Recycling in Greece. A success story?


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This is a presentation of Aida Anthouli, Communication & Environmental Manager of D-Waste. It was first presented during the Workshop of HSWMA - SeSWA - ISWA: “Opportunities and barriers of Recycling in Balkan-Countries” which was held at the Technical University of Athens, Greece on November 30, 2012. The presentation focuses on the accomplishments, opportunities and barriers of waste recycling in Greece.

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  • Therole of Municipal Authorities is important as Municipalities gather more and more responsibilities in their hand, and due to reforms in their status, as well as the financial crisis that has decreased their budget considerably, to a point that they cannot perform core oblications at some casesTherole of Public is also important as they are the key drivers for successful recycling programs. In Greece there is still lack of awareness of the public, confusion about actions to perform, they are not used in obeying rules, and have a strong NIMBY problem, mainly because of unawareness and not trust to authorities implementation.
  • 17 PROs per ERP waste stream in Greece. Data were extracted from the annual reports of the PROs submitted to the HRA.
  • Recycling in Greece. A success story?

    1. 1. This is a free product.Please visit for top qualityReports, Presentations & Applicationsconcerning waste management issues.
    2. 2. This presentation is based on a HSWMA’s report presented during the Workshop HSWMA - SeSWA - ISWA: “Opportunities and barriers of Recycling in Balkan- Countries”, 30th November 2012, Athens, Greece, by A. Anthouli and R. Charitopoulou 3
    3. 3. Contents • Introduction • Recycling in EU • Recycling in Greece  Legislation  Current situation  Challenges  Stakeholders  Recycling Systems • Recommendations • Conclusions 44
    4. 4. 5Recycling in EUThe long-term goal is for theEU to become a recyclingsociety, that seeks to avoidwaste and uses waste as aresource. (Them. Strategy)
    5. 5. Thematic Strategy on Waste Prevention & Recycling, 2005 framework Waste Framework Directive Waste Shipment (Includes Municipal & Construction Regulation Demolition waste) treatment Incineration Directive Landfill Directive Recycling Standards (future) streams WEEE & Packaging Batteries Mining Sewage PCB/ Restriction Vehicles waste Sludge PCT of use 6 with targets 6
    6. 6. EU Waste hierarchy 77
    7. 7. Trends in Generation of Municipal Waste in Europe 88
    8. 8. Trends in Generation of Municipal Waste in Europe 99
    9. 9. Europe - An overweight “lady” • Average annual use of material resources - around 16 tons/person. • Overall trend in waste generation, including hazardous waste, is upwards. • Total waste generation in EU-27, Turkey, Norway, Iceland, Croatia: 3 billion tons (2006) • Total hazardous waste generation: 88 million tons (2006) • Total municipal waste generation: 260 million tons (2008) • 524 kg/cap municipal waste generation (2008), large 10 differences between countries10
    10. 10. 11 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% EU (27 countries) 24% Belgium 37% Bulgaria 0% Czech Republic 14% Denmark 23% Germany 45% Estonia 12% Ireland 32% Greece 17% Spain France 15% 18% Italy 20% Cyprus 16% Latvia 9% Lithuania 3% 2010 Luxembourg 26% Hungary 18% Malta 7% Netherlands 28% Austria 30% Poland 15% Portugal 11% Romania 1% Slovenia 43% Slovakia 4% Finland 20% Sweden 36% United Kingdom 25% Norway Source: Eurostat, (2012a) 27% 11 Switzerland 34% Croatia 3% Recycling performance in Europe (% of the total MSW generated)
    11. 11. Total turnover of recycling in the EU 1212
    12. 12. Recycling - key element in the Green Economy • Less use of virgin materials - opportunity for decoupling of material use from economic growth, • Resources are kept in a close-loop process (represents a more circular instead of a linear economy, where resources are depleted & wasted) • Less use of virgin non-renewable resources. • EU maintains secure supplies of rare or precious metals that are necessary for the production of new technologies, (ex. e-mobility, information & communication technologies & renewable energy), • Creation of green jobs. 301,000 people employed in recycling sector in 13 EU(2007) vs 174,000 (2000).13
    13. 13. Recycling in the era of Globalisation & interconnectivity • Increased demand on materials • Illegal shipping of waste, & poor environmental framework • Immigration & scavengers • Increase of global environmental awareness & international treaties • Human & international networks 14 14
