Waste: Local Actions with Global Effects

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This is a presentation made by David Newman, Vice president of ISWA, at the “ISWA Beacon Conference on Globalisation, Urban Metabolism and Waste Management” held on 3 & 4 of July 2012 in Singapore. The presentation is divided in two parts (Part A & Part B). Part A presents global factors, data and environmental aspects related to waste management while Part B identifies local actions on waste management with global effects.

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Waste: Local Actions with Global Effects

  1. 1. This is a free product.Please visit www.d-waste.com for top qualityReports, Presentations & Applicationsconcerning waste management issues.
  2. 2. IndexGlobal Factors,Data, Environmental Some global factors effecting WasteAspects Waste production data(Part A) Environmental considerations Climate change, emissions of CH4 e CO2Which Local Resource recovery and resource lossActions with Global Potential marketsEffects ? Employment, Economy(Part B) Austria, best practices to avoid landfill Other best practice
  3. 3. Global Factors, Data,Environmental Aspects (Part A)
  4. 4. Population trend • Growth up to 10 billion by 2050 Source: UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
  5. 5. Population trend - Details Worlds Emerging Middle Class Consumption is Growing
  6. 6. The “new” economic path
  7. 7. A global comparison of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) Source: http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2012/06/daily-chart-3 8
  8. 8. World – Municipal waste generation data (2006) MSW Compositionin Relation to the RelativeWealth of the Countries
  9. 9. World – Municipal waste production kg / capita / year
  10. 10. World – Climate change, emissions of CH4 e CO2:(1) ApproachFor many wastes, the material in MSW represent what isleft over after a long series of steps: 1.Extraction and processing of raw materials; 2.Manufacture of products 3.Transport of materials and products to markets 4.Use by consumers 5.Waste management
  11. 11. Source: UNEP - Waste and Climate Change Global Trends and Strategy Framework
  12. 12. World – Climate change, emissions of CH4 e CO2:(2) Big Data Source: UNEP - Waste and Climate Change Global Trends and Strategy Framework
  13. 13. World – Climate change, emissions of CH4 e CO2: (3) Composition Estimated share of GHG emissions• GHG from post-consumer from disposal treatment operations in Europe waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthro- pogenic GHG emissions.• The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthro- pogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the Source: Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: global total in 2004). conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report.In waste manangement & research February 2008
  14. 14. World – Climate change, emissions of CH4 e CO2:(4) Focus on Landfill In this scenario, non-OECD countries will have a relative share of 64% of global landfill methane emissions by 2030 due to increasing waste disposal. Source: UNEP - Waste and Climate Change Global Trends and Strategy Framework
  15. 15. Municipal waste:generation & treatment data in Europe Greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment, by treatment type, 2009 (thousand tonnes of CO2 equivalent) Also in Europe there is a big potential for recovery !!
  16. 16. World – Climate change, emissions of CH4 e CO2:(6) Recycling vs Landfill Source: UNEP - Waste and Climate Change Global Trends and Strategy Framework
  17. 17. Benefits of Paper Recycling ...an example with EPA approach !... (1)Recycling one ton of paper would:• Save enough energy to power the average American home for six months.• Save 7,000 gallons of water.• Save 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space.• Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by one metric ton of carbon equivalent (MTCE).
  18. 18. Benefits of Paper Recycling ...an example with EPA approach !... (2)The environmental benefits:• Reduces greenhouse gas emissions that can contribute to climate change by avoiding methane emissions and reducing energy required for a number of paper products.• Extends the fiber supply and contributes to carbon sequestration.• Saves considerable landfill space.• Reduces energy and water consumption.• Decreases the need for disposal (i.e., landfill or incineration which decreases the amount of CO2 produced).
