerence evapotranspiration. A measure of the portion of the total applied irriga- tion water beneficially used (primarily to satisfyCrop Evapotranspiration (ETo) plant water needs). Losses (non-beneficial waterWater loss from a crop. use) include unused runoff and evaporation from wet soil surfaces.Vegetation DensityAn evaluation of vegetation surface area per unit Landscape Coefficient (KL)volume taking into consideration factors such as tree The functional equivalent of the crop coefficient.canopy cover and tiers of vegetation. Used for estimating water needs from landscape plantings. Landscape coefficient = species factor xDensity Factor (kd) microclimate factor x density factor.One of three factors used to generate a landscapecoefficient. Adjusts the landscape coefficient to ac- Microclimatescount for the effect of vegetation density on water Areas having different environmental conditionsloss from a hydrozone. within a climatic zone. 145
  • Microclimate Factor (kmc)One of three factors used to generate a landscapecoefficient. Adjusts the landscape coefficient to ac-count for the effect of microclimate on water lossfrom a hydrozone.Species Factor (ks)One of three factors used to generate a landscapecoefficient. Adjusts the landscape coefficient to ac-count for water loss from a hydrozone due to theplant species composition.Square foot-inchThe amount of water which covers one square footof area to the depth of one inch. One square foot-inch equals 0.62 gallons.TWATotal water applied. An estimate of the total amountof water to apply to a landscape planting. Calcu-lated by dividing ETL (estimated water needs of theplanting) by IE (irrigation efficiency).WUCOLSWater Use Classification of Landscape Species. AGuide to the Water Needs of Landscape Plants. 146
  • Appendix D— Griffiths, M., 1994, Index of Garden Plants, Royal Horticultural Society, Timber Press, Portland,Additional Resources OR.References Harris, R.W., J. R. Clark, and N. P. Matheny, 1999, Arboriculture: The Integrated ManagementCal Poly Irrigation Training and Research Center, of Landscape Trees, Shrubs and Vines, 3rd Edi- Landscape Water Manager, (irrigation manage- tion. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. ment software) California Polytechnic State Uni- versity, San Luis Obispo, CA. Hartin, J., Meyer, J., 1991 Research conducted at U.C. South Coast Field Station on four landscapeClebsch, B., 1997, A Book of Salvias, Sages for tree species. U.C. Cooperative Extension, San Every Garden, Timber Press, Portland, OR. Bernardino County. (personal communication).Coate, B., 1990, Water-Conserving Plants and Hartin, J., Pittenger, D., 1988, Suggested Landscape Landscapes for the Bay Area, East Bay Mu- Trees For the San Bernardino Valley, Univer- nicipal Utility District, Alamo, CA. sity of California Cooperative Extension San Bernardino and Riverside Counties.Cornell University Bailey Hortorium Staff, 1976, Hortus Third, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. Johnson, E. and Scott M., 1993, How to Grow the Wildflowers, Ironwood Press, Tucson.Costello, L.R., D. Thomas, and J. DeVries, 1996, “Plant water loss in a shaded environment: a Johnson, E. and Scott M., 1993, The Low Water pilot study.” J. of Arboriculture 22(2):106-108. Flower Gardener, Ironwood Press, Tucson.Evans, M. and J. Bohn, Tree of Life Wholesale Keator, G., 1990, Complete Garden Guide to the Nursery Catalog 1998, San Juan Capistrano. Native Perennials of California, Chronicle Books, San Francisco.Feldman F., and Fogle C. E., 1989, Sunset Waterwise Gardening, Lane Publishing Com- Keator, G., 1994, Complete Garden Guide to the pany, Menlo Park, CA. Native Shrubs of California, Chronicle Books, San Francisco.Gibeault, V. A., J. L. Meyer, R. Autio, R. Strohman, 1986, “Turfgrass Alternatives With Low Water Levitt, D. G., J. R. Simpson, J. L. Tipton, 1995, Needs.” California Agriculture, 40 (7, 8):19-20. Water Use of Two Landscape Trees in Tucson Arizona, Journal American Society of Horti-Greenlee, J., 1992, The Encyclopedia of Ornamen- cultural Science, 120(3):409-416. tal Grasses, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA. 147