    14. 14. 15Recycling in Greece
    15. 15. Legislation & Policy framework • Greece is a full member of the EU & has to adjust its legislative framework to comply with the European legislation. • To a large extent, European legislation is incorporated well to the national law & the legislative framework for waste management can be considered sufficient & well elaborated.“Problems usually arise at the level of implementation” 1616
    16. 16. Municipal waste in Greece by treatment Municipal waste in Greece by treatment 500 450 400 Recycling and 350 composted kg per capita 300 Incinerated 250 Landfilled 200 150 100 50 0 2004 2006 2008 2010 17Source: Eurostat, 2012 17
    17. 17. Current situation • Collection coverage reaches 100 % • Generation of MSW was increasing, until 2009. Currently, a significant decrease in generation per capita. (around 20%, due to financial crisis). 1818
    18. 18. • 28 Materials Recovery Facilities (covering 80% of population) - export of sorted recyclables due to limited capacity • 79 compliant landfills; they are not sufficient! • 4 MBT plants of approximately 580.000 t/y 1919
    19. 19. Positive steps• Integration of EU legislation in Greek laws• Adoption of Green Growth Strategic Action Program (2010-2015)• Successful operation & established experience of recycling systems• Increase in recycling rates• Closure of illegal landfills• Pilot project on PAYT schemes• Industry initiatives to reduce packaging material 2020
    20. 20. Expected • Waste facilities have entered tendering phase (Pelloponese, Western Macedonia, Serres, Ilia & Aitoloacarnania), 2 more have been announced (Attica & Patra). • Target of 5% separate collection of biowaste by 2015 & increase to 10% by 2020 • Introduction of landfill tax of untreated waste from January 2014. (set at 35 €/t of waste & increase annually by 5 €/t until 60 €/t) 2121
    21. 21. Challenges • More waste treatment infrastructure needs to comply with EU waste hierarchy • Improve in great degree the separate collection of municipal waste at source • Put an end to the high share of biodegradable waste are still disposed in landfills • Decrease administrative & institutional drawbacks 2222
    22. 22. Measures • Improve waste management planning. • Improve monitoring, regulations & enforcement. • Implement & increase the landfill tax. • Introduce restrictions in landfilling of certain waste streams. • Implement a tax on MBT. • Enforce Extended Producers Responsibility schemes. • Introduce PAYT schemes. 23 • Utilise available EU funds.23
    23. 23. Waste treatment • Significant dependence on landfilling • Lack of treatment infrastructure • Regardless decisions taken many times in the past, there is slow progress in the implementation of projects (main problems are funding, NIMBY) • Waste management is low on the political agenda of the decision makers & subject to “political cost” • Lack of economic instruments to move up the waste hierarchy • MBT facilities have difficulties in finding market for their products 24 • Municipalities have no binding targets to be met24
    24. 24. Separate collection • Collection coverage is 80% • Not all local authorities cooperate the same with Recovery Systems • Mostly mixed collection of packaging waste & not separate collection of all streams • High share of impurities • Low level of environmental awareness in the public • No incentives for households to participate in separate collection • Scavenging has significantly increased, especially for metal and scrap metal, and theft has risen 25sharply the last 2 years25
    25. 25. Biodegradable waste • A very high share of biodegradable waste goes to landfills - 87,3% landfilled in 2009 • Not accurate statistics • Insufficient composting • No separate collection of bio-waste • No anaerobic digestion/biogas plants available • Outdated compost quality standards • Limited market • Delays in the procurement & implementation of waste 26 management infrastructure26
    26. 26. Administrative & institutional drawbacks • Definition of “treatment” (i.e. minimum standards) in implementation of landfill tax is unclear. • Overlapping of responsibilities between ministries(MEECC, Ministry of Interior & Ministry of Development), Regional Authorities & Municipalities • The recent reform, “Kallikratis” is not yet completed, delays the projects. • No update of national Waste Management Plans. • Probably no Waste Procurement Projects until end of 2013. • Serious delays in planning, procurement & implementation of waste management projects (although funds are available) • Waste debate in Greece is strongly related to politics, & 27 strong NIMBY phenomena exist27
