Strategies and Actions on Waste for Sustainable Cities

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This is a presentation on strategies and actions on waste for sustainable cities provided by Atilio Savino. It was first presented in the “Humanidade 2012” event held on the 22th of May at Fort Copacabana of Rio de Janeiro. The presentation includes an overview of the role of adaptation and mitigation in the waste management sector in order to establish sustainable cities

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Strategies and Actions on Waste for Sustainable Cities

  1. 1. INDEX a) Waste generation b) Megacities c) Globalization d) Adaptation e) Mitigation f) NAMA´s g) TSU
  2. 2. WASTE GENERATIONWaste Generation Projections for 2025 by Region
  3. 3. WASTE GENERATIONWaste Generation Projections for 2025 by Income
  4. 4. MEGACITIES Source: Urban World: Mapping the Economic Power of Cities, Mc Kinsey, March 2011
  5. 5. GLOBALIZATIONMegacities are particularly vulnerable to naturaldisasters because (Wisner, 2003) their scale andgeographic complexity make it difficult to provide thelifeline and transportation infrastructure necessary forrisk reduction. Many mega-cities are usually located ingeographically hazardous locations such as coastalareas or seismically active zones, making themsusceptible to floods, windstorms, wild fires,earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes.
  6. 6. ADAPTATION CHALLENGEIS UNDERESTIMATED 13/20 megacities in coastal areas Low-lying areas 2% of area: 13% of population 2005: 5/10 most populous cities exposed to coastal flooding 2070: 9/10 most populous cities exposed to coastal flooding
  7. 7. ADAPTATION / MITIGATION &PSYCHOLOGY
  8. 8. ASSESSING ADAPTIVE CAPACITY
  9. 9. THE EXAMPLE OF FLOODPLAINS
  10. 10. SOURCE – PATH – TARGET EVENTS
  11. 11. ADAPTIVE MEASURES & THEIR EFFECTS
  12. 12. BUT…
  13. 13. MITIGATION
  14. 14. MITIGATIONThe magnitude of GHG reduction by waste management• The example of Europe• What the EU has done –Regulation and investment in waste management –Prevention, minimization, reuse, recycling and energetic valorization activities and gradual reduction of landfilling –will make the municipal waste sector a net GHG reducer in 2012- 2020• The mitigation is very success – Decline of EU municipal waste emissions between 1990-2007 from 69 to 32 million tonnes of CO2 –Waste management GHG reductions could potentially account for 18% of the EU’s Kyoto target for 2020• This can be replicated worldwide –UNEP (2010) on Waste and Climate Change: –… the waste sector is in a unique position to move from being a minor source of global emissions to becoming a major saver of emissions
  15. 15. NAMA´sBackground• In 2007, the Bali Action Plan introduced the notion of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) as a central concept for the consolidation of the international climate regime (UNFCCC, 2008).• The purpose was targeting actions that other mechanisms, such as the CDM, have failed to develop at the required scale as well as engaging developing countries efforts to mitigate global climate change.• Countries are currently trying to agree on how support for NAMAs can be realised and according to available information, currently there are at least 52 NAMAs having been developed at the preparation stage.
  16. 16. NAMAs and the CDM • The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides a way for developed countries to help meet emissions limits committed under the Kyoto Protocol through purchase of additional project-based emissions reductions from developing countries. • NAMAs, on the other hand, were primarily conceived as a way for developing countries—with financial and technological support from the international community—to make progress in reducing their own domestic greenhouse gas emissions from one or more emitting sectors.
  17. 17. The NAMA concept1. There is currently no internationally agreed definition of a NAMA outside of text that is still under negotiation in the UNFCCC. As such NAMAs as a vehicle to achieve reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change mitigation is being built , standardized and agreed upon in climate negotiations.2. A number of subtly different descriptions exist, mostly based on that text.3. The Cancun Agreements (UNFCCC, 2011b) refer to NAMAs in, inter alia, the following: – 1/CP.16-48. Agrees that developing country Parties will take nationally appropriate mitigation actions in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, aimed at achieving a deviation in emissions relative to ‘business as usual’ emissions in 2020.
  18. 18. The NAMA concept1.The broad definition of NAMAs and the wide variation of Party submissions (and negotiating positions) could mean that NAMAs have potential to develop into a widely applicable instrument.2.Notwithstanding the fact that there is a wide applicability for NAMAS, key components of the instrument are provision of financial and technological support from developed countries to implement NAMAs.3.Initially capacity building for NAMA preparation and studies aimed at identifying, prioritizing, and selecting NAMAs is being undertaken by different UN agencies with funding provided by some developed countries.
  19. 19. The NAMA concept1. NAMAs have been categorized as follows:  Unilateral NAMAs: mitigation actions undertaken by developing countries on their own  Supported NAMAs: mitigation actions in developing countries, supported by direct climate finance from Annex I countries (in the following called ‘directly supported NAMAs’)  Credited NAMAs: mitigation actions in developing countries, which generate credits to be sold on the carbon market (e.g. sectoral crediting).
  20. 20. The three categories of NAMAs1.There is a common understanding that the financing structure of a NAMA may consist of: i. Domestic funding by the developing country (so-called ‘unilateral NAMAs’); ii. international support(‘supported NAMAs’); and, iii.income from a market based mechanism ( ‘credited NAMAs’).2.Unilateral NAMAs could include actions that do not pose an undue burden on the government budget or actions undertaken primarily for development reasons.3.Funds for internationally supported NAMAs could be allocated directly, on a bilateral basis, or through an international fund such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF) that has been established following the Cancun and Durban Agreements (UNFCCC).
  21. 21. FINANCING1.Income from market-based mechanisms could take the form of resources incoming from a carbon market, similar to the one created by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) offset system and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS).2.However, in terms of scale NAMAs would be going far beyond the project or even of Activities scale (under the CDM), to the economy Programme wide or sector wide level.
  22. 22. ISWA Technical Support Unit (TSU)Objectives – ISWA should play a leading role in contributing to identify, develop and implement NAMAs in developing countries. • Use the the capacity to be installed at the TSU to prepare NAMAs proposals for developing countries consideration and identify as well as facilitate access to funding. • Disseminate information and provide inputs on the evolution of the climate change negotiation process
  23. 23. Implementation– In the first stage an expert team will be established to interact with national designated authorities and climate change focal points, identify and consider opportunities for NAMAs in the waste sector, elaborate NAMAs proposals and identify funding sources and options.– In the second stage an additional ISWA staff member will be responsible for the project management of the NAMAs support activities and cooperation with the expert team.
  24. 24. Benefits (institutional)– Expanded awareness of opportunities to mitigate climate change through national actions in the waste sector, in particular in developing countries.– Demonstration, via NAMAs, of the contribution of the waste management activities to sustainable development and the transition to a green economy– Strengthening ISWA’s role in the international arena in sustainability issues and in addressing climate change by providing technical support to developing countries– Quantitative empirical indicators of the positive contribution of waste management in mitigation of climate change

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