Policy brief 4 march 2013 ok


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Policy brief 4 march 2013 ok

  1. 1. Policy brief no.4 | March 2013    FILLING THE GAP BETWEEN DATA & POLICY     IN THE BLACK SEA CATCHMENT     Earth Observation in the Black Sea catchment The enviroGRIDS project aims to gather, store, distribute, analyze, visualize and disseminate crucial information on the environment of the Black Sea catchment in order to increase the capacity of decision-makers and other interested stakeholders to use it for development of most relevant management options. It is building a state of the art Grid-enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure (G-SDI) as a component of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) An targeting the needs of the Commission on the online Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (BSC) and the International Commission for the Protection of Questionnaire was the Danube River (ICPDR). developed in order to get information from the project partners on available datasets and observation systems at What are the data and observation gaps ? different scales: local, national, regional and A gap analysis was performed to identify the list of global. In total, information about 162 datasets existing datasets and observation systems within the and 30 observations systems covering the Black Sea catchment and to assess their level of Black Sea catchment was received. This compatibility with the international standards of information was supplemented with an interoperability (deliverable D2.6). The gap analysis extensive Internet search. All collected allows identifying areas where further efforts are information was analyzed in order to produce needed to reinforce existing observation systems in cross-tables showing the availability of identified this region. The gap analysis was undertaken by the datasets and observation systems for the end- BSC and ICPDR with contributions from all project user and project needs. partners. Generalized data and observation systems The analysis of the identified datasets and requirements were formulated on the basis of end- observation systems against the project user needs (primarily BSC, ICPDR) as well as the requirements revealed spatial and temporal project requirements. gaps in data coverage, gaps in observation 1
  2. 2. systems, problems with data accessibility,compatibility and interoperability.enviroGRIDS data requirementsThe general aim of the project is to build capacities inthe Black Sea region modern Earth Observationsystems and environmental data processing andsharing. The main outputs of the project is the BlackSea catchment Observation System targeting bothdecision-makers and citizens.Another aim of enviroGRIDS is to develop integratedscenarios of climatic, demographic and land coverchanges using the Metronamica model (RIKS 2005).Several datasets were gathered at the best possiblespatial and temporal resolutions to meet the objectives EnviroGRIDS is also exploring through severalof this part of the project. case studies the potential impacts of environmental changes on so-called GEO (GEO 2005) Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): ecosystems, biodiversity, agriculture, health, energy and disasters early warning. These case studies increased significantly the number and type of datasets needed by the project. The enviroGRIDS project end-users are International organizations dealing with environmental issues in the region; National authorities responsible for themes of enviroGRIDS; Local authorities and Scientists. From the first category of international organizations listed above, the Black SeaThen, enviroGRIDS needed data to use the Soil & Commission (BSC) and the InternationalWater Assessment Tool (SWAT, Arnold et al. 1998), Commission for the Protection of the Danubewhich is a river basin scale model developed to River (ICPDR) are considered as the main end-quantify the impact of land management practices in users of the project.large, complex watersheds. It performs simulationsthat integrate various processes such as hydrology,climate, chemical transport, soil erosion, pesticide BSC data requirementsdynamics, and agricultural management. The model The mission of the BSC is the implementationcan use a daily to sub-hourly time step, and can of the Convention on the Protection of the Blackperform continuous simulation for a 1- to 100-year Sea Against Pollution (Bucharest Convention,period. 1992), its Protocols and Strategic Action Plan (SAP) for the rehabilitation and protection of the Black Sea. The primary geographical scope of the Bucharest Convention is the Black Sea itself. However, its SAP covers pollution sources from coastal area and encourages Black Sea coastal states to implement depollution at the Black Sea catchment level. The new Protocol on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Black Sea from Land-Based Sources and Activities also applies to pollution emissions originating from land- based point and diffuse sources, which reach 2