    27. 27. Stakeholders • Government (implement legislation, monitoring role) • Local Authorities (managerial, ex. collection, monitoring role) • Regions (responsible for planning & financial details of waste management programs) • Non Profit Companies/bodies (authorised management systems) • FoDSA (Organisations for the Integrated Management of Solid Waste) • Companies/Producers (responsible for recycling financing system) • Syndicates, universities, NGOs (consultant role in policy & legislation) • Citizens (main actors, since on their contribution relies the success of all efforts). 28 • Informal systems (scavengers)28
    28. 28. Systems of Alternative Management of Waste • Packaging material • Batteries • Oils • Cars • Tyres • Lamps • WEEE 2929
    29. 29. Operating systems, 2011 Waste stream and legal approval Type Range Name Package & packaging waste (L. 2939/2001) C N HERRCO C N REWARDING RECYCLING** I N ΑΒ VΑSΙLΟPΟΥLΟS C N KEPED (oil packaging only) Motor oils residues (PD 82/2004 ) C N ELTEPE End of Life Vehicles (PD 116/2004) C N EDOE Portable batteries & accumulators (PD 115/2004, C N AFIS amended by MD 41624/2057/Ε103/2010) C N Re-Battery C N SYDESIS C R SEDIS-K WEEE, (PD 117/2004 & PD 15/2006) C N APPLIANCES RECYCLING S.A. C N FOTOKIKLOSI S.A (lighting equipment and light bulbs only) Used tires (PD 109/2004 ) C N ECOELASTIKA C&D waste (MD 36259/1757/Ε103/2010) C R ANABE S.A C R SANKE C R CHALKIDIKI* C R SEDPEKAT 30C=Collective, I=Individual, R=Regional, N= Nationwide *Approval is expected by HRA, **Temporary withdrawal licence30
    30. 30. A success story• One of the highest recycling rates in Europe (target for 25% recycling for 2012 has already been met)• A very extended collection system, very apprehensive awareness, & advertisement campaign (schools & Mass Media).• 657 tonnes collected - represent 31,3 % of the overall distributed amount of portable batteries in the country. Comparing throughout Europe is a very high 31 percentage.31
    31. 31. Summing up • Systems material recycling output had a rising trend until 2009 • Significant challenge for all Systems is the „free riders‟ problem. • 17 different licensed Systems showed very good results in the collection / recycling / recovery of the waste streams. • The latest recycling results of the Systems in Greece demonstrate that targets have been achieved for most material streams. 3232
    32. 32. Financial crisis Brought reduction of the collection of recyclables Due to: • The reduction of the consumption due to the financial recession - 20% reduction in MW production • The theft of valuable recyclables from the collection bins from the rising informal sector • The social & administrative system lost cohesion • Municipalities lacking of financial resources in many cases went “backwards” with their recycling programs 33 • Recycling systems are facing financial difficulties33
    33. 33. Recommendations 1 • The recycling definition should be made more clear. In order to quantify better recycling rates. For example what exactly stands for packaging waste in Greece? • Monitoring of the systems should be further improved, • HRA is a positive step for setting the framework of Recycling in Greece - needs more support in order to be able to meet increased demands. • Legislation is more or less in place, some improvements could be further implemented 3434
    34. 34. Recommendations 2 • There is space to increase the efficiency of the recycling companies in an optimal degree • Increase awareness campaigns & include in the decision process citizens groups, NGOs, etc • Collection points should be further increased in some streams, & methods of separate collection & collection rules that improve the quality, quantity & financially viability of the systems should be implemented • Cooperation between systems, & local authorities should be strengthened. • Opportunities should be offered to the informal sector to stop being an enemy while improving work,35safety, & health conditions of scavengers35
    35. 35. Conclusions • There is a lot of space from improvement, both in organisation of the systems, the quantities gathered & the number of waste streams recycled. • Major changes in WM in Greece are required : • introduction of new technologies & stringent operation regimes for landfills • to the calculation of costs & charges to the public & the structure, • organisation & operation of the waste management 36 authorities.36
    36. 36. Greek waste philosophy needs to be upgraded to meet demanding targets, criteria & standards, while keeping cost increases to a minimum. 37 37
    37. 37. 38