Solid Waste Management Insights from Major Cities in India


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This is a presentation of Dr. Prasad Modak, executive president of the Environmental Management Centre LLP in India. The presentation was first presented in Singapore at the “wasteMET Asia 2012” ISWA Beacon Conference on 3-4 of July 2012 and it provides an overview of the waste management situation in India.

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Solid Waste Management Insights from Major Cities in India

  1. 1. This is a free product.Please visit for top qualityReports, Presentations & Applicationsconcerning waste management issues.
  2. 2. • India is rapidly urbanizing…• By 2050, 50% of Indian population will be in cities
  3. 3. Estimations show that the total MSW generated inurban India in 2012 was 188,500 tons per day (TPD).In a “business as usual scenario”, urban India willgenerate 160.5 million TPY (440,000 TPD) by 2041choking city landfills.
  4. 4. As of now, the Class I cities alonecontribute to more than 72 percent of thetotal MSW generated in urban areas.However by 2021, cumulative wastegeneration at 366 towns is expected to takenearly 60% of total urban MSW generationindicating a need to focus on MSWmanagement at these growing cities.
  5. 5. By 2016, share of middleclass households in 20“boom” cities will movefrom 39% (as from 2007-08) to more than half(55%) and share of high-income class will triple inthe same period (to 13%).
  6. 6. Need to find ways to tame consumption byReducing our wantsPromoting Green Public ProcurementPracticing 3Rs
  7. 7. Emergence of New Waste Streams • Plastic – Critical issue, Multi-pronged approach needed • Construction & Demolition – Potential and Need • E-Waste – Rising recycling market • Health-care – Serious shortfall • Household hazardous – Implication to Compost
  8. 8. Need a comprehensive and integrated strategy Concern: Weak capacities at ULBs
  9. 9. In India, extent of wastesegregation at source islow averaging to 40%.Further, the collectionsystems in cities are nottuned to or oriented tocapture the segregatedwaste and hence even ifthe waste is segregatedat source, it reaches thebins or transfer stationsin mixed form.
  10. 10. But recycling rates in Indian Cities are highThanks to the Informal Sector
  11. 11. Houses Offices SWM system - India Market Formal Informalcollection system (mixed) (recyclables) Re-Dhalaos Waste Thiawalas cyclerDustbins pickers s Big KabarisMunicipal Small Small Kabaris truck Kabaris Thiawalas Landfill Big Waste pickers kabaris Source: CHINTAN. "Space for Waste:Planning for the Informal Recycling Recyclers Sector." New Delhi, 2003
  12. 12. Material and Cash Flows Municipal Value chain activities activities Generator/ Processor end user Collection Junk shop Waste Disposal picker Cash flow Material flow Partial Material flowSource: Adopted from Anne Scheinberg, WIEGO, Informal Sector Integration and High Performance Recycling: Evidencefrom 20 Cities, Working Paper (Urban Policies) No. 23, 2012
  13. 13. The Informal Sector Needs • Partnership and Recognition • Infrastructure – Space, • Equipment/Machinery, • Collection Vehicles • Finance - hedging on volatility • Training, Innovation
  14. 14. Strategies – Planning Consideration Category Norm per Guidelines 1,00,000 population Waste Each waste picker handles 60 kg of waste per day and 215 requires 60 sq ft of space near the dhalao for segregation pickers Each worker requires 125 sq ft of space near the kabari Other 90 godown for segregation as well as road space for workers transportation 3000 sq ft has to be allotted in a shopping centre to each Small 6 small kabari for segregation and storage of about 1500 kg of kabaris waste, and shelter for workers. Thiawalas are located near markets and call centres and Thiawalas 33 each thiawala collects waste from 150 shops and establishments daily The big kabaris need storage space of 60,000 sq ft for Big kabaris 1.5 roughly 60,000 kg of waste which they collect weekly from the small kabarisSource: CHINTAN, Informal-formal: Creating opportunities for the informal waste recycling sector in Asia,2005
  15. 15. Bridging Informal Sector with Formal• Alliance of Indian Waste Pickers (AIW) is a national network of 35 organizations, waste pickers and/or itinerant buyers in 22 cities.• ExNora in Pune, Stree Mukti Sangathana in Mumbai, SEWA in Ahemadabad and Chintan in New Delhi
  16. 16. Bridging Informal Sector with Formal• Can form union and partner with city administration or with Corporate to assist in Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)• Mumbai waste pickers involved with ‘Tetra pak’ for segregation and in Delhi with Coca-cola for shredding PET units
  17. 17. Public Private Partnership • The private sector involved in door-to door collection of solid waste, street sweeping in a limited way, secondary storage and transportation and for treatment and disposal of waste. • Cities which have pioneered in PPPs in SWM include Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Chennai, Rajkot, Hyderabad, Ahmadabad, Surat, Guwahati, Mumbai and Jaipur. • In most of the cases, the ULBs have benefited by reducing 30 to 50% of their operating costs. • Still a long way to go…
  18. 18. Case Studies • Navi Mumbai Corporation, Rajkot – Addressing multiple waste-resource streams • Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Hyderabad – PPP Contracting • Ahmedabad, Mumbai – Stakeholder involvement • Namakkal – Zero Waste Town
  19. 19. Decentralized Material Recycling Hubs – Get value from waste, – Substitute virgin resources – Create green jobs, with better working conditions for the Waste Pickers. The waste pickers are provided with uniforms and safety equipment. – Promote entrepreneurship, – Encourage community as well as Corporate involvement, – Avoid long transportation – Reduce burden to the landfill
  20. 20. Weigh bridge Sorting Inert Storage Organic storage Bio-methanation or Composting Waste Sorting Centre plantsWaste Innovation centreGenerators/Users Waste Sorting Centres Street Gardens lights Material Methane gas for street lights and Recovery to fuel transport vehicles Centre Processed materials for users Compost to gardens
  21. 21. UnderstandingWaste-Resource Linkage Needs Policy Intervention
  22. 22. Waste Management as a Business • Interest is now growing…
  23. 23. India is Waking Up in the Solid Waste Management Sector
  24. 24. Thank you