  19. 19. Benefits of Paper Recycling ...an example with EPA approach !... (3)On the other hand, when trees are harvested forpapermaking, carbon is released, generally in theform of carbon dioxide. When the rate of carbonabsorption exceeds the rate of release, carbon issaid to be “sequestered.” This carbonsequestration reduces greenhouse gasconcentrations by removing carbon dioxide fromthe atmosphere.
  20. 20. EEA CO2 SCENARIONet emission reductions from MSW management inthe EU (excluding Cyprus) plus Norway andSwitzerland in 2008 and 2020 compared to 1995 Source: Waste opportunities Past and future climate benefits from better municipal waste management in Europe EEA ReportNo 3/2011
  21. 21. Which Local Actionswith Global Effects ? (Part B)
  22. 22. Recycling potential
  23. 23. Recycling of waste & the job market in Europe Persons employed in recycling activities in the EU, Norway and Switzerland per million inhabitants, 2000–2007 700 Source: European Environment Agency based on Eurostat data - 2011 600 500 n. of jobs 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Recycling Wholesale of waste and scraps The actual figures show an increase in jobs related to the recycling activities
  24. 24. Number of jobs per 1000 tons of waste in a landfill = 1Number of jobs per 1000 tons of waste in an incinerator = 1Number of jobs per 1000 tons of waste recycled = 10• Processing of recyclables (2 jobs per 1,000 tons) and organics (0.5 jobs per 1,000 tons)• Manufacturing using recycled materials creates a relatively high number of jobs per 1,000 tons,varying by material/sector (e.g., about 4 jobs per 1,000 tons for paper manufacturing and iron and steel manufacturing,and about 10 jobs per 1,000 tons for plastics manufacturing). Source: More Jobs, Less Pollution: Growing the Recycling Economy in the U.S. Prepared by: Tellus Institute with Sound Resource Management
  25. 25. How to reduce emissions from landfills (1) Landfill gas collection • reduce emissions of landfill gas • allows the production of energy with reduced emissions of pollutants • energy produced in this way can replace other more polluting energy sources like coal
  26. 26. How to reduce emissions from landfills (2)Composting• Compost helps to reduce waste to landfill• Composting recover precious nutrients allows the production of fertilizer at low cost and low environmental impact• Compost is useful for combating desertification• Compost production contributes to organic agricultural development benefiting small farmers and rural ecosystems and the Waste to Energy (WtE) market was already estimated at US$19.9 billion in 2008 and projected to grow by 30 per cent by 2014.
  27. 27. AustriaA model for sustainable waste management
  28. 28. The impact of green economy in Austria– Recycling plants
  29. 29. Austria best practice to avoid landfill Recovery & disposal of waste from households in Austria (1989 – 2009)(1) Recovery of organic matter, (2) Recovery of dry waste materials, (3) Treatmentof hazardous household waste and WEEE, (4) Thermal treatment, (5) –Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant, (6) Landfilling
  30. 30. Municipal collection system in Austria- Examples
  31. 31. Waste in Austria- CO2 eq. emissions from 1990 to 2006
  32. 32. Different waste types…… are financed by different means
  33. 33. Overall, according to OECD’s database, OfficialDevelopment Assistance (ODA) increased by 25% between 2006 and 2010, reaching almost $164 billion in 2010. Yet for waste management projects only between 0,16 –0,32% of the total ODA, ranging between 257 – 415 million $/year for the same years. Let’s push for $5bn now and $10bn in 2020 !The World Bank says the waste emergency is as serious as Climate Change.
  34. 34. Sustainable waste management……contributions for greening the economyEconomic benefits Environmental benefits Social benefitso Revenues for marketable o Climate benefits – o Employment secondary materials through reduced GHG o Job Creationo Reduced costs for emissions o Reduced litter treatment and disposal of o Saved environmental o Reduced human residual waste costs (water quality, toxicityo Opportunity for tourism biodiversity and o Public ecosystem services)o Availability of less costly Participation substitute materials (i.e. o Less volume of waste secondary material) for going to disposal sites production o Conserves naturalo Value added remains in resources (raw material) the region of consumption and fossil fuels (energy)
  35. 35. CONCLUSIONS
  36. 36. JOIN US IN OUR CAMPAIGN FOR A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT JOIN US AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISTJOIN US TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT - WORDLWIDE WWW.ISWA.ORG WWW.ISWA2012.ORG ANNUAL WORLD CONGRESS

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