  3. 3. the marine environment through rivers or other transboundary water management in thewatercourses; inputs of polluting substances Danube River Basin.transported through the atmosphere; and activities The ICPDR is a transnational body, which hasthat may directly or indirectly affect the marine been established to implement the Danubeenvironment or coastal areas. Considering the above, River Protection Convention. The ICPDR isthe whole Black Sea catchment is an area of interest formally comprised by the Delegations of allto the BSC with respect to implementation of its Contracting Parties to the Danube Rivermission. Protection Convention, but has also establishedThe activities of BSC are concerning the following a framework for other organizations to join.transboundary problems: In 2000, the ICPDR has also been nominated • Eutrophication/Nutrient Enrichment; for the implementation of the transboundary • Chemical Pollution, including Oil; aspects of the EU Water Framework Directive • Changes in Marine Living Resources, (WFD). The work for the successful Overfishing; implementation of the EU WFD is therefore high • Biodiversity Changes/Habitats Loss, including on the political agenda of the countries of the Alien Species Introduction; Danube river basin district. • Climate Change. Today national delegates, representatives fromIn order to carry out the activities on a regular basis highest ministerial levels, technical experts, andBSC has established following Advisory Groups (AG): members of the civil society and of the scientific • AG on pollution monitoring and assessment community cooperate in the ICPDR to ensure (PMA); the sustainable and equitable use of waters in • AG on control of pollution from land based the Danube River Basin. sources (LBS); Since its creation in 1998, the ICPDR has effectively promoted policy agreements and the • AG on development of common methodologies setting of joint priorities and strategies for for integrated coastal zone management (ICZM); improving the state of the Danube and its • AG on environmental safety aspects of shipping tributaries. This includes improving the tools (ESAS); used to manage environmental issues in the • AG on conservation of biological diversity (CBD); Danube basin, such as: • AG on environmental aspects of the management • the Accident Emergency Warning System, of fisheries and other marine living resources • the Trans-National Monitoring Network for (FOMLR); and water quality, and • AG on information and data exchange (IDE). • the information system for the DanubeAGs of BSC have Focal Points in each Black Sea (Danubis),country, which are responsible for collection of data • DanubeGIS.and information in area of their responsibility and The main goals of the ICPDR are summarizedreporting them on an annual basis to the Commission below:via its Permanent Secretariat (BSC PS). The reporteddata and information, which are obtained in the • Safeguarding the Danube’s Waterframework of the Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and resources for future generation,Assessment Programme (BSIMAP), are used for • Naturally balanced waters free from excessperiodical assessment of the State of Environment nutrients,(SoE) of the Black Sea (annually and every 5 years for • No more risk from toxic chemicals,changes and trends); Transboundary Diagnostic • Healthy and sustainable river systems,Analysis (every 5 years) and assessment of SAP • Damage-free floods.implementation (every 5 years). The different bodies of the ICPDR are: • The Ordinary Meeting Group: taking the political decisions,ICPDR data requirements • The Standing Working Group: providingThe ICPDR works to ensure the sustainable and political guidance,equitable use of watershed freshwater resources inthe Danube River Basin. The work of the ICPDR is • The Technical Expert Groups: preparingbased on the Danube River Protection Convention, the technical background documents.the major legal instrument for cooperation and 3
  4. 4. Technical Expert Groups are the backbone of the Finally, the Danube-Black Sea Joint Technicaloperation and the success of the ICPDR. They are Working Group co-ordinates the work of theformed by national experts from the Contracting ICPDR and the International Commission forParties and representatives of the observer the Protection of the Black Sea, particularlyorganizations. Seven Expert Groups deal with a aiming to reduce nutrient inputs into the Blackvariety of issues - from policy measures to reduce Sea.water pollution to the implementation of the EU WaterFramework Directive. Generalized data requirementsAll technical work within the ICPDR is carried out by The amount of different data types required bythe Expert Groups. These Expert Groups are essential the project and project end-users is very large.to the operation of the ICPDR, and rely upon the Moreover, requirements to spatial and temporalinputs and contributions of national experts from the resolution of each