  • Lindsey, P. and N. Bassuk, 1991,“Specifying soil Schwankl, L., Hanson, B., Prichard T., 1993, Low- volumes to meet the water needs of mature ur- Volume Irrigation: a Handbook for Water ban street trees in containers.” J. Arboric. 17 Managers, University of California Irrigation (6):141-149. Program, University of California, Davis.Macoboy, S., 1988, What Flower is That? Portland Shuler, C., 1993, Low Water Use Plants for Cali- House, New York, NY. fornia and the Southwest, Fisher Books, Tuc- son.MacNair, J., Estimating Water Use and Irrigation Schedules for Ornamental Landscape, pre- Smith, M.N., 1997, A Guide to Ornamental Plants sented at the 1992 Northern California Zeriscape for Coastal California with Cultural Notes, Conference. Suncrest Nurseries Inc., Watsonville, CA.Metcalf, L. J., 1987, The Cultivation of New Staats, D. and J.E. Klett, 1993, “Evaluation of wa- Zealand Trees and Shrubs, Reed Methuen Pub- ter conservation potential of non-turf lishers Ltd., Aukland. groundcovers versus Kentucky bluegrass.” Colorado State University, Department of Hor-Meyer, J. L. and V. A. Gibeault, 1986, “Turfgrass ticulture. Fort Collins, CO. (unpublished). Performance Under Reduced Irrigation.” Cali- fornia Agriculture, 40 (7, 8):19-20. Sunset Book and Magazine Editors, 1998, Sunset Western Garden Book, Menlo Park, CA.Ottesen, C., 1989, Ornamental Grasses, the Am- ber Wave, McGraw Hill, NY. Turner, R.J., Wasson, E., Ed., 1997, Botanica, My- nah, New York.Perry, R., 1992, Trees and Shrubs for Dry Califor- nia Landscapes, Land Design Publishing, Woods, C., 1992, Encyclopedia of Perennials, a Claremont CA. Gardener’s Guide, Facts on File, New York.Pittenger, D.R, D.R. Hodel and D. A. Shaw, 1990, Vermeulen, N., 1998, Cacti, Rebo Productions, “Relative water requirements of six groundcover Lisse, The Netherlands. species.” HortScience, 25 (9): 1985. (Abstr.) .Sachs, R. M., 1991, “Stress-adapted Landscapes Save Water, Escape Drought Injury,” Califor- nia Agriculture, 45(6):19-21.Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, 1983, Success List of Water Conserving Plants, San Martin, CA. 148
  • University of California Publications 21491 Snyder, R., Harivandi, A., Lanini, B., 1991, Turfgrass Evaporation Map Central CoastANR# of California.2975 Beutel, J., 1977, Saving Water in Home Orchards. UC Press3328 Generalized Plant Climate Map of Califor- Hickman, James, Ed., 1993, The Jepson Manual, nia, 1988. Higher Plants of California, University of Cali- fornia Press, Berkeley.2149 Gibeault, V., Meyer, J., Harivandi, A., Henry, M., Cockerham, S., 1991, Managing Mathias, Mildred, Ed., 1982, Flowering Plants in Turfgrass During Drought. the Landscape, University of California Press, Berkeley.21333 Furuta, T., 1993, Protea Culture. Other Resources21405 Gibeault, V., 1985, Turfgrass Water Con- servation. • California Department of Water Resources Office of Water Use Efficiency2976 Harris, R., Coppock, R., 1976, Saving Wa- 901 P Street ter in Landscape Irrigation. P. O.Box 942836 Sacramento, California 94236-00014091 McClintock, E., and Leiser, A., 1979, An An- (916) 651-9676 notated Checklist of Woody Ornamental www.owue.water.ca.gov Plants of California, Oregon and Washing- ton. • California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS)3276 McClintock, E., Mathias M., and Lewis, L., California Department of Water Resources Ed., 1982, An Annotated Checklist of Or- Office of Water Use Efficiency namental Plants of Coastal Southern Cali- P. O. Box 942836 fornia. Sacramento, California 94236-0001 (916) 651-703021432 Snyder, R., Harivandi, A., 1988, Lawn Wa- www.cimis.water.ca.gov tering Requirements Along California’s Central Coast. • California Department of Water Resources Information: (800) 272-886921426 Snyder, R., Pruitt, W., and Shaw, D., 1987, Determining Daily Reference Evapotrans- piration (ETo). 149
  • • Species list on the Internet: Copies of this Guide www.dpla.water.ca.gov/urban/conservation/ landscape/wucols/wucols.html This Guide is a free publication. Additional copies may be obtained from:• Integrated Pest Management www.ipm.ucdavis.edu Department of Water Resources Bulletins and Reports• University of California Cooperative Extension P. O. Box 942836 San Mateo and San Francisco Counties Sacramento, California 94236-0001 625 Miramontes Street, Suite 200 (916) 653-1097 Half Moon Bay, California 94019 (650) 726-9059• UC Cooperative Extension—County Offices (check local phone directory)AdditionsAdditions to the WUCOLS list can be made. Sub-mit species names to: Irrigation Water Needs Project UCCE 625 Miramontes, Suite 200 Half Moon Bay, California 94019Submitted names will be sent out for evaluation bycommittee members and additions will be madeperiodically. 150