kind of data are also veryContracting Parties and from the Observers. The diverse, so a gap analysis with respect to eachICPDR Expert Groups are focusing on: data type would be time consuming and • River Basin Management impracticable. • Pressures and Measures Hereby we undertook an attempt to generalize • Monitoring and Assessment the data requirements that are most important • Flood Protection for the project and its end-users. The • Public Participation generalized data requirements are presented in • Strategy the table below. Generalized enviroGRIDS data requirements Data theme / category Spatial Resolution Temporal resolution GIS satisfying project requirements and user needs, i.e. including detailed watersheds, At least 1:200000 Most recent protected areas, land use etc. DEM 30m Most recent Land cover /use 1km, 300m, 100m since 1990 Soil 1km Population Administrative data downscaled at 1km since 1990 Meteorology (in situ) All existing stations in Black Sea catchment Daily Meteorology (remote sensing) 0.25° Daily Hydrology All existing stations in Black Sea catchment Daily Stations in coastal waters of Black Sea countries and Oceanography (in situ) Quarterly in open sea Oceanography (remote sensing) Whole Black Sea Daily All industrial and municipal sources in Black Sea Pollutants discharges Monthly catchment Pollutants emissions Per enterprises or administrative units monthly According to monitoring Pollutants in water, sediments and biota Black Sea program River water quality All existing stations in Black Sea catchment monthly Stations in coastal waters of Black Sea countries and Sea water quality quarterly open sea Climatic data (climatic stations) All existing stations in Black Sea catchment Daily monthly, daily Climatic data (remote sensing) Best available (1x1km) (depending on data) River biology Best available quarterly Marine biology Best available quarterly Biodiversity Best available quarterly Invasive species Point observation date Agriculture Administrative units yearly Disasters Best available permanent monitoring 4
  5. 5. Results from the gap analysis however for the rest of the Black Sea catchment the problem persists.The datasets reported by project partners cover the With respect to the river basins of the Black Seanine GEO Societal Benefits Areas. Most identified Catchment:datasets are related to the Water, Ecosystems, and • The Danube river basin has the best dataClimate SBAs, while the least covered SBAs are coverage. Data are available on all scales:Energy, Weather and Health. global, European, regional and national;The methods for accessing data are various: direct • The large river basins of Ukraine (Dnepr,Internet links, ftp, e-mail, CD. The datasets of Dniester, Bug) seem to have rathercountry scale are usually not accessible online and acceptable data coverage, however due to thehave to be requested via e-mail from data holders. lack of access to data it is difficult to assessThe variety of formats for data storage, as well as their completeness;absence of online access to the data hamper the • For the large river basins of Russia (Don,data exchange and appear to be a significant gap Kuban) and Turkey (Kizilirmak, Yesilirmak)for the datasets at country scale. project partners did not report any dataset.In the Questionnaire project partners reported This is identified as a significant gap in data,national datasets only for four countries around the particularly taking into account that these riverBlack Sea. A large spatial gap in national data basins are important for the project end-userscoverage remains. This gap is partly covered by and decision-makers: they cover largeavailable regional and European scale datasets territories populated by millions of people andcontaining data from Danube basin countries, have important socio-economic value for these countries. River basins in the Black Sea catchment with least data availability for the project (brown shading). 5
  6. 6. The analysis of available data confirmed the regional datasets more easily available. The BS-assumption that for most required data exist at OS is based on a modern Spatial Dataleast at one of the spatial scales. The analysis Infrastructure (SDI), which is interoperable withalso confirmed that the accessibility of data is one the international GEO (GEO 2005) and theof the main problems. The data of global and European INSPIRE (EU 2007) standards andEuropean scale are mostly free, while access to framework. The situation at the global, Europeanthe data on regional and national level is usually and regional scale is quite satisfactory. Thislimited or restricted. For such data categories as follows from the fact that there are already manyclimatic, hydro-meteorological, agricultural, and datasets at these scales registered in the GEOSSpollutants discharges data of required spatial and portal, but this is not the case for data at thetemporal resolution are not accessible, which is country scale.considered as a significant gap, because these SDI can clearly improve the situation of data anddata are crucial for running and calibrating models metadata exchange among partners and beyond.such as SWAT. The project decided therefore to concentrate its capacity building efforts through coursesThe enviroGRIDS Spatial Data dedicated to high-level decision makers capableInfrastructure (SDI) of changing national data policies in one hand,The Black Sea catchment Observation System and to technicians capable of setting new local(BS-OS) built by enviroGRIDS aims at filling some SDI needed to register existing data and metadataof the identified data gaps by making national and services into GEOSS and INSPIRE. Reinforcing regional data sharing through web services 6
  7. 7. All stakeholders in the Black Sea region are nowstrongly encouraged to make available theirmetadata and data available through the BS-OSusing the following web services: • CSW allows to share metadata • Web Mapping Services (WMS) transform spatial data into dynamic maps created on request as images that are published on the Internet without making the raw data available • Web Feature Service (WFS) allow to share vector data itself with all its geometric features and related attributes • Web Coverage Services (WCS) allows a client to access raster datasets.The Black Sea catchment Observation gSWAT allows users to calibrate the SWATSystem components hydrological model on the GRID. portal.envirogrids.netThe Geoportal allows users to search, discover,and access data sets in the Black Sea catchment. eGLE implements both a user interface, and the tools for the development, the execution and the management of teaching materials.GreenLand generates and executes on theGRID workflows for instance to process satelliteimages. 7
  8. 8. such as GEOSS and INSPIRE, as well as metadata catalogues from selected projects. Unlike in the Danube countries, the gaps in data availability for large areas of the Black Sea catchment within Russia, Georgia and Turkey cannot be covered with datasets available in the European union. In order to further improve Earth Observation in the Black Sea region, the following actions are recommended: • Improve the compatibility of existing datasets and observation systems with INSPIRE and GEO standards of interoperability, • Identify and federate national observation systems, services, and responsible agenciesBashyt is a Collaborative Working Environment in all countries of the Black Sea catchment in(CWE) on the web that builds on complex order to elaborate recommendation on filling"physically based" hydrological, land cover and data gaps at country level,ocean models to support decision makers through • Encourage countries (e.g. Georgia, Bulgaria)a user-friendly Web interface. that are not yet members of GEO to join this organization, • Enhance networks of data acquisition in each region/country, • Publish the information on available datasets at the enviroGRIDS portal as the entry-point to discover data and metadata within the Black Sea catchment. Conclusions The large amount of datasets relevant to the project and end-users data need has been identified at different scales from national to regional, European and global. At the same time, it was found that access to data in many cases is limited or restricted, particularly at national level, so the data accessibility appears to be the mainSome enviroGRIDS recommendations problem preventing effective data usage.The issue of data accessibility is of primary With respect to the data and observation systemsimportance. Even the access to project partner’s needs of the main end-users, the gap analysisdata can be limited or restricted. In general, it is concluded that:recommended to elaborate appropriate data BSC:policies favoring free data access and exchange • There are significant gaps in availability offor non-commercial purposes. marine environment data from water column,The metadata catalogs and portals are key sediments and biota resulted from gaps ingateways to discover data. The enviroGRIDS corresponding observation / monitoringgeoportal allows discovering datasets relevant to systems. It is unlikely that these gaps can bethe project and end-users data needs. It is covered within the enviroGRIDS, since theharvesting the content of other metadata catalogs project is focused mainly on the catchment 8
  9. 9. area rather than on the Black Sea water The project tried to show the best practices on body. SDI development, on data and metadata portals, • There are gaps in data on pollution loads to and on useful applications for citizens and the Black Sea from land based sources, decision makers. The beauty, interest and unique including rivers, identity of the Black Sea region well disserve a • Observation system to monitor pollutants state-of-the-art system to preserve its value and deposition from atmosphere is missing. assess its vulnerability to global changes. Let’sICPDR: hope that the effort of the enviroGRIDS project will • Most of required data are available at the contribute to convince more data owners that regional (Danube) or European scales, sharing their data is good for the future • There are gaps on availability of data on development of the Black Sea region, and pollutants deposition from atmosphere. therefore for themselves as well. By sharing itsSWAT: data, regional and national institutions become • Some of required data (DEM, land cover, more visible thanks to the efforts of the Global soil, population) are available at regional to Earth Observation System of Systems. global scales, however, • Data from weather and river stations are Relevant enviroGRIDS deliverables rather scarce; D2.6 Gap analysis • Access to the data on pollution discharges D2.10 Spatial Data Infrastructure: GEOSS, INSPIRE and water quality, particularly in non-EU and UNSDI counties, is limited or restricted; D3.5 Proposed demographic scenario analysis and • The spatial resolution of crop yield data from overview of driving forces and justification, model open sources of global scale may be not input parameters and allocation rules. satisfactory, while access to more detailed D3.6 Proposed climatic scenario analysis and overview national agriculture data is limited or of the more relevant driving and its justification, model input parameters and allocation rules. restricted. D3.7 Proposed land cover scenario analysis and overview of the more relevant driving and itsThe analysis of available datasets revealed the justification, model input parameters and allocationproblem of data compatibility at different scales. rules.For example, global and European datasets for D3.8 Outputs from Spatially explicit combinedland cover are not compatible in terms of land scenarios.cover categories. Similar problem exist between D4.11 Calibrated water quantity and quality model fordatasets of country scale and other scales. BSC, with impacts of scenariosResolving this problem may require significant D6.4 First implementation of the BSC-OS portal D6.8 National GEO committeesefforts, particularly when it is necessary to D7.12 Policy makers involvement reportcombine data from different scales.Combining data from different scales is directly Selected referenceslinked to the issue of correspondence of datasets Arnold, J.G. et al. 1998. Large area hydrologicand observation systems to INSPIRE and GEO modeling and assessment, Part 1: Modelinteroperability standards. The fact, that most of Development. JAWRA Journal of the Americanreported national datasets are not accessible Water Resources Association 34: 73-89.through the Internet and do not have relevant EU 2007. Directive 2007/2/EC of the Europeanmetadata available, points to the absence of such Parliament and the Council of 14 March 2007correspondence. establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial InformationIn conclusion, the aim of the enviroGRIDS project in the European Community (INSPIRE). Brussels: 14.to build capacity on Earth Observation Systems GEO 2005. Global Earth Observation System ofthrough improved data collection, management, Systems 10-Year Implementation Plan Referencestorage, analyses and dissemination is more than Document: 209.ever a necessity in the Black Sea catchment. Giuliani, G. et al. 2011. Grid-enabled Spatial Data Infrastructure for environmental sciences: 9
  10. 10. Challenges and opportunities. In: Future Generation Computer Systems.Giuliani, G. et al. 2011. Sharing Environmental Data through GEOSS. In: International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research.Gorgan, D. 2012. Software Platform Interoperability Throughout EnviroGRIDS Portal. In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing.RIKS 2005. The Metronamica modelling framework: model descriptions. Model documentation. Maastricht: Research Institute for Knowledge Systems.Rouholahnejad, E. et al. 2012. A parallelization framework for calibration of hydrological models. In: Environmental Modelling & Software. 2012.Selected websitesenviroGRIDS project: www.envirogrids.netGEO/GEOSS: www.earthobservations.orgINSPIRE: inspire.jrc.ec.europa.euBSC PS: www.blacksea-commission.orgICPDR: www.icpdr.orgMETRONAMICA:www.metronamica.nlSWAT: swatmodel.tamu.eduSearch enviroGRIDS data portalhttp://www.envirogrids.czView enviroGRIDS on Youtubehttp://www.youtube.com/user/envirogridsJoin enviroGRIDS on LinkedInhttp://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=3374617 www.envirogrids.netFollow enviroGRIDS on Twitterhttp://twitter.com/#!/envirogridsenviroGRIDS consortiumUNIGE/UNEP, Switzerland; AZBOS, Ukraine; ARXIT,Switzerland; BSC PS, Turkey; BSREC, Bulgaria;CCSS, Czech Republic; CERN, Switzerland (Int.);CEU/ACWC, Hungary; CRS4, Italy; DDNI, Romania;DHMO, Ukraine; EAWAG, Switzerland; Geographic,Georgia; ICPDR, International Organization; IGAR,Romania; IHE, The Netherlands (UN); INHGA,Romania; ITU, Turkey; IBSS, Ukraine; MEF, Turkey;NIMH, Bulgaria; ONU, Ukraine; ANTEA, Belgium;SPSU, Russian Federation; TNU, Ukraine; UAB, Spain;UMA, Spain; UTC, Romania; USRIEP, Ukraine;VITUKI, Hungary. 10